Editor's Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area.The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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Article
African Swine Fever in Wild Boar (Poland 2020): Passive and Active Surveillance Analysis and Further Perspectives
Pathogens 2021, 10(9), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091219 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1331
Abstract
African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal hemorrhagic disease of wild boar and domestic pigs which has been present in Poland since 2014. By 2020, the ASF virus (ASFV) spread across Central, Eastern and Western Europe (including Germany), and Asian countries (including China, [...] Read more.
African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal hemorrhagic disease of wild boar and domestic pigs which has been present in Poland since 2014. By 2020, the ASF virus (ASFV) spread across Central, Eastern and Western Europe (including Germany), and Asian countries (including China, Vietnam, and South Korea). The national ASF eradication and prevention program includes continuous passive (wild boar found dead and road-killed wild boar) and active (hunted wild boar) surveillance. The main goal of this study was to analyze the dynamic of the spread of ASF in the wild boar population across the territory of Poland in 2020. In that year in Poland, in total 6191 ASF-positive wild boar were declared. Most of them were confirmed in a group of animals found dead. The conducted statistical analysis indicates that the highest chance of obtaining an ASF-positive result in wild boar was during the winter months, from January to March, and in December 2020. Despite the biosecurity measures implemented by holdings of domestic pigs, the disease also occurred in 109 pig farms. The role of ASF surveillance in the wild boar population is crucial to apply more effective and tailored measures of disease control and eradication. The most essential measures to maintain sustainable production of domestic pigs in Poland include effective management of the wild boar population, along with strict implementation of biosecurity measures by domestic pig producers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Swine Viral Diseases)
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Article
Cytauxzoon sp. and Hepatozoon spp. in Domestic Cats: A Preliminary Study in North-Eastern Italy
Pathogens 2021, 10(9), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091214 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
Knowledge on the presence of Cytauxzoon sp. and Hepatozoon spp. in Italy is scant and mostly limited to a few areas of Northern and Southern regions, respectively. The present study updated the current epidemiological scenario by investigating the occurrence of these protozoa in [...] Read more.
Knowledge on the presence of Cytauxzoon sp. and Hepatozoon spp. in Italy is scant and mostly limited to a few areas of Northern and Southern regions, respectively. The present study updated the current epidemiological scenario by investigating the occurrence of these protozoa in domestic cats from three broad regions of North-Eastern Italy. Blood samples from cats at risk of vector-borne diseases were processed by PCR to detect Cytauxzoon and Hepatozoon DNA. Blood smears were observed for haemoparasite inclusions. The influence of cat individual data (e.g., provenance, management, indoor/outdoor lifestyle) on the prevalence of haemoprotozoan infections was statistically evaluated. Among 158 cats, Cytauxzoon and Hepatozoon DNA were detected in 6 (3.8%) and 26 (16.5%) animals, respectively. No Hepatozoon gamonts were detected in blood smears, whereas all Cytauxzoon PCR-positive samples were microscopically positive, though with low levels of parasitaemia. Two species of Hepatozoon were identified, Hepatozoon felis (n = 10) and Hepatozoon silvestris (n = 16). Hepatozoon silvestris prevalence values were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the region Friuli Venezia Giulia and in stray cats. Cytauxzoon sp. was detected in 6/39 (15.4%) stray cats from Friuli Venezia Giulia (Trieste province). These data add new information on the occurrence of these neglected protozoa in domestic cats’ populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites of the Third Millennium)
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Article
The Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm In Vitro Activity of Liquid and Vapour Phases of Selected Essential Oils against Staphylococcus aureus
Pathogens 2021, 10(9), 1207; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091207 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
The high resistance of staphylococcal biofilm against antibiotics and developing resistance against antiseptics induces a search for novel antimicrobial compounds. Due to acknowledged and/or alleged antimicrobial activity of EOs, their application seems to be a promising direction to follow. Nevertheless, the high complexity [...] Read more.
The high resistance of staphylococcal biofilm against antibiotics and developing resistance against antiseptics induces a search for novel antimicrobial compounds. Due to acknowledged and/or alleged antimicrobial activity of EOs, their application seems to be a promising direction to follow. Nevertheless, the high complexity of EOs composition and differences in laboratory protocols of the antimicrobial activity assessment hinders the exact estimation of EOs effectiveness. To overcome these disadvantages, in the present work we analysed the effectiveness of volatile and liquid forms of seven EOs (derived from thyme, tea tree, basil, rosemary, eucalyptus, lavender, and menthol mint) against 16 staphylococcal biofilm-forming strains using cohesive set of in vitro techniques, including gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, inverted Petri dish, modified disk-diffusion assay, microdilution techniques, antibiofilm dressing activity measurement, AntiBioVol protocol, fluorescence/confocal microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Depending on the requirements of the technique, EOs were applied in emulsified or non-emulsified form. The obtained results revealed that application of different in vitro techniques allows us to get a comprehensive set of data and to gain insight into the analysed phenomena. In the course of our investigation, liquid and volatile fractions of thyme EO displayed the highest antibiofilm activity. Liquid fractions of rosemary oil were the second most active against S. aureus. Vapour phases of tea tree and lavender oils exhibited the weakest anti-staphylococcal activity. The size of emulsified droplets was the lowest for T-EO and the highest for L-EO. Bearing in mind the limitations of the in vitro study, results from presented analysis may be of pivotal meaning for the potential application of thymol as a antimicrobial agent used to fight against staphylococcal biofilm-based infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Pathogens)
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Article
An Accessible Diagnostic Toolbox to Detect Bacterial Causes of Ovine and Caprine Abortion
Pathogens 2021, 10(9), 1147; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091147 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 992
Abstract
Results of laboratory investigations of ovine and caprine cases of abortion in the lambing season 2015–2016 were analyzed, using pathology records of submissions to Royal GD (Deventer, the Netherlands) from January until and including April 2016, in comparison with the results of two [...] Read more.
Results of laboratory investigations of ovine and caprine cases of abortion in the lambing season 2015–2016 were analyzed, using pathology records of submissions to Royal GD (Deventer, the Netherlands) from January until and including April 2016, in comparison with the results of two accessible alternative techniques for sampling aborted lambs and kids, swabbing the fetal oropharynx and puncture of the fetal lung. Chlamydia abortus was the main cause of abortion in sheep as well as in goats. Other causes of abortion were Campylobacter spp., Listeria spp., Escherichia coli, and Yersinia enterocolitica. Ovine pathological submissions resulted more often in detecting an infectious agent compared to caprine submissions. For the three main bacterial causes of abortion, Campylobacter spp., Listeria spp., and Chlamydia spp., compared to results of the pathological examination, oropharynx mucus, and fetal lung puncture samples showed an observed agreement of 0.87 and 0.89, an expected agreement of 0.579 and 0.584, and a kappa value of 0.691 and 0.737 (95% CI: 0.561–0.82 and 0.614–0.859), respectively. The agreement between the results of the pathological examination and both fetal lung puncture and oropharynx mucus samples was classified as good. In conclusion, although a full step-wise post-mortem examination remains the most proper way of investigating small ruminant abortions, the easily accessible, low-threshold tools for practitioners and farmers as described in this paper not only provide reliable results compared to results of the post-mortem examination but also stimulates farmers and veterinarians to submit fetuses and placentas if necessary. Suggestions for further improvement of both alternatives have been summarized. Both alternatives could also be tailor-made for specific regions with their specific causes of abortion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transmissible Diseases Affecting Reproduction in Small Ruminants)
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Article
Chaetomium and Chaetomium-like Species from European Indoor Environments Include Dichotomopilus finlandicus sp. nov.
Pathogens 2021, 10(9), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091133 - 03 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1167
Abstract
The genus Chaetomium is a frequently occurring fungal taxon world-wide. Chaetomium and Chaetomium-like species occur in indoor environments, where they can degrade cellulose-based building materials, thereby causing structural damage. Furthermore, several species of this genus may also cause adverse effects on human [...] Read more.
The genus Chaetomium is a frequently occurring fungal taxon world-wide. Chaetomium and Chaetomium-like species occur in indoor environments, where they can degrade cellulose-based building materials, thereby causing structural damage. Furthermore, several species of this genus may also cause adverse effects on human health. The aims of this research were to identify Chaetomium and Chaetomium-like strains isolated from indoor environments in Hungary and Finland, two geographically distant regions of Europe with drier and wetter continental climates, respectively, and to study their morphological and physiological properties, as well as their extracellular enzyme activities, thereby comparing the Chaetomium and Chaetomium-like species isolated from these two different regions of Europe and their properties. Chaetomium and Chaetomium-like strains were isolated from flats and offices in Hungary, as well as from schools, flats, and offices in Finland. Fragments of the translation elongation factor 1α (tef1α), the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2) and β-tubulin (tub2) genes, as well as the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis of the sequences performed. Morphological examinations were performed by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Thirty-one Chaetomium sp. strains (15 from Hungary and 16 from Finland) were examined during the study. The most abundant species was Ch. globosum in both countries. In Hungary, 13 strains were identified as Ch. globosum, 1 as Ch. cochliodes, and 1 as Ch. interruptum. In Finland, 10 strains were Ch. globosum, 2 strains were Ch. cochliodes, 2 were Ch. rectangulare, and 2 isolates (SZMC 26527, SZMC 26529) proved to be representatives of a yet undescribed phylogenetic species from the closely related genus Dichotomopilus, which we formally describe here as the new species Dichotomopilus finlandicus. Growth of the isolates was examined at different temperatures (4, 15, 20, 25, 30, 37, 35, 40, and 45 °C), while their extracellular enzyme production was determined spectrophotometrically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection of Indoor Fungi)
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Article
The History of Anti-Trypanosome Vaccine Development Shows That Highly Immunogenic and Exposed Pathogen-Derived Antigens Are Not Necessarily Good Target Candidates: Enolase and ISG75 as Examples
Pathogens 2021, 10(8), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10081050 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1735
Abstract
Salivarian trypanosomes comprise a group of extracellular anthroponotic and zoonotic parasites. The only sustainable method for global control of these infection is through vaccination of livestock animals. Despite multiple reports describing promising laboratory results, no single field-applicable solution has been successful so far. [...] Read more.
Salivarian trypanosomes comprise a group of extracellular anthroponotic and zoonotic parasites. The only sustainable method for global control of these infection is through vaccination of livestock animals. Despite multiple reports describing promising laboratory results, no single field-applicable solution has been successful so far. Conventionally, vaccine research focusses mostly on exposed immunogenic antigens, or the structural molecular knowledge of surface exposed invariant immunogens. Unfortunately, extracellular parasites (or parasites with extracellular life stages) have devised efficient defense systems against host antibody attacks, so they can deal with the mammalian humoral immune response. In the case of trypanosomes, it appears that these mechanisms have been perfected, leading to vaccine failure in natural hosts. Here, we provide two examples of potential vaccine candidates that, despite being immunogenic and accessible to the immune system, failed to induce a functionally protective memory response. First, trypanosomal enolase was tested as a vaccine candidate, as it was recently characterized as a highly conserved enzyme that is readily recognized during infection by the host antibody response. Secondly, we re-addressed a vaccine approach towards the Invariant Surface Glycoprotein ISG75, and showed that despite being highly immunogenic, trypanosomes can avoid anti-ISG75 mediated parasitemia control. Full article
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Article
Antibiofilm and Antimicrobial-Enhancing Activity of Chelidonium majus and Corydalis cheilanthifolia Extracts against Multidrug-Resistant Helicobacter pylori
Pathogens 2021, 10(8), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10081033 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1199
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of about 60% of people worldwide. The search for new drugs with activity against H. pylori is now a hotspot in the effective and safe control of this bacterium. Therefore, the aim of [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of about 60% of people worldwide. The search for new drugs with activity against H. pylori is now a hotspot in the effective and safe control of this bacterium. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the antibacterial activity of extracts from selected plants of the Papaveraceae family against planktonic and biofilm forms of the multidrug-resistant clinical strain of H. pylori using a broad spectrum of analytical in vitro methods. It was revealed that among the tested extracts, those obtained from Corydalis cheilanthifolia and Chelidonium majus were the most active, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 64 µg/mL and 128 µg/mL, respectively. High concentrations of both extracts showed cytotoxicity against cell lines of human hepatic origin. Therefore, we attempted to lower their MICs through the use of a synergistic combination with synthetic antimicrobials as well as by applying cellulose as a drug carrier. Using checkerboard assays, we determined that both extracts presented synergistic interactions with amoxicillin (AMX) and 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) (FICI = 0.5) and additive relationships with sertraline (SER) (FICI = 0.75). The antibiofilm activity of extracts and their combinations with AMX, 3-BP, or SER, was analyzed by two methods, i.e., the microcapillary overgrowth under flow conditions (the Bioflux system) and assessment of the viability of lawn biofilms after exposure to drugs released from bacterial cellulose (BC) carriers. Using both methods, we observed a several-fold decrease in the level of H. pylori biofilm, indicating the ability of the tested compounds to eradicate the microbial biofilm. The obtained results indicate that application of plant-derived extracts from the Papaveraceae family combined with synthetic antimicrobials, absorbed into organic BC carrier, may be considered a promising way of fighting biofilm-forming H. pylori. Full article
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Article
Mosquitoes Know No Borders: Surveillance of Potential Introduction of Aedes Species in Southern Québec, Canada
Pathogens 2021, 10(8), 998; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10080998 - 07 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Current climatic conditions limit the distribution of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, Diptera: Culicidae) in the north, but predictive climate models suggest this species could establish itself in southern Canada by 2040. A vector of chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, Zika and West [...] Read more.
Current climatic conditions limit the distribution of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, Diptera: Culicidae) in the north, but predictive climate models suggest this species could establish itself in southern Canada by 2040. A vector of chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, Zika and West Nile viruses, the Ae. Albopictus has been detected in Windsor, Ontario since 2016. Given the potential public health implications, and knowing that Aedes spp. can easily be introduced by ground transportation, this study aimed to determine if specimens could be detected, using an adequate methodology, in southern Québec. Mosquitoes were sampled in 2016 and 2017 along the main roads connecting Canada and the U.S., using Biogent traps (Sentinel-2, Gravide Aedes traps) and ovitraps. Overall, 24 mosquito spp. were captured, excluding Ae. Albopictus, but detecting one Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Skuse) specimen (laid eggs). The most frequent species among captured adults were Ochlerotatus triseriatus, Culex pipiens complex, and Ochlerotatus japonicus (31.0%, 26.0%, and 17.3%, respectively). The present study adds to the increasing number of studies reporting on the range expansions of these mosquito species, and suggests that ongoing monitoring, using multiple capture techniques targeting a wide range of species, may provide useful information to public health with respect to the growing risk of emerging mosquito-borne diseases in southern Canada. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases)
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Article
Biofilm Formation of Multidrug-Resistant MRSA Strains Isolated from Different Types of Human Infections
Pathogens 2021, 10(8), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10080970 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1658
Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the main pathogens causing chronic infections, mainly due to its capacity to form biofilms. However, the mechanisms underlying the biofilm formation of MRSA strains from different types of human infections are not fully understood. MRSA strains [...] Read more.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the main pathogens causing chronic infections, mainly due to its capacity to form biofilms. However, the mechanisms underlying the biofilm formation of MRSA strains from different types of human infections are not fully understood. MRSA strains isolated from distinct human infections were characterized aiming to determine their biofilm-forming capacity, the biofilm resistance to conventional antibiotics and the prevalence of biofilm-related genes, including, icaA, icaB, icaC, icaD, fnbA, fnbB, clfA, clfB, cna, eno, ebpS, fib and bbp. Eighty-three clinical MRSA strains recovered from bacteremia episodes, osteomyelitis and diabetic foot ulcers were used. The biofilm-forming capacity was evaluated by the microtiter biofilm assay and the biofilm structure was analyzed via confocal scanning laser microscopy. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 24-h-old biofilms was assessed against three antibiotics and the biomass reduction was measured. The metabolic activity of biofilms was evaluated by the XTT assay. The presence of biofilm-related genes was investigated by whole-genome sequencing and by PCR. Despite different intensities, all strains showed the capacity to form biofilms. Most strains had also a large number of biofilm-related genes. However, strains isolated from osteomyelitis showed a lower capacity to form biofilms and also a lower prevalence of biofilm-associated genes. There was a significant reduction in the biofilm biomass of some strains tested against antibiotics. Our results provide important information on the biofilm-forming capacity of clinical MRSA strains, which may be essential to understand the influence of different types of infections on biofilm production and chronic infections. Full article
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Article
The Influence of Temperature on the Larval Development of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in the Land Snail Cornu aspersum
Pathogens 2021, 10(8), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10080960 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 940
Abstract
The metastrongyloid Aelurostrongylus abstrusus has an indirect lifecycle involving gastropod intermediate hosts. The widespread snail Cornu aspersum is an efficient intermediate host of A. abstrusus. As the temperature may influence the developmental rate of metastrongyloids from first (L1) to the [...] Read more.
The metastrongyloid Aelurostrongylus abstrusus has an indirect lifecycle involving gastropod intermediate hosts. The widespread snail Cornu aspersum is an efficient intermediate host of A. abstrusus. As the temperature may influence the developmental rate of metastrongyloids from first (L1) to the third infective larval stage (L3) inside molluscs, this study evaluated the effect of two controlled temperatures on the development of A. abstrusus in C. aspersum. Overall, 300 snails were infected with 500 L1 of A. abstrusus and kept at ∼25 °C. Fifteen days post infection (D15), the overall developmental rate to L3 (0.8%) was assessed in a subset of 20 snails. The remaining gastropods were divided in 2 groups, i.e., 180 still kept at ∼25 °C (G1) and 100 hibernated at ∼4 °C (G2). On D30, the larval development was evaluated in 20 snails from each group, while another batch of 80 snails was selected random from G1 and hibernated at ∼4 °C (G3). The larval developmental rate was determined digesting 20 snails from each of the three groups on D45, D60, and D75. The higher mean developmental rate was registered in G1 (3.8%) compared to G2 (1.9%) and G3 (2.3%), indicating that the development to L3 of A. abstrusus in C. aspersum is positively influenced by the increase of temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites of the Third Millennium)
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Article
Bioformulations with Beneficial Microbial Consortia, a Bioactive Compound and Plant Biopolymers Modulate Sweet Basil Productivity, Photosynthetic Activity and Metabolites
Pathogens 2021, 10(7), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070870 - 10 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1671
Abstract
Increasing attention is being given to the development of innovative formulations to substitute the use of synthetic chemicals to improve agricultural production and resource use efficiency. Alternatives can include biological products containing beneficial microorganisms and bioactive metabolites able to inhibit plant pathogens, induce [...] Read more.
Increasing attention is being given to the development of innovative formulations to substitute the use of synthetic chemicals to improve agricultural production and resource use efficiency. Alternatives can include biological products containing beneficial microorganisms and bioactive metabolites able to inhibit plant pathogens, induce systemic resistance and promote plant growth. The efficacy of such bioformulations can be increased by the addition of polymers as adjuvants or carriers. Trichoderma afroharzianum T22, Azotobacter chroococcum 76A and 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6PP; a Trichoderma secondary metabolite) were administrated singularly or in a consortium, with or without a carboxymethyl cellulose-based biopolymer (BP), and tested on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) grown in a protected greenhouse. The effect of the treatments on basil yield, photosynthetic activity and secondary metabolites production was assessed. Photosynthetic efficiency was augmented by the applications of the bioformulations. The applications to the rhizosphere with BP + 6PP and BP + T22 + 76A increased the total fresh weight of basil by 26.3% and 23.6%, respectively. Untargeted LC-MS qTOF analysis demonstrated that the plant metabolome was significantly modified by the treatments. Quantification of the profiles for the major phenolic acids indicated that the treatment with the T22 + 76A consortium increased rosmarinic acid content by 110%. The use of innovative bioformulations containing microbes, their metabolites and a biopolymer was found to modulate the cultivation of fresh basil by improving yield and quality, thus providing the opportunity to develop farming systems with minimal impact on the environmental footprint from the agricultural production process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beneficial Plant–Fungal Interactions)
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Article
Prevalence, Genetic Diversity and Factors Associated with Distribution of Listeria monocytogenes and Other Listeria spp. in Cattle Farms in Latvia
Pathogens 2021, 10(7), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070851 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1459
Abstract
Listeria spp. is a diverse genus of Gram-positive bacteria commonly present in the environment while L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii are well known human and ruminant pathogens. The aim of the present study was to reveal the prevalence and genetic diversity of L. [...] Read more.
Listeria spp. is a diverse genus of Gram-positive bacteria commonly present in the environment while L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii are well known human and ruminant pathogens. The aim of the present study was to reveal the prevalence and genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. and to identify the factors related to the abundance of pathogen at cattle farms. A total of 521 animal and environmental samples from 27 meat and dairy cattle farms were investigated and the genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes isolates was studied with WGS. The prevalence of Listeria was 58.9%, while of L. monocytogenes it was −11%. The highest prevalence of L. monocytogenes was found in the environment—soil samples near to manure storage (93%), mixed feed from the feeding trough and hay (29%), water samples from farms drinking trough (28%) and cattle feces (28%). Clonal complexes (CC) of CC37 (30%), CC11 (20%) and CC18 (17%) (all IIa serogroup) were predominant L. monocytogenes clones. CC18, CC37 and CC8 were isolated from case farms and CC37, CC11 and CC18 from farms without listeriosis history. Only one hypervirulent CC4 (1%) was isolated from the case farm. Sequence types (STs) were not associated with the isolation source, except for ST7, which was significantly associated with soil (p < 0.05). The contamination of soil, feeding tables and troughs with L. monocytogenes was associated with an increased prevalence of L. monocytogenes at farms. Our study indicates the importance of hygienic practice in the prevention of the dissemination of L. monocytogenes in the cattle farm environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Listeria monocytogenes Pathogenesis)
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Article
Predictive Value of Precision-Cut Lung Slices for the Susceptibility of Three Animal Species for SARS-CoV-2 and Validation in a Refined Hamster Model
Pathogens 2021, 10(7), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070824 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1521
Abstract
In assessing species susceptibility for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and in the search for an appropriate animal model, multiple research groups around the world inoculated a broad range of animal species using various SARS-CoV-2 strains, doses and administration routes. Although [...] Read more.
In assessing species susceptibility for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and in the search for an appropriate animal model, multiple research groups around the world inoculated a broad range of animal species using various SARS-CoV-2 strains, doses and administration routes. Although in silico analyses based on receptor binding and diverse in vitro cell cultures were valuable, exact prediction of species susceptibility based on these tools proved challenging. Here, we assessed whether precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) could facilitate the selection of animal models, thereby reducing animal experimentation. Pig, hamster and cat PCLS were incubated with SARS-CoV-2 and virus replication was followed over time. Virus replicated efficiently in PCLS from hamsters and cats, while no evidence of replication was obtained for pig PCLS. These data corroborate the findings of many research groups that have investigated the susceptibility of hamsters, pigs and cats towards infection with SARS-CoV-2. Our findings suggest that PCLS can be used as convenient tool for the screening of different animal species for sensitivity to newly emerged viruses. To validate our results obtained in PCLS, we employed the hamster model. Hamsters were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 via the intranasal route. Susceptibility to infection was evaluated by body weight loss, viral loads in oropharyngeal swabs and respiratory tissues and lung pathology. The broadly used hamster model was further refined by including activity tracking of the hamsters by an activity wheel as a very robust and sensitive parameter for clinical health. In addition, to facilitate the quantification of pathology in the lungs, we devised a semi-quantitative scoring system for evaluating the degree of histological changes in the lungs. The inclusion of these additional parameters refined and enriched the hamster model, allowing for the generation of more data from a single experiment. Full article
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Article
The First Detection and Genetic Characterization of Four Different Honeybee Viruses in Wild Bumblebees from Croatia
Pathogens 2021, 10(7), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070808 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
To determine the presence and the prevalence of four different honeybee viruses (acute bee paralysis virus—ABPV, black queen cell virus—BQCV, chronic bee paralysis virus—CBPV, deformed wing virus—DWV) in wild bumblebees, pooled randomly selected bumblebee samples were collected from twenty-seven different locations in the [...] Read more.
To determine the presence and the prevalence of four different honeybee viruses (acute bee paralysis virus—ABPV, black queen cell virus—BQCV, chronic bee paralysis virus—CBPV, deformed wing virus—DWV) in wild bumblebees, pooled randomly selected bumblebee samples were collected from twenty-seven different locations in the territory of Croatia. All samples were prepared and examined using the RT-PCR methods for quantification of mentioned honeybee viruses. Determined prevalence (%) of identified positive viruses were in the following decreasing order: BQCV > DWV > ABPV, CBPV. Additionally, direct sequencing of samples positive for BQCV (n = 24) and DWV (n = 2) was performed, as well as a test of molecular phylogeny comparison with those available in GenBank. Selected positive field viruses’ strains showed 95.7 to 100% (BQCV) and 98.09% (DWV) nucleotide identity with previously detected and deposited honeybee virus strains in the geographic areas in Croatia and neighboring Slovenia. In this article, the first detection of four honeybee viruses with genetic characterization of high diversity strains circulating in wild bumblebees in Croatia is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infection in Honey Bees: Host–Pathogen Interaction and Spillover)
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Occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in Six Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants at the Early Stage of COVID-19 Pandemic in The United States
Pathogens 2021, 10(7), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070798 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1626
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the occurrence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in primary influent (n = 42), secondary effluent (n = 24) and tertiary treated effluent (n = 34) collected from six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the occurrence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in primary influent (n = 42), secondary effluent (n = 24) and tertiary treated effluent (n = 34) collected from six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs A–F) in Virginia (WWTP A), Florida (WWTPs B, C, and D), and Georgia (WWTPs E and F) in the United States during April–July 2020. Of the 100 wastewater samples analyzed, eight (19%) untreated wastewater samples collected from the primary influents contained SARS-CoV-2 RNA as measured by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays. SARS-CoV-2 RNA were detected in influent wastewater samples collected from WWTP A (Virginia), WWTPs E and F (Georgia) and WWTP D (Florida). Secondary and tertiary effluent samples were not positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA indicating the treatment processes in these WWTPs potentially removed SARS-CoV-2 RNA during the secondary and tertiary treatment processes. However, further studies are needed to understand the log removal values (LRVs) and transmission risks of SARS-CoV-2 RNA through analyzing wastewater samples from a wider range of WWTPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 in the Water Environment)
Article
Development of a Blocking Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Antibodies against African Swine Fever Virus
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060760 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
The incursion of African swine fever virus (ASFV) into Eurasia presents a threat to the world’s swine industry. Highly sensitive and specific diagnostic assays are urgently needed for rapid detection during an outbreak, post-outbreak investigation, and disease surveillance. In this study, a highly [...] Read more.
The incursion of African swine fever virus (ASFV) into Eurasia presents a threat to the world’s swine industry. Highly sensitive and specific diagnostic assays are urgently needed for rapid detection during an outbreak, post-outbreak investigation, and disease surveillance. In this study, a highly specific and repeatable blocking ELISA (bELISA) was developed using a recombinant p30 protein as the antigen combined with biotinylated mAb against p30 as the detection antibody. Initial test validation included sera from 810 uninfected animals and 106 animals experimentally inoculated with ASFV or recombinant alphavirus/adenovirus expressing p30. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of the data calculated an optimal percentage of inhibition (PI) cutoff value of 45.92%, giving a diagnostic sensitivity of 98.11% and diagnostic specificity of 99.42%. The coefficient of variation of an internal quality control serum was 6.81% for between runs, 6.71% for within run, and 6.14% for within plate. A time course study of infected pigs showed that bELISA was able to detect seroconversion as early as 7 days post-inoculation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that bELISA can be used as an alternative serological test for detecting ASFV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue African Swine Fever Virus Infection)
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Article
Investigation of Long COVID Prevalence and Its Relationship to Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060763 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 61 | Viewed by 43716
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients sometimes experience long-term symptoms following resolution of acute disease, including fatigue, brain fog, and rashes. Collectively these have become known as long COVID. Our aim was to first determine long COVID prevalence in 185 randomly surveyed COVID-19 patients [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients sometimes experience long-term symptoms following resolution of acute disease, including fatigue, brain fog, and rashes. Collectively these have become known as long COVID. Our aim was to first determine long COVID prevalence in 185 randomly surveyed COVID-19 patients and, subsequently, to determine if there was an association between occurrence of long COVID symptoms and reactivation of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in 68 COVID-19 patients recruited from those surveyed. We found the prevalence of long COVID symptoms to be 30.3% (56/185), which included 4 initially asymptomatic COVID-19 patients who later developed long COVID symptoms. Next, we found that 66.7% (20/30) of long COVID subjects versus 10% (2/20) of control subjects in our primary study group were positive for EBV reactivation based on positive titers for EBV early antigen-diffuse (EA-D) IgG or EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM. The difference was significant (p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test). A similar ratio was observed in a secondary group of 18 subjects 21–90 days after testing positive for COVID-19, indicating reactivation may occur soon after or concurrently with COVID-19 infection. These findings suggest that many long COVID symptoms may not be a direct result of the SARS-CoV-2 virus but may be the result of COVID-19 inflammation-induced EBV reactivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection SARS-CoV Infections)
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Article
Trypanosoma rangeli Genetic, Mammalian Hosts, and Geographical Diversity from Five Brazilian Biomes
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060736 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1562
Abstract
Trypanosoma rangeli is a generalist hemoflagellate that infects mammals and is transmitted by triatomines around Latin America. Due to its high genetic diversity, it can be classified into two to five lineages. In Brazil, its distribution outside the Amazon region is virtually unknown, [...] Read more.
Trypanosoma rangeli is a generalist hemoflagellate that infects mammals and is transmitted by triatomines around Latin America. Due to its high genetic diversity, it can be classified into two to five lineages. In Brazil, its distribution outside the Amazon region is virtually unknown, and knowledge on the ecology of its lineages and on host species diversity requires further investigation. Here, we analyzed 57 T. rangeli samples obtained from hemocultures and blood clots of 1392 mammals captured in different Brazilian biomes. The samples were subjected to small subunit (SSU) rDNA amplification and sequencing to confirm T. rangeli infection. Phylogenetic inferences and haplotype networks were reconstructed to classify T. rangeli lineages and to infer the genetic diversity of the samples. The results obtained in our study highlighted both the mammalian host range and distribution of T. rangeli in Brazil: infection was observed in five new species (Procyon cancrivorous, Priodontes maximum, Alouatta belzebul, Sapajus libidinosus, and Trinomys dimidiatus), and transmission was observed in the Caatinga biome. The coati (Nasua nasua) and capuchin monkey (S. libidinosus) are the key hosts of T. rangeli. We identified all four T. rangeli lineages previously reported in Brazil (A, B, D, and E) and possibly two new genotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Epidemiology of Trypanosomes)
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Article
Elucidating the Local Transmission Dynamics of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N6 in the Republic of Korea by Integrating Phylogenetic Information
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060691 - 02 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus is one of the most virulent and infectious pathogens of poultry. As a response to HPAI epidemics, veterinary authorities implement preemptive depopulation as a controlling strategy. However, mass culling within a uniform radius of the infection site [...] Read more.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus is one of the most virulent and infectious pathogens of poultry. As a response to HPAI epidemics, veterinary authorities implement preemptive depopulation as a controlling strategy. However, mass culling within a uniform radius of the infection site can result in unnecessary depopulation. Therefore, it is useful to quantify the transmission distance from infected premises (IPs) before determining the optimal area for preemptive depopulation. Accordingly, we analyzed the transmission risk within spatiotemporal clusters of IPs using transmission kernel estimates derived from phylogenetic clustering information on 311 HPAI H5N6 IPs identified during the 2016–2017 epidemic, Republic of Korea. Subsequently, we explored the impact of varying the culling radius on the local transmission of HPAI given the transmission risk estimates. The domestic duck farm density was positively associated with higher transmissibility. Ring culling over a radius of 3 km may be effective for areas with high dense duck holdings, but this approach does not appear to significantly reduce the risk for local transmission in areas with chicken farms. This study provides the first estimation of the local transmission dynamics of HPAI in the Republic of Korea as well as insight into determining an effective ring culling radius. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiological Study of Infectious Diseases of Animals)
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Article
Investigating the Presence of SARS CoV-2 in Free-Living and Captive Animals
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060635 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
Due to SARS CoV-2 recombination rates, number of infected people and recent reports of environmental contamination, the possibility of SARS CoV-2 transmission to animals can be expected. We tested samples of dominant free-living and captive wildlife species in Croatia for the presence of [...] Read more.
Due to SARS CoV-2 recombination rates, number of infected people and recent reports of environmental contamination, the possibility of SARS CoV-2 transmission to animals can be expected. We tested samples of dominant free-living and captive wildlife species in Croatia for the presence of anti-SARS CoV-2 antibodies and viral RNA. In total, from June 2020 until February 2021, we tested blood, muscle extract and fecal samples of 422 free-living wild boars (Sus scrofa), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and jackals (Canis aureus); blood and cloacal swabs of 111 yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) and fecal samples of 32 zoo animals. A commercially available ELISA (ID.Vet, France) and as a confirmatory test, a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT; GenScript, Netherlands) were used. Fecal samples were tested for the presence of viral RNA by a real-time RT–PCR protocol. Fifteen out of 533 (2.8%) positive ELISA results were detected; in wild boars (3.9%), red foxes (2.9%) and jackals (4.6%). However, the positive findings were not confirmed by sVNT. No viral RNA was found. In conclusion, no spillover occurred within the investigated period (second COVID-19 wave). However, further investigation is needed, especially regarding wildlife sample features for serological tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and Neglected Viruses and Zoonoses)
Article
An Outer Membrane Vesicle-Adjuvanted Oral Vaccine Protects Against Lethal, Oral Salmonella Infection
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050616 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
Non-typhoidal salmonellosis, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a common fecal-oral disease characterized by mild gastrointestinal distress resulting in diarrhea, chills, fever, abdominal cramps, head and body aches, nausea, and vomiting. Increasing incidences of antibiotic resistant invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella infections makes this [...] Read more.
Non-typhoidal salmonellosis, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a common fecal-oral disease characterized by mild gastrointestinal distress resulting in diarrhea, chills, fever, abdominal cramps, head and body aches, nausea, and vomiting. Increasing incidences of antibiotic resistant invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella infections makes this a global threat requiring novel treatment strategies including next-generation vaccines. The goal of the current study was to formulate a novel vaccine platform against Salmonella infection that could be delivered orally. To accomplish this, we created a Salmonella-specific vaccine adjuvanted with Burkholderia pseudomallei outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). We show that adding OMVs to a heat-killed oral Salmonella vaccine (HKST + OMVs) protects against a lethal, oral challenge with Salmonella. Further, we show that opsonizing anti-Salmonella antibodies are induced in response to immunization and that CD4 T cells and B cells can be induced when OMVs are used as the oral adjuvant. This study represents a novel oral vaccine approach to combatting the increasing problem of invasive Salmonella infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Vaccine Strategies against Intracellular Bacteria)
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Article
Isolation and Characterization of Nocardiae Associated with Foaming Coastal Marine Waters
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050579 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1724
Abstract
Nocardiosis is an infectious disease caused by Nocardia species that occurs worldwide, albeit more prevalently in tropical/subtropical regions. It can appear as either acute, subacute or as a chronic infection mostly with those with a compromised/weakened immune system. Inhalation of spores and or [...] Read more.
Nocardiosis is an infectious disease caused by Nocardia species that occurs worldwide, albeit more prevalently in tropical/subtropical regions. It can appear as either acute, subacute or as a chronic infection mostly with those with a compromised/weakened immune system. Inhalation of spores and or mycelium fragments is the main transmission route for developing pulmonary nocardiosis. In contrast, cutaneous nocardiosis usually occurs via direct contact. In the subtropical region of the Sunshine Coast in Australia foaming events with thick and persistent and orange-brown color foam have been observed during summer seasons in the near shore marine environments. This study reports the existence of nocardiae in these near shore marine environments by the use of a novel isolation method which used the gas requirements of nocardiae as a selective battery. A total of 32 nocardiae were isolated with the use of this novel method and subsequently conducted molecular identification methods confirmed that the isolates belonged to the genus Nocardia. Twenty-one isolates out of the 32 were closely related to N. nova strains MGA115 and one was related to CBU 09/875, in addition when compared with human pathogenic nocardiae twenty of the isolates were found to be related to N. nova strain JCM 6044. Isolates displayed varied resistance against some of the antibiotics tested when interpretation threshold recommended the Comite de L’Antibiogramme de la Societe Francaise de Microbiologie were used. The highest level of resistance against cefotaxime (n = 27) and ceftriaxone (n = 24). Some of the isolates (n = 6) that displayed resistance to selected antibiotics also possessed potential human pathogenic characteristics such as adherence and translocation through human long epithelial cells as well as displaying phage resistance (n = 26). They might thus present a potential public health risk if frequently encountered through exposure to aerosols generated by the foam as well as direct contact through a wound. Preventative measures to control the growth of nocardiae in such environments such as the control of pollutants, might prevent potential infections that might be caused by these bacteria in humans as well as in marine animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecology and Pathogenicity of Nocardiae)
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Article
Cell-Type Apoptosis in Lung during SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050509 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1528
Abstract
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has inspired renewed interest in understanding the fundamental pathology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) following infection. However, the pathogenesis of ARDS following SRAS-CoV-2 infection remains largely unknown. In the present study, we examined apoptosis in postmortem lung sections from [...] Read more.
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has inspired renewed interest in understanding the fundamental pathology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) following infection. However, the pathogenesis of ARDS following SRAS-CoV-2 infection remains largely unknown. In the present study, we examined apoptosis in postmortem lung sections from COVID-19 patients and in lung tissues from a non-human primate model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, in a cell-type manner, including type 1 and 2 alveolar cells and vascular endothelial cells (ECs), macrophages, and T cells. Multiple-target immunofluorescence assays and Western blotting suggest both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways are activated during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, we observed that SARS-CoV-2 fails to induce apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial cells (i.e., BEAS2B cells) and primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which are refractory to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, infection of co-cultured Vero cells and HUVECs or Vero cells and BEAS2B cells with SARS-CoV-2 induced apoptosis in both Vero cells and HUVECs/BEAS2B cells but did not alter the permissiveness of HUVECs or BEAS2B cells to the virus. Post-exposure treatment of the co-culture of Vero cells and HUVECs with a novel non-cyclic nucleotide small molecule EPAC1-specific activator reduced apoptosis in HUVECs. These findings may help to delineate a novel insight into the pathogenesis of ARDS following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cutting-Edge Approaches in Pathogen Study)
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Article
Human Pleural Fluid and Human Serum Albumin Modulate the Behavior of a Hypervirulent and Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii Representative Strain
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040471 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1399
Abstract
Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen capable of causing serious infections associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Due to its antimicrobial drug resistance profile, A. baumannii is categorized as an urgent priority pathogen by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [...] Read more.
Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen capable of causing serious infections associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Due to its antimicrobial drug resistance profile, A. baumannii is categorized as an urgent priority pathogen by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States and a priority group 1 critical microorganism by the World Health Organization. Understanding how A. baumannii adapts to different host environments may provide critical insights into strategically targeting this pathogen with novel antimicrobial and biological therapeutics. Exposure to human fluids was previously shown to alter the gene expression profile of a highly drug-susceptible A. baumannii strain A118 leading to persistence and survival of this pathogen. Herein, we explore the impact of human pleural fluid (HPF) and human serum albumin (HSA) on the gene expression profile of a highly multi-drug-resistant strain of A. baumannii AB5075. Differential expression was observed for ~30 genes, whose products are involved in quorum sensing, quorum quenching, iron acquisition, fatty acid metabolism, biofilm formation, secretion systems, and type IV pilus formation. Phenotypic and further transcriptomic analysis using quantitative RT-PCR confirmed RNA-seq data and demonstrated a distinctive role of HSA as the molecule involved in A. baumannii’s response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Status of Acinetobacter Infections)
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Article
Alternative σ Factors Regulate Overlapping as Well as Distinct Stress Response and Metabolic Functions in Listeria monocytogenes under Stationary Phase Stress Condition
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040411 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 964
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes can regulate and fine-tune gene expression, to adapt to diverse stress conditions encountered during foodborne transmission. To further understand the contributions of alternative sigma (σ) factors to the regulation of L. monocytogenes gene expression, RNA-Seq was performed on L. monocytogenes strain [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes can regulate and fine-tune gene expression, to adapt to diverse stress conditions encountered during foodborne transmission. To further understand the contributions of alternative sigma (σ) factors to the regulation of L. monocytogenes gene expression, RNA-Seq was performed on L. monocytogenes strain 10403S and five isogenic mutants (four strains bearing in-frame null mutations in three out of four alternative σ factor genes, ΔCHL, ΔBHL, ΔBCL, and ΔBCH, and one strain bearing null mutations in all four genes, ΔBCHL), grown to stationary phase. Our data showed that 184, 35, 34, and 20 genes were positively regulated by σB, σL, σH, and σC (posterior probability > 0.9 and Fold Change (FC) > 5.0), respectively. Moreover, σB-dependent genes showed the highest FC (based on comparisons between the ΔCHL and the ΔBCHL strain), with 44 genes showing an FC > 100; only four σL-dependent, and no σH- or σC-dependent genes showed FC >100. While σB-regulated genes identified in this study are involved in stress-associated functions and metabolic pathways, σL appears to largely regulate genes involved in a few specific metabolic pathways, including positive regulation of operons encoding phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs). Overall, our data show that (i) σB and σL directly and indirectly regulate genes involved in several energy metabolism-related functions; (ii) alternative σ factors are involved in complex regulatory networks and appear to have epistatic effects in stationary phase cells; and (iii) σB regulates multiple stress response pathways, while σL and σH positively regulate a smaller number of specific pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Listeria monocytogenes Pathogenesis)
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Article
A Novel Infection Protocol in Zebrafish Embryo to Assess Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence and Validate Efficacy of a Quorum Sensing Inhibitor In Vivo
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040401 - 29 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for a variety of acute infections and is a major cause of mortality in chronically infected cystic fibrosis patients. Due to increased resistance to antibiotics, new therapeutic strategies against P. aeruginosa are urgently needed. In [...] Read more.
The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for a variety of acute infections and is a major cause of mortality in chronically infected cystic fibrosis patients. Due to increased resistance to antibiotics, new therapeutic strategies against P. aeruginosa are urgently needed. In this context, we aimed to develop a simple vertebrate animal model to rapidly assess in vivo drug efficacy against P. aeruginosa. Zebrafish are increasingly considered for modeling human infections caused by bacterial pathogens, which are commonly microinjected in embryos. In the present study, we established a novel protocol for zebrafish infection by P. aeruginosa based on bath immersion in 96-well plates of tail-injured embryos. The immersion method, followed by a 48-hour survey of embryo viability, was first validated to assess the virulence of P. aeruginosa wild-type PAO1 and a known attenuated mutant. We then validated its relevance for antipseudomonal drug testing by first using a clinically used antibiotic, ciprofloxacin. Secondly, we used a novel quorum sensing (QS) inhibitory molecule, N-(2-pyrimidyl)butanamide (C11), the activity of which had been validated in vitro but not previously tested in any animal model. A significant protective effect of C11 was observed on infected embryos, supporting the ability of C11 to attenuate in vivo P. aeruginosa pathogenicity. In conclusion, we present here a new and reliable method to compare the virulence of P. aeruginosa strains in vivo and to rapidly assess the efficacy of clinically relevant drugs against P. aeruginosa, including new antivirulence compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pathogenesis)
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Article
Circulation of Babesia Species and Their Exposure to Humans through Ixodes ricinus
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040386 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2051
Abstract
Human babesiosis in Europe has been attributed to infection with Babesia divergens and, to a lesser extent, with Babesia venatorum and Babesia microti, which are all transmitted to humans through a bite of Ixodes ricinus. These Babesia species circulate in the Netherlands, [...] Read more.
Human babesiosis in Europe has been attributed to infection with Babesia divergens and, to a lesser extent, with Babesia venatorum and Babesia microti, which are all transmitted to humans through a bite of Ixodes ricinus. These Babesia species circulate in the Netherlands, but autochthonous human babesiosis cases have not been reported so far. To gain more insight into the natural sources of these Babesia species, their presence in reservoir hosts and in I. ricinus was examined. Moreover, part of the ticks were tested for co-infections with other tick borne pathogens. In a cross-sectional study, qPCR-detection was used to determine the presence of Babesia species in 4611 tissue samples from 27 mammalian species and 13 bird species. Reverse line blotting (RLB) and qPCR detection of Babesia species were used to test 25,849 questing I. ricinus. Fragments of the 18S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from PCR-positive isolates were sequenced for confirmation and species identification and species-specific PCR reactions were performed on samples with suspected mixed infections. Babesia microti was found in two widespread rodent species: Myodes glareolus and Apodemus sylvaticus, whereas B. divergens was detected in the geographically restricted Cervus elaphus and Bison bonasus, and occasionally in free-ranging Ovis aries. B. venatorum was detected in the ubiquitous Capreolus capreolus, and occasionally in free-ranging O. aries. Species-specific PCR revealed co-infections in C. capreolus and C. elaphus, resulting in higher prevalence of B. venatorum and B. divergens than disclosed by qPCR detection, followed by 18S rDNA and COI sequencing. The non-zoonotic Babesia species found were Babesia capreoli, Babesia vulpes, Babesia sp. deer clade, and badger-associated Babesia species. The infection rate of zoonotic Babesia species in questing I. ricinus ticks was higher for Babesia clade I (2.6%) than Babesia clade X (1.9%). Co-infection of B. microti with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Neoehrlichia mikurensis in questing nymphs occurred more than expected, which reflects their mutual reservoir hosts, and suggests the possibility of co-transmission of these three pathogens to humans during a tick bite. The ubiquitous spread and abundance of B. microti and B. venatorum in their reservoir hosts and questing ticks imply some level of human exposure through tick bites. The restricted distribution of the wild reservoir hosts for B. divergens and its low infection rate in ticks might contribute to the absence of reported autochthonous cases of human babesiosis in the Netherlands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Research on Hard Tick-Borne Diseases)
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Article
WGS of Commensal Neisseria Reveals Acquisition of a New Ribosomal Protection Protein (MsrD) as a Possible Explanation for High Level Azithromycin Resistance in Belgium
Pathogens 2021, 10(3), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030384 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
In this study, we characterized all oropharyngeal and anorectal isolates of Neisseria spp. in a cohort of men who have sex with men. This resulted in a panel of pathogenic Neisseria (N. gonorrhoeae [n = 5] and N. meningitidis [n = 5]) [...] Read more.
In this study, we characterized all oropharyngeal and anorectal isolates of Neisseria spp. in a cohort of men who have sex with men. This resulted in a panel of pathogenic Neisseria (N. gonorrhoeae [n = 5] and N. meningitidis [n = 5]) and nonpathogenic Neisseria (N. subflava [n = 11], N. mucosa [n = 3] and N. oralis [n = 2]). A high proportion of strains in this panel were resistant to azithromycin (18/26) and ceftriaxone (3/26). Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of these strains identified numerous mutations that are known to confer reduced susceptibility to azithromycin and ceftriaxone in N. gonorrhoeae. The presence or absence of these known mutations did not explain the high level resistance to azithromycin (>256 mg/L) in the nonpathogenic isolates (8/16). After screening for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, we found a ribosomal protection protein, Msr(D), in these highly azithromycin resistant nonpathogenic strains. The complete integration site originated from Streptococcus pneumoniae and is associated with high level resistance to azithromycin in many other bacterial species. This novel AMR resistance mechanism to azithromycin in nonpathogenic Neisseria could be a public health concern if it were to be transmitted to pathogenic Neisseria. This study demonstrates the utility of WGS-based surveillance of nonpathogenic Neisseria. Full article
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Article
Host-Feeding Preference and Diel Activity of Mosquito Vectors of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Rural Cambodia
Pathogens 2021, 10(3), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030376 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1335
Abstract
Japanese Encephalitis (JE) is the most important cause of human encephalitis in Southeast Asia, and this zoonosis is mainly transmitted from pigs to human by mosquitoes. A better understanding of the host-feeding preference of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) major vectors is crucial for [...] Read more.
Japanese Encephalitis (JE) is the most important cause of human encephalitis in Southeast Asia, and this zoonosis is mainly transmitted from pigs to human by mosquitoes. A better understanding of the host-feeding preference of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) major vectors is crucial for identifying risk areas, defining bridge vector species and targeting adapted vector control strategies. To assess host-feeding preference of JE vectors in a rural Cambodian area where JE is known to circulate, in 2017, we implemented four sessions of mosquito trapping (March, June, September, December), during five consecutive nights, collecting four times a night (6 p.m. to 6 a.m.), and using five baited traps simultaneously, i.e., cow, chicken, pig, human, and a blank one for control. In addition, blood meals of 157 engorged females trapped at the same location were opportunistically analyzed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using cow, pig, human, and dog blood primers. More than 95% of the 36,709 trapped mosquitoes were potential JE vectors. These vectors were trapped in large numbers throughout the year, including during the dry season, and from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. Despite the apparent host-feeding preference of Culex vishnui, Cx. gelidus, and Cx. tritaenhyorhincus for cows, statistical analysis suggested that the primary target of these three mosquito species were pigs. Dog blood was detected in eight mosquitoes of the 157 tested, showing that mosquitoes also bite dogs, and suggesting that dogs may be used as proxy of the risk for human to get infected by JE virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Japanese Encephalitis and Rift Valley Fever)
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Article
Inactivation of Human Coronavirus by FATHHOME’s Dry Sanitizer Device: Rapid and Eco-Friendly Ozone-Based Disinfection of SARS-CoV-2
Pathogens 2021, 10(3), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030339 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2408
Abstract
The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 was reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Pertaining to its high transmissibility and wide host adaptability, this unique human coronavirus spread across the planet inflicting 115 million people and causing 2.5 million deaths (as of March 3rd, 2021). [...] Read more.
The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 was reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Pertaining to its high transmissibility and wide host adaptability, this unique human coronavirus spread across the planet inflicting 115 million people and causing 2.5 million deaths (as of March 3rd, 2021). Limited or negligible pre-existing immunity to multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants has resulted in severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, as well as a record-breaking surge in the use of medical-surgical supplies and personal protective equipment. In response to the global need for effective sterilization techniques, this study evaluated the virucidal efficacy of FATHHOME’s self-contained, ozone-based dry-sanitizing device, by dose and time response assessment. We tested inactivation of human coronavirus, HCoV-OC43, a close genetic model of SARS-CoV-2, on porous (N95 filtering facepiece respirator/FFR) and nonporous (glass) surfaces. We started our assays with 20 ppm-10 min ozone exposure, and effectively reduced 99.8% and 99.9% of virus from glass and N95 FFR surfaces, respectively. Importantly, the virus was completely inactivated, below the detection limit (over 6-log10 reduction) with 25 ppm-15 min ozone exposure on both tested surfaces. As expected, a higher ozone exposure (50 ppm-10 min) resulted in faster inactivation of HCoV-OC43 with 100% inactivation from both the surfaces, with no residual ozone present after completion of the 5-min post exposure recapture cycle and no measurable increase in ambient ozone levels. These results confirmed that FATHHOME’s device is suitable for rapid decontamination of SARS-CoV-2- from worn items, frequently touched items, and PPE including N95 FFRs, face shields, and other personal items. Full article
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Article
Molecular Diversity of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Blastocystis sp. in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Schoolchildren in Zambézia Province (Mozambique)
Pathogens 2021, 10(3), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030255 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
Infections by the protist enteroparasites Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and, to a much lesser extent, Blastocystis sp. are common causes of childhood diarrhoea in low-income countries. This molecular epidemiological study assesses the frequency and molecular diversity of these pathogens in faecal samples [...] Read more.
Infections by the protist enteroparasites Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and, to a much lesser extent, Blastocystis sp. are common causes of childhood diarrhoea in low-income countries. This molecular epidemiological study assesses the frequency and molecular diversity of these pathogens in faecal samples from asymptomatic schoolchildren (n = 807) and symptomatic children seeking medical attention (n = 286) in Zambézia province, Mozambique. Detection and molecular characterisation of pathogens was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods coupled with Sanger sequencing. Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent enteric parasite found [41.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 38.8–44.7%], followed by Blastocystis sp. (14.1%, 95% CI: 12.1–16.3%), and Cryptosporidium spp. (1.6%, 95% CI: 0.9–2.5%). Sequence analyses revealed the presence of assemblages A (7.0%, 3/43) and B (88.4%, 38/43) within G. duodenalis-positive children. Four Cryptosporidium species were detected, including C. hominis (30.8%; 4/13), C. parvum (30.8%, 4/13), C. felis (30.8%, 4/13), and C. viatorum (7.6%, 1/13). Four Blastocystis subtypes were also identified including ST1 (22.7%; 35/154), ST2 (22.7%; 35/154), ST3 (45.5%; 70/154), and ST4 (9.1%; 14/154). Most of the genotyped samples were from asymptomatic children. This is the first report of C. viatorum and Blastocystis ST4 in Mozambique. Molecular data indicate that anthropic and zoonotic transmission (the latter at an unknown rate) are important spread pathways of diarrhoea-causing pathogens in Mozambique. Full article
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Article
Atopobium vaginae and Prevotella bivia Are Able to Incorporate and Influence Gene Expression in a Pre-Formed Gardnerella vaginalis Biofilm
Pathogens 2021, 10(2), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020247 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1954
Abstract
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with a highly structured polymicrobial biofilm on the vaginal epithelium where Gardnerella species presumably play a pivotal role. Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, and Prevotella bivia are vaginal pathogens detected during the early stages of incident BV. [...] Read more.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with a highly structured polymicrobial biofilm on the vaginal epithelium where Gardnerella species presumably play a pivotal role. Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, and Prevotella bivia are vaginal pathogens detected during the early stages of incident BV. Herein, we aimed to analyze the impact of A. vaginae and P. bivia on a pre-established G. vaginalis biofilm using a novel in vitro triple-species biofilm model. Total biofilm biomass was determined by the crystal violet method. We also discriminated the bacterial populations in the biofilm and in its planktonic fraction by using PNA FISH. We further analyzed the influence of A. vaginae and P. bivia on the expression of key virulence genes of G. vaginalis by quantitative PCR. In our tested conditions, A. vaginae and P. bivia were able to incorporate into pre-established G. vaginalis biofilms but did not induce an increase in total biofilm biomass, when compared with 48-h G. vaginalis biofilms. However, they were able to significantly influence the expression of HMPREF0424_0821, a gene suggested to be associated with biofilm maintenance in G. vaginalis. This study suggests that microbial relationships between co-infecting bacteria can deeply affect the G. vaginalis biofilm, a crucial marker of BV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaginal Bacteria from the Genus Gardnerella)
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Article
Significant Growth by Rickettsia Species within Human Macrophage-Like Cells Is a Phenotype Correlated with the Ability to Cause Disease in Mammals
Pathogens 2021, 10(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020228 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1860
Abstract
Rickettsia are significant sources of tick-borne diseases in humans worldwide. In North America, two species in the spotted fever group of Rickettsia have been conclusively associated with disease of humans: Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Rickettsia [...] Read more.
Rickettsia are significant sources of tick-borne diseases in humans worldwide. In North America, two species in the spotted fever group of Rickettsia have been conclusively associated with disease of humans: Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Rickettsia parkeri, the cause of R. parkeri rickettsiosis. Previous work in our lab demonstrated non-endothelial parasitism by another pathogenic SFG Rickettsia species, Rickettsia conorii, within THP-1-derived macrophages, and we have hypothesized that this growth characteristic may be an underappreciated aspect of rickettsial pathogenesis in mammalian hosts. In this work, we demonstrated that multiple other recognized human pathogenic species of Rickettsia, including R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, Rickettsia africae, and Rickettsiaakari can grow within target endothelial cells as well as within PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells. In contrast, Rickettsia bellii, a Rickettsia species not associated with disease of humans, and R. rickettsii strain Iowa, an avirulent derivative of pathogenic R. rickettsii, could invade both cell types but proliferate only within endothelial cells. Further analysis revealed that similar to previous studies on R. conorii, other recognized pathogenic Rickettsia species could grow within the cytosol of THP-1-derived macrophages and avoided localization with two different markers of lysosomal compartments; LAMP-2 and cathepsin D. R. bellii, on the other hand, demonstrated significant co-localization with lysosomal compartments. Collectively, these findings suggest that the ability of pathogenic rickettsial species to establish a niche within macrophage-like cells could be an important factor in their ability to cause disease in mammals. These findings also suggest that analysis of growth within mammalian phagocytic cells may be useful to predict the pathogenic potential of newly isolated and identified Rickettsia species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virulence Mechanisms of Rickettsiae)
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Article
Enlisting the Ixodes scapularis Embryonic ISE6 Cell Line to Investigate the Neuronal Basis of Tick—Pathogen Interactions
Pathogens 2021, 10(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10010070 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
Neuropeptides are small signaling molecules expressed in the tick central nervous system, i.e., the synganglion. The neuronal-like Ixodes scapularis embryonic cell line, ISE6, is an effective tool frequently used for examining tick–pathogen interactions. We detected 37 neuropeptide transcripts in the I. scapularis ISE6 [...] Read more.
Neuropeptides are small signaling molecules expressed in the tick central nervous system, i.e., the synganglion. The neuronal-like Ixodes scapularis embryonic cell line, ISE6, is an effective tool frequently used for examining tick–pathogen interactions. We detected 37 neuropeptide transcripts in the I. scapularis ISE6 cell line using in silico methods, and six of these neuropeptide genes were used for experimental validation. Among these six neuropeptide genes, the tachykinin-related peptide (TRP) of ISE6 cells varied in transcript expression depending on the infection strain of the tick-borne pathogen, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The immunocytochemistry of TRP revealed cytoplasmic expression in a prominent ISE6 cell subpopulation. The presence of TRP was also confirmed in A. phagocytophilum-infected ISE6 cells. The in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry of TRP of I. scapularis synganglion revealed expression in distinct neuronal cells. In addition, TRP immunoreaction was detected in axons exiting the synganglion via peripheral nerves as well as in hemal nerve-associated lateral segmental organs. The characterization of a complete Ixodes neuropeptidome in ISE6 cells may serve as an effective in vitro tool to study how tick-borne pathogens interact with synganglion components that are vital to tick physiology. Therefore, our current study is a potential stepping stone for in vivo experiments to further examine the neuronal basis of tick–pathogen interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ticks)
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Article
Engineered Phage Endolysin Eliminates Gardnerella Biofilm without Damaging Beneficial Bacteria in Bacterial Vaginosis Ex Vivo
Pathogens 2021, 10(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10010054 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4355
Abstract
Bacterial vaginosis is characterized by an imbalance of the vaginal microbiome and a characteristic biofilm formed on the vaginal epithelium, which is initiated and dominated by Gardnerella bacteria, and is frequently refractory to antibiotic treatment. We investigated endolysins of the type 1,4-beta-N-acetylmuramidase encoded [...] Read more.
Bacterial vaginosis is characterized by an imbalance of the vaginal microbiome and a characteristic biofilm formed on the vaginal epithelium, which is initiated and dominated by Gardnerella bacteria, and is frequently refractory to antibiotic treatment. We investigated endolysins of the type 1,4-beta-N-acetylmuramidase encoded on Gardnerella prophages as an alternative treatment. When recombinantly expressed, these proteins demonstrated strong bactericidal activity against four different Gardnerella species. By domain shuffling, we generated several engineered endolysins with 10-fold higher bactericidal activity than any wild-type enzyme. When tested against a panel of 20 Gardnerella strains, the most active endolysin, called PM-477, showed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.13–8 µg/mL. PM-477 had no effect on beneficial lactobacilli or other species of vaginal bacteria. Furthermore, the efficacy of PM-477 was tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization on vaginal samples of fifteen patients with either first time or recurring bacterial vaginosis. In thirteen cases, PM-477 killed the Gardnerella bacteria and physically dissolved the biofilms without affecting the remaining vaginal microbiome. The high selectivity and effectiveness in eliminating Gardnerella, both in cultures of isolated strains as well as in clinically derived samples of natural polymicrobial biofilms, makes PM-477 a promising alternative to antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis, especially in patients with frequent recurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Pathogens)
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Article
Preclinical Evaluation of Oral Urolithin-A for the Treatment of Acute Campylobacteriosis in Campylobacter jejuni Infected Microbiota-Depleted IL-10−/− Mice
Pathogens 2021, 10(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10010007 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1039
Abstract
Human campylobacteriosis represents an infectious enteritis syndrome caused by Campylobacter species, mostly Campylobacter jejuni. Given that C. jejuni infections are rising worldwide and antibiotic treatment is usually not indicated, novel treatment options for campylobacteriosis are needed. Urolithin-A constitutes a metabolite produced by [...] Read more.
Human campylobacteriosis represents an infectious enteritis syndrome caused by Campylobacter species, mostly Campylobacter jejuni. Given that C. jejuni infections are rising worldwide and antibiotic treatment is usually not indicated, novel treatment options for campylobacteriosis are needed. Urolithin-A constitutes a metabolite produced by the human gut microbiota from ellagitannins and ellagic acids in berries and nuts which have been known for their health-beneficial including anti-inflammatory effects since centuries. Therefore, we investigated potential pathogen-lowering and immunomodulatory effects following oral application of synthetic urolithin-A during acute campylobacteriosis applying perorally C. jejuni infected, microbiota-depleted IL-10−/− mice as preclinical inflammation model. On day 6 post infection, urolithin-A treated mice harbored slightly lower pathogen loads in their ileum, but not colon as compared to placebo counterparts. Importantly, urolithin-A treatment resulted in an improved clinical outcome and less pronounced macroscopic and microscopic inflammatory sequelae of infection that were paralleled by less pronounced intestinal pro-inflammatory immune responses which could even be observed systemically. In conclusion, this preclinical murine intervention study provides first evidence that oral urolithin-A application is a promising treatment option for acute C. jejuni infection and paves the way for future clinical studies in human campylobacteriosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Waterborne/Foodborne/Airborne Pathogens)
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Article
In Vitro Anthelminthic Efficacy of Aqueous Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Extracts against Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121063 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
The worldwide increased difficulty to counteract gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in sheep, due to progressing anthelmintic resistance, has led to the evaluation of other alternative helminth control options, mainly from plants. The anthelmintic efficacy of an aqueous Punica granatum macerate was evaluated in [...] Read more.
The worldwide increased difficulty to counteract gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in sheep, due to progressing anthelmintic resistance, has led to the evaluation of other alternative helminth control options, mainly from plants. The anthelmintic efficacy of an aqueous Punica granatum macerate was evaluated in sheep naturally infected by GIN in southern Italy. The macerate was chemically characterized by chromatographic analysis coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS) and an aliquot was concentrated to obtain a dry extract. A part was characterized, the remaining washed with methanol to obtain an insoluble residue and methanol phase. In the methanol fraction, the quantitatively predominant gallic acid was purified to obtain the pure molecule. The three fractions thus obtained were used for in vitro studies (i.e., egg hatch test) to verify anthelmintic efficacy. For this purpose, fecal samples were collected from sheep naturally infected by GINs. Fractions were diluted in H2O/DMSO 0.5% at 1.00, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.05, and 0.005 mg/mL concentrations. Thiabendazole (0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL) and deionized water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Egg hatch test results indicated that all fractions caused a significant (p < 0.05) egg hatch inhibition within 48 h of exposure highlighting a high (>82%) efficacy in vitro at all tested doses. Maximal egg hatching inhibition effect was exhibited by the methanol fraction (99.3% and 89.3% at 1 and 0.005 mg/mL concentrations), followed by the insoluble residue and gallic acid (94.7% and 85.3% and 94.0% and 82.7% at 1 and 0.005 mg/mL, respectively). The current study validated the anthelmintic potential of traditional P. granatum macerate against GIN infection in sheep, thus highlighting the role of gallic acid as principal component and justifying a need to undertake further in vivo studies on these ethno-veterinary remedies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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Article
Piscine Orthoreovirus-1 Isolates Differ in Their Ability to Induce Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121050 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2900
Abstract
Piscine orthoreovirus 1 (PRV-1) is the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The virus is widespread in Atlantic salmon and was present in Norway long before the first description of HSMI in [...] Read more.
Piscine orthoreovirus 1 (PRV-1) is the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The virus is widespread in Atlantic salmon and was present in Norway long before the first description of HSMI in 1999. Furthermore, in Canada the virus is prevalent in farmed Atlantic salmon but HSMI is not and Canadian isolates have failed to reproduce HSMI experimentally. This has led to the hypothesis that there are virulence differences between PRV-1 isolates. In this study we performed a dose standardized challenge trial, comparing six PRV-1 isolates, including two Norwegian field isolates from 2018, three historical Norwegian isolates predating the first report of HSMI and one Canadian isolate. The Norwegian 2018 isolates induced lower viral protein load in blood cells but higher plasma viremia. Following peak replication in blood, the two Norwegian 2018 isolates induced histopathological lesions in the heart consistent with HSMI, whereas all three historical Norwegian and the Canadian isolates induced only mild cardiac lesions. This is the first demonstration of virulence differences between PRV-1 isolates and the phenotypic differences are linked to viral proteins encoded by segment S1, M2, L1, L2 and S4. Full article
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Article
Detection of Crenosoma spp., Angiostrongylus vasorum and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in Gastropods in Eastern Austria
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121046 - 13 Dec 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1373
Abstract
Canine and feline cardiorespiratory parasites are of utmost relevance in veterinary medicine. Key epizootiological information on major pet metastrongyloids, i.e., Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis infecting dogs, and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior infecting cats, is missing from Austria. This study investigated their [...] Read more.
Canine and feline cardiorespiratory parasites are of utmost relevance in veterinary medicine. Key epizootiological information on major pet metastrongyloids, i.e., Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis infecting dogs, and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior infecting cats, is missing from Austria. This study investigated their occurrence in 1320 gastropods collected in the Austrian provinces of Styria, Burgenland, Lower Austria, and in metropolitan Vienna. Metastrongyloid larvae were microscopically detected in 25 samples, and sequence analysis confirmed the presence of metastrongyloids in nine samples, i.e., A. vasorum in one slug (Arion vulgaris) (0.07%), C. vulpis in five slugs (one Limax maximus and four A. vulgaris) (0.4%), A. abstrusus in two A. vulgaris (0.17%), and the hedgehog lungworm Crenosoma striatum was detected in one A. vulgaris. The present study confirms the enzooticity of major cardiorespiratory nematodes in Austria and that canine and feline populations are at risk of infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Pathogens)
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Article
Lack of Interleukin-6 Affects IFN-γ and TNF-α Production and Early In Vivo Control of Brucella abortus Infection
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121040 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 779
Abstract
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine promptly produced in response to infections, which contributes to host defense through the stimulation of acute phase immune responses. Brucella abortus is an intracellular bacterium that causes chronic disease in humans and domestic animals and triggers a [...] Read more.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine promptly produced in response to infections, which contributes to host defense through the stimulation of acute phase immune responses. Brucella abortus is an intracellular bacterium that causes chronic disease in humans and domestic animals and triggers a robust immune response, characterized by the production of inflammatory cytokines. However, the mechanisms of IL-6-related immune responses in the context of Brucella infections are not completely understood. In this report, we describe an increased susceptibility of IL-6 knockout (KO) mice in the early phase of Brucella infection. Furthermore, we demonstrate that IL-6 is required for interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α induction by infected splenocytes, indicating a protective role for IL-6 against B. abortus that parallels with Th1 type of immune response. Additionally, IL-6 KO mice exhibited reduced splenomegaly during the early phase of the infection. Corroborating this result, IL-6 KO mice displayed reduced numbers of macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils in the spleen and reduced myeloperoxidase activity in the liver compared to wild-type infected mice. However, we demonstrate that IL-6 is not involved in B. abortus intracellular restriction in mouse macrophages. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that IL-6 contributes to host resistance during the early phase of B. abortus infection in vivo, and suggest that its protective role maybe partially mediated by proinflammatory immune responses and immune cell recruitment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews From Section "Animal Pathogens")
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Article
Bartonella Associated Cutaneous Lesions (BACL) in People with Neuropsychiatric Symptoms
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121023 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 9132
Abstract
Bartonella species are globally important emerging pathogens that were not known to infect animals or humans in North America prior to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Ongoing improvements in diagnostic testing modalities have allowed for the discovery of Bartonella species (spp.) DNA [...] Read more.
Bartonella species are globally important emerging pathogens that were not known to infect animals or humans in North America prior to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Ongoing improvements in diagnostic testing modalities have allowed for the discovery of Bartonella species (spp.) DNA in blood; cerebrospinal fluid; and the skin of patients with cutaneous lesions, fatigue, myalgia, and neurological symptoms. We describe Bartonella spp. test results for participants reporting neuropsychiatric symptoms, the majority of whom reported the concurrent development of cutaneous lesions. Study participants completed a medical history, a risk factor questionnaire, and provided cutaneous lesion photographs. Bartonella spp. serology and Bartonella alpha proteobacteria enrichment blood culture/PCR were assessed. Within a 14-month period, 33 participants enrolled; 29/33 had serological and/or PCR evidence supporting Bartonella spp. infection, of whom 24 reported concurrent cutaneous lesions since neuropsychiatric symptom onset. We conclude that cutaneous lesions were common among people reporting neuropsychiatric symptoms and Bartonella spp. infection or exposure. Additional studies, using sensitive microbiological and imaging techniques, are needed to determine if, or to what extent, Bartonella spp. might contribute to cutaneous lesions and neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolving Biomedical Importance of Bartonella Species Infections)
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Article
Antibiotic Resistance and Biofilm-Forming Ability in Enterococcal Isolates from Red Meat and Poultry Preparations
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121021 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
This study investigated the resistance to antibiotics and the capacity to form a biofilm of 200 isolates of enterococci isolated from raw preparations of beef (51 strains), pork (47), chicken (50), and turkey (52) acquired in north-western Spain. Fifteen antimicrobials of clinical importance [...] Read more.
This study investigated the resistance to antibiotics and the capacity to form a biofilm of 200 isolates of enterococci isolated from raw preparations of beef (51 strains), pork (47), chicken (50), and turkey (52) acquired in north-western Spain. Fifteen antimicrobials of clinical importance were tested by the disc diffusion method. The average number of resistances per strain was 4.48 ± 1.59. If resistant strains were taken together with those showing reduced susceptibility, the total number of resistances per strain was 6.97 ± 2.02. Two isolates (1.0% of strains) were resistant to a single antibiotic, twenty-two isolates (11.0%) presented resistance to two, one strain (0.5%) was resistant to three, and 175 isolates (87.5%) showed a multiple drug-resistant phenotype (MDR; defined as no susceptibility to at least one agent from each of three or more antimicrobial categories). The prevalence of resistance varied between 0.5% (gentamicin) and 100% (kanamycin). All strains produced biofilm on polystyrene microwell plates, determined using crystal violet assay. Isolates were classified as having a weak (51 strains; average optical density at 580 nanometers -OD580- = 0.206 ± 0.033), moderate (78 strains; average OD580 = 0.374 ± 0.068), or strong (71 strains; average OD580 = 1.167 ± 0.621) ability to produce biofilm (p < 0.05). Isolates from beef preparations produced the most substantial (p < 0.05) biofilms. The results of this study indicate that meat and poultry preparations are major reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant enterococcal strains capable of forming a biofilm. In order for food-borne infections to be prevented, the importance of careful handling of these foodstuffs during preparation, avoiding cross-contamination, and ensuring thorough cooking, is stressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Waterborne/Foodborne/Airborne Pathogens)
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Article
Cryptosporidium Species and C. parvum Subtypes in Farmed Bamboo Rats
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121018 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
Bamboo rats (Rhizomys sinensis) are widely farmed in Guangdong, China, but the distribution and public health potential of Cryptosporidium spp. in them are unclear. In this study, 724 fecal specimens were collected from bamboo rats in Guangdong Province and analyzed for [...] Read more.
Bamboo rats (Rhizomys sinensis) are widely farmed in Guangdong, China, but the distribution and public health potential of Cryptosporidium spp. in them are unclear. In this study, 724 fecal specimens were collected from bamboo rats in Guangdong Province and analyzed for Cryptosporidium spp. using PCR and sequence analyses of the small subunit rRNA gene. The overall detection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. was 12.2% (88/724). By age, the detection rate in animals under 2 months (23.2% or 13/56) was significantly higher than in animals over 2 months (11.2% or 75/668; χ2 = 6.95, df = 1, p = 0.0084). By reproduction status, the detection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. in nursing animals (23.1% or 27/117) was significantly higher than in other reproduction statuses (6.8% or 4/59; χ2 = 7.18, df = 1, p = 0.0074). Five Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were detected, including Cryptosporidium bamboo rat genotype I (n = 49), C. parvum (n = 31), Cryptosporidium bamboo rat genotype III (n = 5), C. occultus (n = 2), and C. muris (n = 1). The average numbers of oocysts per gram of feces for these Cryptosporidium spp. were 14,074, 494,636, 9239, 394, and 323, respectively. The genetic uniqueness of bamboo rat genotypes I and III was confirmed by sequence analyses of the 70 kDa heat shock protein and actin genes. Subtyping C. parvum by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene identified the presence of IIoA15G1 (n = 20) and IIpA6 (n = 2) subtypes. The results of this study indicated that Cryptosporidium spp. are common in bamboo rats in Guangdong, and some of the Cryptosporidium spp. in these animals are known human pathogens. Full article
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Article
Screening for Rickettsia, Coxiella and Borrelia Species in Ticks from Queensland, Australia
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121016 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1459
Abstract
Tick bites in Australia are linked to the transmission of a variety of infectious diseases in humans, livestock and wildlife. Despite this recognition, little is currently known about the variety of potential pathogens that are carried and transmitted by Australian ticks. In this [...] Read more.
Tick bites in Australia are linked to the transmission of a variety of infectious diseases in humans, livestock and wildlife. Despite this recognition, little is currently known about the variety of potential pathogens that are carried and transmitted by Australian ticks. In this study, we attempted to expand knowledge of Australian tick-borne bacterial pathogens by analyzing various tick species from the state of Queensland for potential human pathogens belonging to the Rickettsia, Coxiella and Borrelia genera. A total of 203 ticks, comprising of four genera and nine different tick species, were screened by specific qPCR assays. An overall Rickettsia qPCR positivity of 6.4% (13/203) was detected with rickettsial DNA found in four tick species (Ixodes holocyclus, I. tasmani, Amblyommatriguttatum, and Haemaphysalis longicornis). Amplification and analysis of several rickettsial genes from rickettsial qPCR positive samples identified sequences closely related to but genetically distinct from several previously described cultured and uncultured rickettsial species in the Rickettsia spotted fever subgroup. No ticks were positive for either Coxiella or Borrelia DNA. This work suggests that a further diversity of rickettsiae remain to be described in Australian ticks with the full importance of these bacteria to human and animal health yet to be elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Updates on Rickettsia and Coxiella)
Article
Hand Hygiene Behaviors in a Representative Sample of Polish Adolescents in Regions Stratified by COVID-19 Morbidity and by Confounding Variables (PLACE-19 Study): Is There Any Association?
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121011 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
The hand hygiene may possibly influence the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, but the multifactorial influence on hand hygiene knowledge and behaviors is proven. The aim of the study was to analyze hand hygiene behaviors in a national representative sample of Polish adolescents [...] Read more.
The hand hygiene may possibly influence the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, but the multifactorial influence on hand hygiene knowledge and behaviors is proven. The aim of the study was to analyze hand hygiene behaviors in a national representative sample of Polish adolescents in regions stratified by COVID-19 morbidity, while taking socioeconomic status of the region, as well rural or urban environment, into account as possible interfering factors. The study was conducted Polish Adolescents’ COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study population (n = 2323) that was recruited based on a random sampling of schools, while the pair-matching procedure was applied within schools and age, in order to obtain adequate number of boys and girls, representative for the general Polish population (n = 1222). The participants were asked about their handwashing habits while using Handwashing Habits Questionnaire (HHQ) and about applied procedure of washing hands. The results were compared in subgroups that were stratified by region for COVID-19 morbidity, socioeconomic status of the region, and rural/urban environment. In regions of low COVID-19 morbidity, a higher share of adolescents, than in regions of high morbidity, declared washing their hands before meals (p = 0.0196), after meals (p = 0.0041), after preparing meals (p = 0.0297), before using the restroom (p = 0.0068), after using the restroom (p = 0.0014), after combing their hair (p = 0.0298), after handshaking (p = 0.0373), after touching animals (p = 0.0007), after contacting babies (p = 0.0278), after blowing nose (p = 0.0435), after touching sick people (p = 0.0351), and after cleaning home (p = 0.0234). For the assessed steps of the handwashing procedure, in regions of low COVID-19 morbidity, a higher share of adolescents included them to their daily handwashing, than in regions of high morbidity, that was stated for removing watch and bracelets (p = 0.0052), removing rings (p = 0.0318), and drying hands with towel (p = 0.0031). For the comparison in regions stratified by Gross Domestic Product, the differences were only minor and inconsistent. For the comparison in place of residence stratified by number of residents in city, there were some minor differences indicating better hand hygiene behaviors in the case of villages and small towns when compared with medium and large cities (p < 0.05). It may be concluded that, in a population-based sample of Polish adolescents, individuals from regions of low COVID-19 morbidity presented more beneficial hand hygiene habits than those from regions of high COVID-19 morbidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection SARS-CoV Infections)
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Article
The Surface Protein Fructose-1, 6 Bisphosphate Aldolase of Klebsiella pneumoniae Serotype K1: Role of Interaction with Neutrophils
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121009 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 873
Abstract
Hypermucoviscosity phenotypic Klebsiella pneumoniae (HV-Kp) serotype K1 is the predominant pathogen of a pyogenic liver abscess, an emerging infectious disease that often complicates septic metastatic syndrome in diabetic patients with poor sugar control. HV-Kpisolates were more resistant to neutrophil [...] Read more.
Hypermucoviscosity phenotypic Klebsiella pneumoniae (HV-Kp) serotype K1 is the predominant pathogen of a pyogenic liver abscess, an emerging infectious disease that often complicates septic metastatic syndrome in diabetic patients with poor sugar control. HV-Kpisolates were more resistant to neutrophil phagocytosis than non-HV-Kpisolates because of different pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The protein expression of HV-Kp after interaction with neutrophils is unclear. We studied KP-M1 (HV phenotype; serotype K1), DT-X (an acapsularmutant strain of KP-M1), and E. coli (ATCC 25922) with the model of Kp-infected neutrophils, using a comparative proteomic approach. One the identified protein, namely fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA), was found to be distributed in the KP-M1 after infecting neutrophils. Cell fractionation experiments showed that FBA is localized both to the cytoplasm and the outer membrane. Flow cytometry demonstrated that outer membrane-localized FBA was surface-accessible to FBA-specific antibody. The fba gene expression was enhanced in high glucose concentrations, which leads to increasing bacterial resistance to neutrophils phagocytosis and killing. The KP-M1 after FBA inhibitors and FBA-specific antibody treatment showed a significant reduction in bacterial resistance to neutrophils phagocytosis and killing, respectively, compared to KP-M1 without treatment. FBA is a highly conserved surface-exposed protein that is required for optimal interaction of HV-Kp to neutrophils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Immunological Responses and Immune Defense Mechanism)
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Article
Evidence of Exposure to USUV and WNV in Zoo Animals in France
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1005; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121005 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1284
Abstract
West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are zoonotic arboviruses. These flaviviruses are mainly maintained in the environment through an enzootic cycle involving mosquitoes and birds. Horses and humans are incidental, dead-end hosts, but can develop severe neurological disorders. Nevertheless, there is [...] Read more.
West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are zoonotic arboviruses. These flaviviruses are mainly maintained in the environment through an enzootic cycle involving mosquitoes and birds. Horses and humans are incidental, dead-end hosts, but can develop severe neurological disorders. Nevertheless, there is little data regarding the involvement of other mammals in the epidemiology of these arboviruses. In this study, we performed a serosurvey to assess exposure to these viruses in captive birds and mammals in a zoo situated in the south of France, an area described for the circulation of these two viruses. A total of 411 samples comprising of 70 species were collected over 16 years from 2003 to 2019. The samples were first tested by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The positive sera were then tested using virus-specific microneutralization tests against USUV and WNV. USUV seroprevalence in birds was 10 times higher than that of WNV (14.59% versus 1.46%, respectively). Among birds, greater rhea (Rhea Americana) and common peafowl (Pavo cristatus) exhibited the highest USUV seroprevalence. Infections occurred mainly between 2016–2018 corresponding to a period of high circulation of these viruses in Europe. In mammalian species, antibodies against WNV were detected in one dama gazelle (Nanger dama) whereas serological evidence of USUV infection was observed in several Canidae, especially in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Our study helps to better understand the exposure of captive species to WNV and USUV and to identify potential host species to include in surveillance programs in zoos. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Usutu Virus Infection)
Article
Gut Symbiotic Microbial Communities in the IUCN Critically Endangered Pinna nobilis Suffering from Mass Mortalities, Revealed by 16S rRNA Amplicon NGS
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121002 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
Mass mortality events due to disease outbreaks have recently affected almost every healthy population of fan mussel, Pinna nobilis in Mediterranean Sea. The devastating mortality of the species has turned the interest of the research towards the causes of these events. After the [...] Read more.
Mass mortality events due to disease outbreaks have recently affected almost every healthy population of fan mussel, Pinna nobilis in Mediterranean Sea. The devastating mortality of the species has turned the interest of the research towards the causes of these events. After the haplosporidan infestation and the infection by Mycobacterium sp., new emerging pathogens have arisen based on the latest research. In the present study, a metagenomic approach of 16S rRNA next generation sequencing (NGS) was applied in order to assess the bacterial diversity within the digestive gland of diseased individuals as well as to carry out geographical correlations among the biodiversity of microbiome in the endangered species Pinna nobilis. The specimens originated from the mortalities occurred in 2019 in the region of Greece. Together with other bacterial genera, the results confirmed the presence of Vibrio spp., assuming synergistic effects in the mortality events of the species. Alongside with the presence of Vibrio spp., numerous bacterial genera were detected as well, including Aliivibrio spp., Photobacterium spp., Pseudoalteromonas spp., Psychrilyobacter spp. and Mycoplasma spp. Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma were in high abundance particularly in the sample originated from Limnos island representing the first time recorded in Pinna nobilis. In conclusion, apart from exclusively the Haplosporidan and the Mycobacterium parasites, the presence of potentially pathogenic bacterial taxa detected, such as Vibrio spp., Photobactrium spp. and Alivibrio spp. lead us to assume that mortality events in the endangered Fan mussel, Pinna nobilis, may be attributed to synergistic effects of more pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spontaneous Diseases of Mollusks)
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Article
A Paradox in Bacterial Pathogenesis: Activation of the Local Macrophage Inflammasome Is Required for Virulence of Streptococcus uberis
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9120997 - 28 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
Streptococcus uberis is a common cause of intramammary infection and mastitis in dairy cattle. Unlike other mammary pathogens, S. uberis evades detection by mammary epithelial cells, and the host–pathogen interactions during early colonisation are poorly understood. Intramammary challenge of dairy cows with S. [...] Read more.
Streptococcus uberis is a common cause of intramammary infection and mastitis in dairy cattle. Unlike other mammary pathogens, S. uberis evades detection by mammary epithelial cells, and the host–pathogen interactions during early colonisation are poorly understood. Intramammary challenge of dairy cows with S. uberis (strain 0140J) or isogenic mutants lacking the surface-anchored serine protease, SUB1154, demonstrated that virulence was dependent on the presence and correct location of this protein. Unlike the wild-type strain, the mutant lacking SUB1154 failed to elicit IL-1β from ex vivo CD14+ cells obtained from milk (bovine mammary macrophages, BMM), but this response was reinstated by complementation with recombinant SUB1154; the protein in isolation elicited no response. Production of IL-1β was ablated in the presence of various inhibitors, indicating dependency on internalisation and activation of NLRP3 and caspase-1, consistent with inflammasome activation. Similar transcriptomic changes were detected in ex vivo BMM in response to the wild-type or the SUB1154 deletion mutant, consistent with S. uberis priming BMM, enabling the SUB1154 protein to activate inflammasome maturation in a transcriptionally independent manner. These data can be reconciled in a novel model of pathogenesis in which, paradoxically, early colonisation is dependent on the innate response to the initial infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Mastitis in Dairy Ruminants)
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Article
Stability of African Swine Fever Virus in Soil and Options to Mitigate the Potential Transmission Risk
Pathogens 2020, 9(11), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110977 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2045
Abstract
Understanding African swine fever virus (ASFV) transmission is essential for strategies to minimize virus spread during an outbreak. ASFV can survive for extended time periods in animal products, carcasses, and the environment. While the ASFV genome was found in environments around infected farms, [...] Read more.
Understanding African swine fever virus (ASFV) transmission is essential for strategies to minimize virus spread during an outbreak. ASFV can survive for extended time periods in animal products, carcasses, and the environment. While the ASFV genome was found in environments around infected farms, data on the virus survival in soil are scarce. We investigated different soil matrices spiked with ASFV-positive blood from infected wild boar to see if ASFV can remain infectious in the soil beneath infected carcasses. As expected, ASFV genome detection was possible over the entire sampling period. Soil pH, structure, and ambient temperature played a role in the stability of infectious ASFV. Infectious ASFV was demonstrated in specimens originating from sterile sand for at least three weeks, from beach sand for up to two weeks, from yard soil for one week, and from swamp soil for three days. The virus was not recovered from two acidic forest soils. All risk mitigation experiments with citric acid or calcium hydroxide resulted in complete inactivation. In conclusion, the stability of infectious ASFV is very low in acidic forest soils but rather high in sandy soils. However, given the high variability, treatment of carcass collection points with disinfectants should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue African Swine Fever Virus Infection)
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