Special Issue "CORINE Land Cover System: Limits and Challenges for Territorial Studies and Planning"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Alexandru-Ionuţ Petrişor
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Doctoral School of Urban Planning, University of Architecture and Urban Planning, str. Academiei nr. 18-20, sect. 1, 010014 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: environmetrics; systems ecology; spatial ecology; geostatistics; urban ecology; landscape ecology; land cover and use; land cover and use changes; sustainable spatial development
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Bogdan Zagajewski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Geoinformatics, Cartography and Remote Sensing, Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies, Warsaw University, Poland, ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 30, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: imaging spectroscopy; classification; algorithms; vegetation; natural and semi-natural ecosystems; high-mountain and Arctic monitoring; land cover mapping
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Raffaele Pelorosso
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture and Forest Sciences (DAFNE), Italy, Tuscia University, 01100 Viterbo VT, Italy
Interests: urban regeneration and performance-based planning; urban storm water and climate regulation by green and grey infrastructure; low-entropy systems; climate adaptation; nature-based solutions and ecosystem services; urban modeling
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

CORINE data have been in use for several decades. Although their essence has remained unchanged, the data collection and processing methods have been subject to numerous changes. Despite the revisions, CORINE data has found a broad range of applications in research, planning, decision-making, and many sectors and areas covering multiple spatial scales – from local to trans-continental. So far, CORINE data represent one of the most important unitary sources of information on land cover and land use, as well as on changes of the European territory.

This Special Issue aims to include original research articles, case studies, applications and practical solutions, and discussion reviews focusing on—but not limited to—the following topics:

  • The process of obtaining and processing CORINE data, including national data sets and their continental assemblage;
  • The challenges of ensuring a continuum of the data regarding both the thematic classification and the spatial resolution, despite the particularities of different countries, related to a variety of aspects from physical geography to different classification schemes imposed by economic, administrative, or legislative constraints;
  • Applications based on the use of CORINE data in research, planning, decision-making, and other areas related to different sectors, such as environmental issues, agriculture, forestry, urban or territorial studies, and others, at different spatial scales;
  • Historical review of the CORINE program, including the main challenges and milestones;
  • Advantages and disadvantages of the CORINE data as compared to other data on land cover and use and their possible integration for the study of landscape dynamics at different scales;
  • The challenges of studies using CORINE data when the study area exceeds the coverage, including trans-continental studies or territories covered only partially by the CORINE data;
  • The relationship between CORINE data and the technological advancement of the sensors used for their collection;
  • Forecasts on the future of CORINE: additional data sets, frequency of producing the new data, format, user interface, organizational aspects of the program, relations with other programs;
  • CORINE beyond the European territory;
  • Limitations and possible solutions related to the use of CORINE data in the light of changes that have occurred in classification schemes and algorithms across time.

Dr. Alexandru-Ionuţ Petrişor, PhD, PhD, Habil.

Dr. Raffaele Pelorosso, PhD

Dr. Bogdan Zagajewski, PhD, Habil.

Guest Editors

Keywords

  • CORINE, land cover and use
  • CORINE, land cover and use changes
  • CORINE database
  • CORINE, program
  • mapping
  • GIS
  • landscape dynamics
  • urban and regional planning

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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Article
Effects of Land Use-Land Cover Thematic Resolution on Environmental Evaluations
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(7), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13071232 - 24 Mar 2021
Viewed by 630
Abstract
Land use/land cover (LULC) maps are a key input in environmental evaluations for the sustainable planning and management of socio-ecological systems. While the impact of map spatial resolution on environmental assessments has been evaluated by several studies, the effect of thematic resolution (the [...] Read more.
Land use/land cover (LULC) maps are a key input in environmental evaluations for the sustainable planning and management of socio-ecological systems. While the impact of map spatial resolution on environmental assessments has been evaluated by several studies, the effect of thematic resolution (the level of detail of LU/LC typologies) is discordant and still poorly investigated. In this paper, four scenarios of thematic resolutions, corresponding to the four levels of the CORINE classification scheme, have been compared in a real case study of landscape connectivity assessment, a major aspect for the biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service provision. The PANDORA model has been employed to investigate the effects of LULC thematic resolution on Bio-Energy Landscape Connectivity (BELC) at the scale of the whole system, landscape units, and single land cover patches, also in terms of ecosystem services. The results show different types of impacts on landscape connectivity due to the changed spatial pattern of the LULC classes across the four thematic resolution scenarios. Moreover, the main priority areas for conservation objectives and future sustainable urban expansion have been identified. Finally, several indications are given for supporting practitioners and researchers faced with thematic resolution issues in environmental assessment and land use planning. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Support Vector Machines and Random Forests for Corine Land Cover Mapping
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(4), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13040777 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1056
Abstract
Land cover information is essential in European Union spatial management, particularly that of invasive species, natural habitats, urbanization, and deforestation; therefore, the need for accurate and objective data and tools is critical. For this purpose, the European Union’s flagship program, the Corine Land [...] Read more.
Land cover information is essential in European Union spatial management, particularly that of invasive species, natural habitats, urbanization, and deforestation; therefore, the need for accurate and objective data and tools is critical. For this purpose, the European Union’s flagship program, the Corine Land Cover (CLC), was created. Intensive works are currently being carried out to prepare a new version of CLC+ by 2024. The geographical, climatic, and economic diversity of the European Union raises the challenge to verify various test areas’ methods and algorithms. Based on the Corine program’s precise guidelines, Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8 satellite images were tested to assess classification accuracy and regional and spatial development in three varied areas of Catalonia, Poland, and Romania. The method is dependent on two machine learning algorithms, Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). The bias of classifications was reduced using an iterative of randomized training, test, and verification pixels. The ease of the implementation of the used algorithms makes reproducing the results possible and comparable. The results show that an SVM with a radial kernel is the best classifier, followed by RF. The high accuracy classes that can be updated and classes that should be redefined are specified. The methodology’s potential can be used by developers of CLC+ products as a guideline for algorithms, sensors, and the possibilities and difficulties of classifying different CLC classes. Full article
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Article
Assessing Urbanization Dynamics in Turkey’s Marmara Region Using CORINE Data between 2006 and 2018
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(4), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13040664 - 12 Feb 2021
Viewed by 999
Abstract
This study investigated the urban growth dynamics of urban regions. The study area was the Marmara Region, one of the most densely populated and ecologically diverse areas in Turkey. Using CORINE land cover data for 2006, 2012, and 2018, the study utilized multiple [...] Read more.
This study investigated the urban growth dynamics of urban regions. The study area was the Marmara Region, one of the most densely populated and ecologically diverse areas in Turkey. Using CORINE land cover data for 2006, 2012, and 2018, the study utilized multiple correspondence analyses and cluster analyses, to analyze land cover changes. The resulting maps, visualized in GIS, revealed the rapid urban transformation of the regional structure, formerly comprised of four distinct areas, into a more complex structure, in which densification and sprawl occur simultaneously. Our findings demonstrated a dissonance between the spatial dynamics of the Marmara Region during the study period, and the capacity and scope of the simultaneously initiated regional policies and mega-projects. This uncoordinated approach has endangered the region’s sustainable development. The paper, therefore, discusses the importance of land use planning and transboundary collaboration for sustainable regional development. Beyond the local case, the results contribute to critical theories in regional planning by linking theory and practice. Full article
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Article
Effects of Land Cover Changes on Sediment and Nutrient Balance in the Catchment with Cascade-Dammed Waters
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(20), 3414; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12203414 - 18 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 653
Abstract
It is commonly believed that changes in the use of the catchment area have a direct impact on the quality of the water environment. Rivers with dams and reservoirs are characterized by a disturbed outflow of sediments and nutrients from the catchment area. [...] Read more.
It is commonly believed that changes in the use of the catchment area have a direct impact on the quality of the water environment. Rivers with dams and reservoirs are characterized by a disturbed outflow of sediments and nutrients from the catchment area. The research was based on indicating the variation in time and space of loads of selected parameters of the water quality of the Brda River (Northern Poland) against the land cover changes based on the CORINE Land Cover (CLC) data for the 1990–2018 period. In the lower part of the Brda catchment area, there are three hydropower dams with reservoirs in the form of a cascade, whose work clearly affects the hydrological regime of the river. The analysis of the dependence of the dynamics of water quality changes on the usage of CLC was based on indicators such as sediments (suspended sediment load) and nutrients (total phosphorus load and total nitrogen load). The use of hydrological data on the Brda discharge above and below the reservoirs made it possible to calculate sediment and nutrient trapping efficiency. Linking the CLC data with the indices responsible for the mechanical denudation of the catchment area made it possible to show the strength of changes taking place in the catchment area. The results of the research do not indicate any direct correlation between land cover changes and the dynamics of the denudation process and matter transport in the Brda catchment area. As our research shows, the strong influence on the hydrological regime of the catchment points out the necessity to search for still other research methods supporting the decision-making cycle in the field of water management in the face of climate change. Full article
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Article
Comparison of CORINE Land Cover Data with National Statistics and the Possibility to Record This Data on a Local Scale—Case Studies from Slovakia
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(15), 2484; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12152484 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1488
Abstract
Monitoring of land cover (LC) provides important information of actual land use (LU) and landscape dynamics. LC research results depend on the size of the area, purpose and applied methodology. CORINE Land Cover (CLC) data is one of the most important sources of [...] Read more.
Monitoring of land cover (LC) provides important information of actual land use (LU) and landscape dynamics. LC research results depend on the size of the area, purpose and applied methodology. CORINE Land Cover (CLC) data is one of the most important sources of LU data from a European perspective. Our research compares official CLC data (third hierarchical level of nomenclature at a scale of 1:100,000) and national statistics (NS) of LU in Slovakia between 2000 and 2018 at national, county, and local levels. The most significant differences occurred in arable land and permanent grassland, which is also related to the recording method and the development of agricultural land management. Due to the abandonment of agricultural areas, a real recorded increase in forest cover due to forest succession was not introduced in the official records of Land register. New modification of CLC methodology for identifying LC classes at a scale of 1:10,000 and fifth hierarchical level of CLC is firstly applied for local case studies representing lowland, basin, and mountain landscape. The size of the least identified and simultaneously recorded area was established at 0.1 ha the minimum width of a polygon was established at 10 m, the minimum recorded width of linear elements such as communications was established at 2 m. The use of the fifth CLC level in the case studies areas generated average boundary density 17.2 km/km2, comparing to the 2.6 km/km2 of the third level. Therefore, when measuring the density of spatial information by the polygon boundary lengths, the fifth level carries 6.6 times more information than the third level. Detailed investigation of LU affords better verification of national statistics data at a local level. This study also contributes to a more detailed recording of the current state of the Central European landscape and its changes. Full article
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Article
Conversion of Agricultural Land for Urbanization Purposes: A Case Study of the Suburbs of the Capital of Warmia and Mazury, Poland
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(14), 2325; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12142325 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 757
Abstract
Population growth, economic globalization and the launch of market economy instruments have become the main triggers for processes related to the anthropogenization of space. According to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) statistics, the developed area indication tripled in the last 25 [...] Read more.
Population growth, economic globalization and the launch of market economy instruments have become the main triggers for processes related to the anthropogenization of space. According to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) statistics, the developed area indication tripled in the last 25 years. Humans keep appropriating more natural and semi-natural areas, which entails specific social, economic and environmental consequences. Provisions in some countries’ laws and some economic factors encourage investors to engage in urbanization. The authors of this study noticed a research gap in the analysis of suburban areas in this topic. Our research aimed to analyze the conversion of plots of land used for agricultural purposes into urbanized land in the city’s suburban zone, in areas of high landscape and natural value. We focused on the analysis of geodetic and legal divisions of plots of land and analyzed the conditions of plots of land “ex ante” and “ex post” and the changes in their values. To achieve the research objective, we used Corine Land Cover (CLC) data for various time intervals, orthophotomaps (using the Web Map Service browsing service compliant with Open Geospatial Consortium standards), cadastral data, administrative decisions, data from the real estate market, spatial analyses and statistical modeling (linear, non-linear and stepwise regression). In general, the CLC data resolution enables analysis at regional or national levels. We used them innovatively at the local level because CLC data allowed us to notice the development of the area over time. Detailed research confirmed that, in the studied area, the conversion of agricultural land into developed areas results from economic factors. The division procedure increases the plot value by about 10%. However, the effects of uncontrolled urbanization, which we are currently dealing with, generate long term social and economic losses, difficulties in the labour market and may become a barrier to development. Full article
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Article
The Problem of Mismatch between the CORINE Land Cover Data Classification and the Development of Settlement in Poland
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(14), 2253; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12142253 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 967
Abstract
The main goal of the article is the evaluation of usefulness of CORINE Land Cover (CLC) data—acquired predominantly by visual interpretation of Landsat satellite imagery—for monitoring of changes in settlement development and land use. This has been done by comparison of occurrence of [...] Read more.
The main goal of the article is the evaluation of usefulness of CORINE Land Cover (CLC) data—acquired predominantly by visual interpretation of Landsat satellite imagery—for monitoring of changes in settlement development and land use. This has been done by comparison of occurrence of buildings (and address points) in Poland with delimitations of land use belonging to particular classes in the CLC 2018 dataset. Large discrepancies have been identified, which reach on average approx. 34% of addresses and 35% of buildings located outside class 1 (artificial surfaces), mainly on terrains of class 2 (agricultural areas). Among single-family buildings it was 37% and among new addresses (forecasted or “under construction” buildings)—as much as 50%. This puts a question mark over the possibility of using CLC data with a resolution of 25 ha for monitoring of spatial planning and development in Poland for purposes of the diagnosis and assessment of the scale of dispersion of built-up areas. It is worth carrying out similar analyses in other countries, known for the deconcentration processes and a relatively large share of dispersed settlement, e.g., other CEE countries, Spain, Portugal, Italy. Full article
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Article
Comparative Assessment of the Built-Up Area Expansion Based on Corine Land Cover and Landsat Datasets: A Case Study of a Post-Socialist City
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(13), 2137; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12132137 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1172
Abstract
Monitoring uncontained built-up area expansion remains a complex challenge for the development and implementation of a sustainable planning system. In this regard, proper planning requires accurate monitoring tools and up-to-date information on rapid territorial transformations. The purpose of the study was to assess [...] Read more.
Monitoring uncontained built-up area expansion remains a complex challenge for the development and implementation of a sustainable planning system. In this regard, proper planning requires accurate monitoring tools and up-to-date information on rapid territorial transformations. The purpose of the study was to assess built-up area expansion, comparing two freely available and widely used datasets, respectively, Corine Land Cover and Landsat, to each other, as well as the ground truth, with the goal of identifying the most cost-effective and reliable tool. The analysis was based on the largest post-socialist city in the European Union, the capital of Romania, Bucharest, and its neighboring Ilfov County, from 1990 to 2018. This study generally represents a new approach to measuring the process of urban expansion, offering insights about the strengths and limitations of the two datasets through a multi-level territorial perspective. The results point out discrepancies between the datasets, both at the macro-scale level and at the administrative unit’s level. On the macro-scale level, despite the noticeable differences, the two datasets revealed the spatiotemporal magnitude of the expansion of the built-up area and can be a useful tool for supporting the decision-making process. On the smaller territorial scale, detailed comparative analyses through five case-studies were conducted, indicating that, if used alone, limitations on the information that can be derived from the datasets would lead to inaccuracies, thus significantly limiting their potential to be used in the development of enforceable regulation in urban planning. Full article
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Article
Romanian Natura 2000 Network: Evaluation of the Threats and Pressures through the Corine Land Cover Dataset
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(13), 2075; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12132075 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1246
Abstract
The present paper aims to evaluate if the Natura 2000 sites in Romania are placed over dynamic areas from a land cover changes perspective, or if they are placed in areas with low human interest and what the impact of these changes are. [...] Read more.
The present paper aims to evaluate if the Natura 2000 sites in Romania are placed over dynamic areas from a land cover changes perspective, or if they are placed in areas with low human interest and what the impact of these changes are. The effectiveness of conservation measures was addressed by analyzing the number of land cover changes and their areas in Natura 2000 sites, before and after declaring them as protected areas. Corine Land Cover (CLC) data were used as a tool to identify threats and pressures from each Natura 2000 site, and also assess whether land cover changes are more frequent in sites with a high biodiversity index, compared to those with low diversity, in order to estimate the conservation status. Changes in the land cover during 1990–2018 are characterized by three types of events, from 1990 to 2000 with most changes recorded, followed by a relative period of stability from 2000 to 2012; the most dynamic period is from 2012 to 2018. The main changes are due to deforestation. Only 29.7% ROSCI (Romanian Sites of Community Importance) and 36.5% ROSPA (Romanian Special Protected Areas) sites are characterized by a good degree of conservation without or with low modifications regarding the land cover. The most frequent threats and pressures that were found through CLC changes in the ROSCIs in Romania are related to forestry, grazing, the extent of the urbanized environment and those related to agriculture. The correspondence between Corine Land Cover and Natura 2000 specific threats and pressures emphasizes new guidelines for the Corine Land Cover program; therefore, this correspondence can be a potential tool to get more information for Natura 2000 sites. Full article
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Article
GIS Data as a Valuable Source of Information for Increasing Resolution of the WRF Model for Warsaw
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(11), 1881; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12111881 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 896
Abstract
The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is commonly associated with meteorological data, but its algorithms may also use geographical data. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the high resolution CORINE Land Cover (CLC) data and the SRTM [...] Read more.
The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is commonly associated with meteorological data, but its algorithms may also use geographical data. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the high resolution CORINE Land Cover (CLC) data and the SRTM topography on the estimation accuracy of the weather model parameters in the WRF microscale simulations (200 × 200 m) for Warsaw. In the presented studies, the authors propose their own method of attaching the CLC data to the WRF microscale modeling for the CLC border areas, where first calculational domains reach beyond areas of CLC coverage. As a part of the research, the adaptation of the proposed method was examined by the assessment of the WRF microscale modeling simulations for Warsaw. The modified IGBP MODIS land use/land cover (LULC) and USGS GMTED2010 terrain elevation geographical data (30 arc seconds) was applied for the WRF simulations as default. As higher resolution geographical data (100 m), the LULC from CORINE Land Cover (CLC) 2018 data, and the SRTM topography were adopted. In this study the forecasts of air temperature and relative humidity at 2 m, and wind (speed and direction) at 10 m above ground level obtained using the WRF model for particular simulations were evaluated against measurements made at the Warsaw airports: Chopin (EPWA) and Babice (EPBC). The research has indicated that for microscale calculation fields there are noticeable changes in the meteorological parameter values when the CLC and the SRTM data are integrated into the WRF model, which in most cases yielded more accurate values of temperature and relative humidity at 2 m. This has also proved the correctness of the proposed methodology of the CLC data adoption. The improvement in the forecasted meteorological parameters is different for the particular locations and depends on the degree of the LULC and topography data change after higher resolution data adoption. Full article
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Article
Structural Changes in the Romanian Economy Reflected through Corine Land Cover Datasets
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(8), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12081323 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1040
Abstract
During the last 30 years, the Romanian economy has faced different challenges due to structural readjustments, overcoming crisis and globalization. The share of primary and secondary sectors in the gross domestic product have strongly decreased, while the services have taken off. The main [...] Read more.
During the last 30 years, the Romanian economy has faced different challenges due to structural readjustments, overcoming crisis and globalization. The share of primary and secondary sectors in the gross domestic product have strongly decreased, while the services have taken off. The main objective for this study is to observe how these economic readjustments can be assessed and measured using the Corine Land Cover datasets from 1990, 2000, 2006, 2012 and 2018 (with special observation on the range 2006 and 2018, after Romania was included in European Union). Despite some of the methodological limitations (like the minimum surface change), the Corine Land Cover turned out to be a powerful tool and it allowed us to detect an intense correlation between the socioeconomic and the structural trends in land use, in specific spatial contexts. The artificial surfaces are constantly increasing and this trend is rather visible as a distance function to the major Romanian cities. The most interesting changes occurred in the case of the agricultural polygons. The main trend emphasized by our analysis regards the redeployment of large farms in areas of agronomic and environmental territorial optimum. Such is the case for vineyards (after a decline during 2000–2006) and for annual cultures. All these changes in land-use patterns are too complex to be encompassed by a single methodology, which is why we used different tools, ranging from spatial analysis to geo-economic modeling, in order to detect how the Corine Land Cover datasets might be used for a better understanding of the Romanian economic readjustments. Full article
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Article
Effects of Category Aggregation on Land Change Simulation Based on Corine Land Cover Data
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(8), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12081314 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
Several factors influence the performance of land change simulation models. One potentially important factor is land category aggregation, which reduces the number of categories while having the potential to reduce also the size of apparent land change in the data. Our article compares [...] Read more.
Several factors influence the performance of land change simulation models. One potentially important factor is land category aggregation, which reduces the number of categories while having the potential to reduce also the size of apparent land change in the data. Our article compares how four methods to aggregate Corine Land Cover categories influence the size of land changes in various spatial extents and consequently influence the performance of 114 Cellular Automata-Markov simulation model runs. We calculated the reference change during the calibration interval, the reference change during the validation interval and the simulation change during the validation interval, along with five metrics of simulation performance, Figure of Merit and its four components: Misses, Hits, Wrong Hits and False Alarms. The Corine Standard Level 1 category aggregation reduced change more than any of the other aggregation methods. The model runs that used the Corine Standard Level 1 aggregation method tended to return lower sizes of changing areas and lower values of Misses, Hits, Wrong Hits and False Alarms, where Hits are correctly simulated changes. The behavior-based aggregation method maintained the most change while using fewer categories compared to the other aggregation methods. We recommend an aggregation method that maintains the size of the reference change during the calibration and validation intervals while reducing the number of categories, so the model uses the largest size of change while using fewer than the original number of categories. Full article
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Article
Surface Water Quality Analysis Using CORINE Data: An Application to Assess Reservoirs in Poland
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(6), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12060979 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
Reservoirs are formed through the artificial damming of a river valley. Reservoirs, among others, capture polluted load transported by the tributaries in the form of suspended and dissolved sediments and substances. Therefore, reservoirs are treated in the European Union (EU) as “artificial” or [...] Read more.
Reservoirs are formed through the artificial damming of a river valley. Reservoirs, among others, capture polluted load transported by the tributaries in the form of suspended and dissolved sediments and substances. Therefore, reservoirs are treated in the European Union (EU) as “artificial” or “heavily modified” surface water bodies. The reservoirs’ pollutant load depends to a large extent on the degree of anthropogenic impact in the respective river catchment area. The purpose of this paper is to assess the mutual relation between the catchment area and the reservoirs. In particular, we focus on the effects of certain land use/land cover on reservoirs’ water quality. For this study, we selected twenty Polish reservoirs for an in-depth analysis using 2018 CORINE Land Cover data. This analysis allowed the identification of the main triggering factors in terms of water quality of the respective reservoirs. Moreover, our assessment clearly shows that water quality of the analysed dam reservoirs is directly affected by the composition of land use/land cover, both of the entire total reservoir catchment areas and the directly into the reservoir draining sub-catchment areas. Full article
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Article
The Use of the CORINE Land Cover (CLC) Database for Analyzing Urban Sprawl
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(2), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12020282 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1735
Abstract
Urban sprawl is generally defined as the urbanization of space adjacent to a city, which results from that city’s development. The discussed phenomenon involves land development, mainly agricultural land, in the proximity of cities, the development of infrastructure, and an increase in the [...] Read more.
Urban sprawl is generally defined as the urbanization of space adjacent to a city, which results from that city’s development. The discussed phenomenon involves land development, mainly agricultural land, in the proximity of cities, the development of infrastructure, and an increase in the number of residents who rely on urban services and commute to work in the city. Urban sprawl generates numerous problems which, in the broadest sense, result from the difficulty in identifying the boundaries of the central urban unit and the participation of local inhabitants, regardless of their actual place of residence, in that unit’s functional costs. These problems are associated not only with tax collection rights but with difficulties in measuring the extent of urban sprawl in research and local governance. The aim of this study was to analyze the applicability of the CORINE Land Cover (CLC) database for monitoring urbanization processes, including the dynamic process of urban sprawl. Polish cities with county rights, i.e., cities that implement independent spatial planning policies, were analyzed in the study to determine the pattern of urban sprawl in various types of cities. Buffer zones composed of municipalities that are directly adjacent to the central urban unit were mapped around the analyzed cities. The study proposes a novel method for measuring the extent of suburbanization with the use of the CLC database and Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The developed method relies on the overgrowth of urbanization (OU) index calculated based on CLC data. The OU index revealed differences in the rate of urbanization in three groups of differently sized Polish cities. The analysis covered two periods: 2006–2012 and 2012–2018, and it revealed that urban sprawl in the examined cities proceeded in an unstable manner over time. The results of the present study indicate that the CLC database is a reliable source of information about urbanization processes. Full article
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Article
Trends in the National and Regional Transitional Dynamics of Land Cover and Use Changes in Romania
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(2), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12020230 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1027
Abstract
The crucial importance of land cover and use changes, components of the ‘global changes’, for the worldwide sustainable and resilient development results from their negative influence on ecosystem services, biodiversity, and human welfare. Ongoing debates concerning whether the global drivers are more important [...] Read more.
The crucial importance of land cover and use changes, components of the ‘global changes’, for the worldwide sustainable and resilient development results from their negative influence on ecosystem services, biodiversity, and human welfare. Ongoing debates concerning whether the global drivers are more important than the local ones or which are the most prominent driving forces and effects are still ongoing at the global level. In Europe, the patterns of land cover and use changes differ between the west and the east. Property restitution was an important driver of change in Eastern Europe and especially in Romania. This study aimed to look at the land cover and use changes in Romania by their transitional dynamic using Coordination of Information on the Environment (CORINE) data in an attempt to identify long-term spatially and temporally consistent trends. Although generally inconsistent, the results indicate that deforestation and urbanization tend to prevail over other changes, and the development of agriculture slows its pace. Such findings are consequences of unplanned development associated with little environmental awareness. The presence of hotspots where land cover and use changes seem to be clustered can be seen as a feature of ex-socialist countries undergoing economic transition. Full article
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Article
The Impact of EU Grants Absorption on Land Cover Changes—The Case of Poland
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(20), 2359; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11202359 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
The main goal of the paper is to verify the impact of the absorption of European Union (EU) grants on land cover changes in Polish municipalities in the years 2012–2018. The selection of the research area was justified by the fact that Poland [...] Read more.
The main goal of the paper is to verify the impact of the absorption of European Union (EU) grants on land cover changes in Polish municipalities in the years 2012–2018. The selection of the research area was justified by the fact that Poland is the largest and significantly spatially differentiated transition economy in Central-Eastern Europe, recognised as a substantial beneficiary of EU accession in 2004. The time range of analysis was set as the result of a comparison of data availability in Corine Land Cover (CLC) and Statistics Poland. The CLC dataset referring to land cover and land use changes between 2012 and 2018 was used. The focus on modifications taking place within one of the main land cover groups at level 3 of detail was applied in this research. These changes were analysed as percentages referring to the area of the municipality and to the total area of changes in the investigated period. Two categories of EU grants were considered: total and infrastructural (granted under EU Operational Programme “Infrastructure and Environment”). Moreover, some control economic, social, demographic, institutional, infrastructural, and environmental variables were applied to better explain land cover changes. Moran’s local statistic was employed to detect spatial hot-spots of EU grants absorption, as well as hot-spots of land cover changes. Then, a collection of various variables related to determinants of land cover changes was set. Economic factors, including EU grants absorption, as well as factors related to accessibility, agrarian structure, demography, environment, and spatial planning were investigated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was employed to convert the set of all considered variables into a set of few uncorrelated predictors. Finally, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was applied to describe the spatially varied impact of investigated determinants, including EU grants, represented by estimated principal components on land cover changes. Full article
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Article
Regional Variations of Land-Use Development and Land-Use/Cover Change Dynamics: A Case Study of Turkey
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(7), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11070885 - 11 Apr 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2029
Abstract
Population growth, economic development and rural-urban migration have caused rapid expansion of urban areas and metropolitan regions in Turkey. The structure of urban administration and planning has faced different socio-economic and political challenges, which have hindered the structured and planned development of cities [...] Read more.
Population growth, economic development and rural-urban migration have caused rapid expansion of urban areas and metropolitan regions in Turkey. The structure of urban administration and planning has faced different socio-economic and political challenges, which have hindered the structured and planned development of cities and regions, resulting in an irregular and uneven development of these regions. We conducted detailed comparative analysis on spatio-temporal changes of the identified seven land-use/cover classes across different regions in Turkey with the use of Corine Land Cover (CLC) data of circa 1990, 2000, 2006 and 2012, integrated with Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. Here we compared spatio-temporal changes of urban and non-urban land uses, which differ across regions and across different hierarchical levels of urban areas. Our findings have shown that peri-urban areas are growing more than rural areas, and even growing more than urban areas in some regions. A deeper look at regions located in different geographical zones pointed to substantial development disparities across western and eastern regions of Turkey. We also employed multiple regression models to explain any possible drivers of land-use change, regarding both urban and non-urban land uses. The results reveal that the three influencing factors-socio-economic characteristics, regional characteristics and location, and development constraints, facilitate land-use change. However, their impacts differ in different geographical locations, as well as with different hierarchical levels. Full article
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Review

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Review
Intellectual Structure of CORINE Land Cover Research Applications in Web of Science: A Europe-Wide Review
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(17), 2017; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11172017 - 27 Aug 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1497
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to manifest the intellectual and cognitive structure of CORINE Land Cover (CLC) research applications. Data from the Web of Science (WoS) was used to delimit publication on CLC during the period from 1985 until 2019 (29th April), [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper is to manifest the intellectual and cognitive structure of CORINE Land Cover (CLC) research applications. Data from the Web of Science (WoS) was used to delimit publication on CLC during the period from 1985 until 2019 (29th April), retrieving a total of 873 documents. Through author citations, the origins and the most influential papers were identified. The main lines of research were identified from word co-occurrences extracted from the titles, keywords, and abstracts of the papers. In the view of both structures, it can be concluded that CORINE land cover constitutes a relatively young set of scientific data, with a constant expansion and a strongly interdisciplinary structure. The development of this application is dependent on the knowledge of such research areas as geography, remote sensing, ecology, forestry, agriculture, engineering, optics, and/or computer science. We believe that this information could be very useful for CLC users, as it reflects a large-scale analysis of the research lines of CLC and illuminates how research has changed over time in diverse areas of applications. Moreover, this study is intended to offer a useful tool for the CLC scientific community, showcasing the main research lines and the most noteworthy papers. Finally, the methodology used in this study can be replicated in many other fields of science to explore its intellectual and cognitive structure. Full article
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