Special Issue "Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 46083

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Evelyn Parr
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Exercise and Nutrition Research Program, Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, 215 Spring Street, Victoria 3000, Australia
Interests: time-restricted eating; type 2 diabetes; obesity; body composition; glycaemic control
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The COVID-19 pandemic began to take effect in early 2020 and caused many shifts in how we undertake our regular routines. The consequences were widespread; for example, workplaces shifted to working from home, universities pivoted to online learning, and children were schooled from home. The effects that the pandemic has had, and will continue to have, are embedded in our everyday lives in terms of our access to food, our choices of what and when to eat, and how we are able to keep physically active—especially when under stay-at-home restrictions. It is of interest to understand how such lifestyle changes may have modified our dietary intake and physical activity, as well as the evolving changes affecting other measures of physical and mental health. As COVID-19 has affected all regions of the world, in very different ways, we welcome submissions illustrating both positive and negative alterations to nutrition and exercise from around the globe. The purpose of this Special Issue is, therefore, to collect contributions regarding the effects that the COVID-19 pandemic has had, and is continuing to have, on the relationship between nutrition and exercise/physical activity.

We welcome the submission of original research articles, short communications and reviews.

Dr. Evelyn Parr
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Nutrition
  • Dietary intake
  • Eating patterns
  • Nutrition timing
  • Physical activity
  • Exercise
  • Sedentary behaviour

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Article
Interaction between Lifestyle Changes and PNPLA3 Genotype in NAFLD Patients during the COVID-19 Lockdown
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030556 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 963
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown dramatically changed people’s lifestyles. Diet, physical activity, and the PNPLA3 gene are known risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim: To evaluate changes in metabolic and hepatic disease in NAFLD patients after the COVID-19 lockdown. [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown dramatically changed people’s lifestyles. Diet, physical activity, and the PNPLA3 gene are known risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim: To evaluate changes in metabolic and hepatic disease in NAFLD patients after the COVID-19 lockdown. Three hundred and fifty seven NAFLD patients were enrolled, all previously instructed to follow a Mediterranean diet (MD). Anthropometric, metabolic, and laboratory data were collected before the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy and 6 months apart, along with ultrasound (US) steatosis grading and information about adherence to MD and physical activity (PA). In 188 patients, PNPLA3 genotyping was performed. After the lockdown, 48% of patients gained weight, while 16% had a worsened steatosis grade. Weight gain was associated with poor adherence to MD (p = 0.005), reduced PA (p = 0.03), and increased prevalence of PNPLA3 GG (p = 0.04). At multivariate analysis (corrected for age, sex, MD, PA, and PNPLA3 GG), only PNPLA3 remained independently associated with weight gain (p = 0.04), which was also associated with worsened glycemia (p = 0.002) and transaminases (p = 0.02). During lockdown, due to a dramatic change in lifestyles, half of our cohort of NAFLD patients gained weight, with a worsening of metabolic and hepatologic features. Interestingly, the PNPLA3 GG genotype nullified the effect of lifestyle and emerged as an independent risk factor for weight gain, opening new perspectives in NAFLD patient care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
Article
Life before and after COVID-19: The ‘New Normal’ Benefits the Regularity of Daily Sleep and Eating Routines among College Students
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020351 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1297
Abstract
After the COVID-19 lockdown, a ‘new normal’ was established, involving a hybrid lifestyle that combined face-to-face with virtual activity. We investigated, in a case-control study, the impact of the ‘new normal’ on daily sleep and eating routines, compared with pre-pandemic conditions. To do [...] Read more.
After the COVID-19 lockdown, a ‘new normal’ was established, involving a hybrid lifestyle that combined face-to-face with virtual activity. We investigated, in a case-control study, the impact of the ‘new normal’ on daily sleep and eating routines, compared with pre-pandemic conditions. To do this, we propose using social and eating jet lag as markers of the regularity in daily routines. Additionally, we studied whether the ‘new normal’ had an impact on the body mass index (BMI), diet quality, and other health-related variables. This study included 71 subjects in the pre-pandemic group, and 68 in the ‘new normal’ group (20–30 years). For all participants, we evaluated social and eating jet lag, BMI, diet and sleep quality, eating behaviors, physical activity, and well-being. General linear models were used to compare outcome variables between pre-pandemic and ‘new normal’ groups. The results revealed that the ‘new normal’ was associated with greater regularity in daily sleep and eating routines (−0.7 h of social jet lag (95% CI: −1.0, −0.4), and −0.3 h of eating jet lag (95% CI: −0.5, −0.1)), longer sleep duration on weekdays (1.8 h (95% CI: 1.5, 2.2)), and lower sleep debt (−1.3 h (95% CI: −1.7, −0.9)). Regarding BMI and other health-related variables, we observed that these variables were similar between ‘new normal’ and pre-pandemic groups. These findings indicate that the ‘new normal’ had a positive impact on daily sleep and eating routines. Additionally, our results indicated that the ‘new normal’ offered college students a more sustainable lifestyle, which was associated with more hours of sleep during the week and lower sleep debt. This, in the long run, could have a positive impact on BMI and overall health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
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Article
Changes in Eating Habits and Physical Activity after COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdowns in Italy
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4522; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124522 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
The introduction of lockdowns and other containment measures during the COVID-19 pandemic substantially altered people’s lifestyle and dietary behavior. Several studies evaluated the short-term effects of these measures; yet reports on long-term consequences are scarce. We sought to address this gap in the [...] Read more.
The introduction of lockdowns and other containment measures during the COVID-19 pandemic substantially altered people’s lifestyle and dietary behavior. Several studies evaluated the short-term effects of these measures; yet reports on long-term consequences are scarce. We sought to address this gap in the literature by analyzing dietary and lifestyle data collected at an obesity center in Rome, Italy. The Italian region of Lazio was hit hard by the pandemic. To evaluate the potential health impacts, we compared the pre- and post-lockdown data of 118 individuals. Contrary to the common belief that lockdown had adverse effects solely on people’s dietary habits, we observed a significantly increased consumption of raw vegetables, whole grains, and water in our study sample. Favorable effects, however, were also accompanied by adverse trends, such as a higher prevalence of sleeping difficulties. Our data emphasize that the lockdowns associated with the pandemic also influenced participants’ social behavior, with less individuals reporting eating out or in company. Our study highlights the substantial impact of lockdowns on many dimensions of life. As such, it is of utmost importance in the critical evaluation of such stringent containment measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
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Article
Perceived Diet Quality, Eating Behaviour, and Lifestyle Changes in a Mexican Population with Internet Access during Confinement for the COVID-19 Pandemic: ESCAN-COVID19Mx Survey
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4256; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124256 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1867
Abstract
Perceived changes in diet quality, emotional eating, physical activity, and lifestyle were evaluated in a group of Mexican adults before and during COVID-19 confinement. In this study, 8289 adults answered an online questionnaire between April and May 2020. Data about sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported [...] Read more.
Perceived changes in diet quality, emotional eating, physical activity, and lifestyle were evaluated in a group of Mexican adults before and during COVID-19 confinement. In this study, 8289 adults answered an online questionnaire between April and May 2020. Data about sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported weight and height, diet quality, emotional eating, physical activity, and lifestyle changes were collected. Before and after confinement, differences by sociodemographic characteristics were assessed with Wilcoxon, Anova, and linear regression analyses. Most participants were women (80%) between 18 and 38 years old (70%), with a low degree of marginalisation (82.8%) and a high educational level (84.2%); 53.1% had a normal weight and 31.4% were overweight. Half (46.8%) of the participants perceived a change in the quality of their diet. The Diet Quality Index (DQI) was higher during confinement (it improved by 3 points) in all groups, regardless of education level, marginalisation level, or place of residence (p < 0.001). Lifestyle changes were present among some of the participants, 6.1% stopped smoking, 12.1% stopped consuming alcohol, 53.3% sleep later, 9% became more sedentary, and increased their screen (43%) as well as sitting and lying down time (81.6%). Mexicans with Internet access staying at home during COVID-19 confinement perceived positive changes in the quality of their diet, smoking, and alcohol consumption, but negative changes in the level of physical activity and sleep quality. These results emphasise the relevance of encouraging healthy lifestyle behaviours during and after times of crisis to prevent the risk of complications due to infectious and chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
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Article
The Impact of COVID-19 on Eating Environments and Activity in Early Childhood Education and Care in Alberta, Canada: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4247; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124247 - 26 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) environments influence children’s early development and habits that track across a lifespan. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of COVID-19 government-mandated guidelines on physical activity (PA) and eating environments in ECEC settings. This [...] Read more.
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) environments influence children’s early development and habits that track across a lifespan. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of COVID-19 government-mandated guidelines on physical activity (PA) and eating environments in ECEC settings. This cross-sectional study involved the recruitment of 19 ECEC centers pre-COVID (2019) and 15 ECEC centers during COVID (2020) in Alberta, Canada (n = 34 ECEC centers; n = 83 educators; n = 361 preschoolers). Educators completed the CHEERS (Creating Healthy Eating and activity Environments Survey) and MEQ (Mindful Eating Questionnaire) self-audit tools while GT3X+ ActiGraph accelerometers measured preschooler PA. The CHEERS healthy eating environment subscale was greater during COVID-19 (5.97 ± 0.52; 5.80 ± 0.62; p = 0.02) and the overall score positively correlated with the MEQ score (r = 0.20; p = 0.002). Preschoolers exhibited greater hourly step counts (800 ± 189; 649 ± 185), moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (9.3 ± 3.0 min/h; 7.9 ± 3.2 min/h) and lower sedentary times (42.4 ± 3.9 min/h; 44.1 ± 4.9 min/h) during COVID-19 compared to pre-COVID, respectively (p < 0.05). These findings suggest the eating environment and indices of child physical activity were better in 2020, which could possibly be attributed to a change in government-mandated COVID-19 guideline policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
Article
Differences in Multi-Faceted Lifestyles in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic and Their Association with Depression and Quality of Life of Older Adults in South Korea: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4124; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114124 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
Background: The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic on 11 March 2020, due to the number of newly reported confirmed cases and the rapid increase in deaths. Therefore, countries around the world limited their population to policies such as “social distancing” [...] Read more.
Background: The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic on 11 March 2020, due to the number of newly reported confirmed cases and the rapid increase in deaths. Therefore, countries around the world limited their population to policies such as “social distancing” or “staying at home” to prevent the spread of the virus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in lifestyle pre and post the outbreak COVID-19 among older adults in South Korea and to identify the impact of lifestyle differences on depression and quality of life. Methods: An online single questionnaire covering sociodemographic data, lifestyle details, depression status, and quality of life level was distributed using mailing lists and social media. To assess lifestyles differences in older people pre and post the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, the online single questionnaire was used post COVID-19 pandemic. Based on the participants’ memories, they responded lifestyles at two time points (pre and post COVID-19 pandemic). Results: The results showed that there was a significant decrease in physical activity and activity participation during the pandemic. In terms of nutrition, there was no statistically significant change pre and post the outbreak COVID-19, except for the intake of protein, fat, and vitamins. Additionally, the results showed that the resulting lifestyle differences seem to have had a negative impact on depression and quality of life among older adults in South Korea. Conclusion: There was a significant difference the lifestyle patterns among the participants in South Korea between the current period and pre COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, it is observed that these differenced lifestyles were associated with depression and quality of life among the participants. Our findings may help to develop public health programs that support healthy lifestyles in pandemic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
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Article
Assessment of Spanish Food Consumption Patterns during COVID-19 Home Confinement
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4122; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114122 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1093
Abstract
People’s eating habits and lifestyle can have a negative impact on health. In situations of difficulty or socioeconomic crisis, these habits tend to be modified, leading to unhealthy dietary patterns that result in an increase of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Previous studies have [...] Read more.
People’s eating habits and lifestyle can have a negative impact on health. In situations of difficulty or socioeconomic crisis, these habits tend to be modified, leading to unhealthy dietary patterns that result in an increase of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Previous studies have indicated that, due to the state of alarm imposed in Spain to combat the spread of COVID-19, an increase in the purchase of non-core products occurred, along with a decrease in the daily physical activity of the population. This could be a risk factor for COVID-19 infection. The objective of this observational study was to analyze the dietary pattern of the Spanish population during home confinement and to compare it with the pattern of habitual consumption collected in the last National Health Survey, analyzing the possible changes. More than half of the respondents in the sample increased their consumption of sweets and snacks during confinement, while the consumption of fresh products decreased. Most claimed to be emotionally hungry, leading to an increase in their daily energy intake. The stress and anxiety generated by confinement could be the cause of the increased consumption of products rich in sugars and saturated fats, which are associated with greater stress and anxiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
Article
Who We Seek and What We Eat? Sources of Food Choice Inspirations and Their Associations with Adult Dietary Patterns before and during the COVID-19 Lockdown in New Zealand
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3917; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113917 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1921
Abstract
Research shows the shaping of food choices often occurs at home, with the family widely recognised as significant in food decisions. However, in this digital age, our eating habits and decision-making processes are also determined by smartphone apps, celebrity chefs, and social media. [...] Read more.
Research shows the shaping of food choices often occurs at home, with the family widely recognised as significant in food decisions. However, in this digital age, our eating habits and decision-making processes are also determined by smartphone apps, celebrity chefs, and social media. The ‘COVID Kai Survey’ online questionnaire assessed cooking and shopping behaviours among New Zealanders during the 2020 COVID-19 ‘lockdown’ using a cross-sectional study design. This paper examines how sources of food choice inspirations (cooking-related advice and the reasons for recipe selection) are related to dietary patterns before and during the lockdown. Of the 2977 participants, those influenced by nutrition and health experts (50.9% before; 53.9% during the lockdown) scored higher for the healthy dietary pattern. Participants influenced by family and friends (35% before; 29% during the lockdown) had significantly higher scores for the healthy and the meat dietary patterns, whereas participants influenced by celebrity cooks (3.8% before; 5.2% during the lockdown) had significantly higher scores in the meat dietary pattern. There was no evidence that associations differed before and during the lockdown. The lockdown was related to modified food choice inspiration sources, notably an increase in ‘comforting’ recipes as a reason for recipe selection (75.8%), associated with higher scoring in the unhealthy dietary pattern during the lockdown. The lockdown in New Zealand saw an average decrease in nutritional quality of diets in the ‘COVID Kai Survey’, which could be partly explained by changes in food choice inspiration sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
Article
Factors Influencing Changes in Food Preparation during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Associations with Food Intake among Japanese Adults
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3864; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113864 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate factors associated with changes in food-preparation practices during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Japan and its associations to food-group intake. To examine this, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted in July 2020. [...] Read more.
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate factors associated with changes in food-preparation practices during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Japan and its associations to food-group intake. To examine this, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted in July 2020. Participants were 2285 adults aged 20–69 years who resided in any of 13 prefectures in Japan where specific COVID-19 regulations had been implemented. Self-reported changes in food-preparation practices when compared to the pre-COVID-19 pandemic period were measured as “increased” (24.6%), “decreased” (7.3%), and “no change” (68.1%), respectively. Stepwise logistic regression analyses indicated that participants who increased the time and effort for food preparation were younger in age, partially working remotely, experiencing reduced household income due to COVID-19, but highly concerned the importance of diet. On the other hand, participants whose household income decreased, and household economic status worsened, as well as those whose importance of diet deteriorated due to COVID-19 were more likely to decrease time and effort for cooking. Although the increased group were more likely to prepare meals with raw ingredients, the decreased group showed higher frequency of using takeout. These results indicated major determinants of changes in time spending on food preparation in consequence of COVID-19, and highlighted essential targets for future nutrition education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
Article
Is Physical Activity Protective against Emotional Eating Associated Factors during the COVID-19 Pandemic? A Cross-Sectional Study among Physically Active and Inactive Adults
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3861; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113861 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
Physical activity levels during the COVID-19 pandemic have been decreasing and this may be a risk factor for development of emotional eating and its associated factors. The aim of the study was to analyze the factors associated with emotional eating among individuals with [...] Read more.
Physical activity levels during the COVID-19 pandemic have been decreasing and this may be a risk factor for development of emotional eating and its associated factors. The aim of the study was to analyze the factors associated with emotional eating among individuals with different physical activity levels during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data relating to the pandemic on physical activity, emotional eating, sociodemographic data, perceptions about lifestyle habits, body satisfaction, and perceptions about eating habits and food consumption were collected. Factors associated with emotional eating in the group of active and inactive individuals were observed using multiple linear regression controlled for age, sex, BMI, and monthly income. Emotional eating for the active group was associated with perceived stress, body dissatisfaction, and increased consumption of sweets and desserts. In addition to these factors found among the active group, working or studying >8 h/day, sleep worsening, increased amount of food consumed, increased purchase of food through delivery, and increased vegetable consumption were also associated with emotional eating for the inactive group. These findings suggest a potential protective role of physical activity in the appearance of factors associated with emotional eating during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
Article
Trajectories and Determinants of Physical Activity during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Population-Based Study of Middle-Aged and Elderly Individuals in The Netherlands
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3832; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113832 - 27 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1354
Abstract
Physical inactivity is a major public health problem, and there are concerns this might have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to identify distinct trajectories of physical activity over a 6-week period after the first restrictive measures and to explore determinants of [...] Read more.
Physical inactivity is a major public health problem, and there are concerns this might have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to identify distinct trajectories of physical activity over a 6-week period after the first restrictive measures and to explore determinants of these trajectories in a population-based cohort of middle-aged and elderly in the Netherlands (n = 5777). We observed that at least 59% of participants did not meet the World Health Organization recommendations for physical activity. Using latent class trajectory analyses over three time points, we identified five distinct trajectories, including four steady trajectories at different levels (very low, low, medium and high) and one increasing trajectory. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we observed that, compared to the ‘steadily high’ trajectory, participants in the ‘steadily very low’ trajectory were more often older, lower educated, reporting poorer physical health, more depressive symptoms, consuming a less healthy diet, smoking, and lower alcohol use, and were less often retired. A similar pattern of determinants was seen for those in the increasing trajectory, albeit with smaller effect sizes. Concluding, we observed low levels of physical activity that generally remained during the pandemic. The determinants we described can help identify groups that require additional preventive interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
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Article
Association of Lifestyle Changes Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic with Nutrient Intake and Physical Activity Levels during Pregnancy in Japan
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3799; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113799 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 917
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has introduced changes in our lifestyles, such as refraining from unnecessary outings. This study aimed to clarify the association of lifestyle changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic with nutrient intake and physical activity levels during pregnancy in [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has introduced changes in our lifestyles, such as refraining from unnecessary outings. This study aimed to clarify the association of lifestyle changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic with nutrient intake and physical activity levels during pregnancy in Japan. A cross-sectional study involving 168 healthy pregnant Japanese women was conducted in 2020. Nutrient intake and physical activity levels were assessed using validated self-administered questionnaires. Participants who reported experiencing changes in both dietary habits and physical activity due to the COVID-19 pandemic were classified as the lifestyle-affected group. Analysis of covariance was used. Among primiparas, intake of the following nutrients was significantly higher in the lifestyle-affected group (n = 14) than in the unaffected group (n = 77): protein, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and vitamin B6. Among multiparas, the intake of dietary fiber and β-carotene were significantly lower in the lifestyle-affected group (n = 13) than in the unaffected group (n = 64). No significant differences in physical activity levels were observed in accordance with the lifestyle changes. These findings suggest that lifestyle changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic have positive effects on nutrient intake during pregnancy in primiparas, whereas in multiparas, these changes have negative effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
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Article
Adjustments in Food Choices and Physical Activity during Lockdown by Flemish Adults
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3794; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113794 - 26 Oct 2021
Viewed by 809
Abstract
Background: On Wednesday 18/03/2020 Belgium was placed in lockdown in order to curb the spread of COVID-19. Lockdown can lead to loneliness, boredom, anger, anxiety and depression, which in turn have an influence on food choices and physical activity (PA). This study aims [...] Read more.
Background: On Wednesday 18/03/2020 Belgium was placed in lockdown in order to curb the spread of COVID-19. Lockdown can lead to loneliness, boredom, anger, anxiety and depression, which in turn have an influence on food choices and physical activity (PA). This study aims to map the adjustments in food choices and PA by Flemish adults during lockdown. Methods: Chi square tests were performed to investigate the relationship between adjustments in food choices, PA and demographic variables. Results: A total of 1.129 respondents filled in the online questionnaire, aged between 18 and 81 years. The healthiest food choices were made by respondents living alone during lockdown, whilst people cohabiting with others increased their PA significantly. Moreover, the dietary adjustments of adults living with children evolved more favourably to healthier choices then those cohousing with other adults. However, respondents living with other adults showed a more favourable pattern regarding adjustments in PA. The strongest increase in sedentary behaviour was observed in students. Conclusions: This study shows the impact of lockdown on both PA and food choices, where healthier adjustments were observed in PA and respondents were prone to consume unhealthier food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
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Article
The Outcome of COVID-19 Lockdown on Changes in Body Mass Index and Lifestyle among Croatian Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3788; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113788 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic altered adults’ and children’s lifestyles and habits, causing an increase in body weight. Adolescents are sensitive to habit changes and, because of their insufficient capacity to deal with the unexpected COVID-19 changes, were at greater risk of noncommunicable disease [...] Read more.
Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic altered adults’ and children’s lifestyles and habits, causing an increase in body weight. Adolescents are sensitive to habit changes and, because of their insufficient capacity to deal with the unexpected COVID-19 changes, were at greater risk of noncommunicable disease development due to the consequences of adopting unhealthy habits. The survey aimed to reveal the changes in nutritional status and lifestyle habits of school children in Croatia and to assess their nutrition knowledge and emotional state and feelings about COVID-19 lockdown. Self-reported data from 1370 school children aged 10 to 15 years were obtained to examine the influence of the lockdown on their nutritional status, lifestyle and emotional status, and to assess their nutrition knowledge. The study revealed that the COVID-19 lockdown has caused an increase in the proportion of overweight and obesity among Croatian school children who changed their lifestyle habits towards being less physically active, spending more time using screen-based media and revealing potential psychological distress. However, the schoolchildren had a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents KIDMED index and had good nutrition knowledge. Public health programs promoting a healthy lifestyle and involving the whole family, in a school environment, could provide children with a healthy adulthood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
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Article
Binge Watching during COVID-19: Associations with Stress and Body Weight
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3418; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103418 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
Binge watching is becoming increasingly common and may impact energy balance and body weight. The COVID-19 pandemic has created conditions conducive to binge watching and increased stress. We investigated relationships between COVID-related stress and binge watching behaviors, and potential variation in this relationship [...] Read more.
Binge watching is becoming increasingly common and may impact energy balance and body weight. The COVID-19 pandemic has created conditions conducive to binge watching and increased stress. We investigated relationships between COVID-related stress and binge watching behaviors, and potential variation in this relationship by body weight. Adults (n = 466) completed a cross-sectional online survey assessing binge watching behaviors during and before the pandemic, COVID-related stress, and body weight. Participants reported an increase in binge watching frequency from before to during the pandemic (F1,401 = 99.970, p < 0.001), with rates of high binge watching (“3–4 times per week” to “3 or more times per day”) increasing from 14.6% to 33.0%. Binge watching episode duration increased from 3.26 ± 1.89 h to 3.92 ± 2.08 h (p < 0.001). The increase in binge watching frequency was greatest in individuals with obesity and high stress (F 4,401 = 4.098, p = 0.003). Participants reporting high stress reported higher frequency of eating while binge watching, as well as higher levels of negative emotional triggers, consequences to binge watching, and lack of control over binge watching (all p < 0.001). Our results show that binge watching increased during the pandemic, with greater increases among individuals reporting higher COVID-related stress, especially those with obesity, and concomitant effects on eating, and highlight a need for interventions to minimize the obesogenic impact of binge watching during the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
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Single and Combinative Impacts of Healthy Eating Behavior and Physical Activity on COVID-19-like Symptoms among Outpatients: A Multi-Hospital and Health Center Survey
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3258; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093258 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 8417
Abstract
Background: Healthy eating and physical activity are effective non-pharmacological approaches to boost immune function and contain the pandemic. We aimed to explore the associations and interactions between physical activity and healthy eating behavior with COVID-19-like symptoms (Slike-CV19S). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted [...] Read more.
Background: Healthy eating and physical activity are effective non-pharmacological approaches to boost immune function and contain the pandemic. We aimed to explore the associations and interactions between physical activity and healthy eating behavior with COVID-19-like symptoms (Slike-CV19S). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3947 outpatients, from 14 February to 2 March 2020, at nine health facilities in Vietnam. Data collection included sociodemographic characteristics, healthy eating behavior (using the healthy eating score (HES) questionnaire), physical activity (using the short form international physical activity questionnaire), and Slike-CV19S. The associations and interactions were tested using logistic regression models. Results: Frequent intake of fruits (OR = 0.84; p = 0.016), vegetables (OR = 0.72; p = 0.036), and fish (OR = 0.43; p < 0.001) were associated with a lower Slike-CV19S likelihood, as compared with infrequent intake. Patients with higher HES levels (OR = 0.84; p = 0.033 for medium HES; OR = 0.77; p = 0.006 for high HES) or being physically active (OR = 0.69; p < 0.001) had a lower Slike-CV19S likelihood, as compared to those with low HES or physical inactivity, respectively. Patients with medium HES who were physically active (OR = 0.69; p = 0.005), or with high HES and physically active (OR = 0.58; p < 0.001), had a lower Slike-CV19S likelihood, as compared to those with low HES and physical inactivity. Conclusions: Healthy eating behavior and physical activity showed single and combinative impacts on protecting people from Slike-CV19S. Strategic approaches are encouraged to improve healthy behaviors, which may further contribute to containing the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
Article
Children’s Eating Habits, Physical Activity, Sleep, and Media Usage before and during COVID-19 Pandemic in Poland
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2447; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072447 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3732
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused huge changes in people’s lifestyle, health, and social relationships. This situation has had an impact on children and adolescents, affecting their health, intellectual, physical, and emotional development. The survey aimed to compare eating behaviors, level of physical activity [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused huge changes in people’s lifestyle, health, and social relationships. This situation has had an impact on children and adolescents, affecting their health, intellectual, physical, and emotional development. The survey aimed to compare eating behaviors, level of physical activity (PA), hours of sleep, and screen time among Polish children and adolescents aged 6–15 years before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We obtained self-reported data from 1016 participants at two measurement points before and during the COVID-19 lockdown in Poland to examine the influence of the lockdown and the distance learning on PA, dietary habits, sleep, and media usage of children and adolescents aged 6–15 years. The study identified dietary differences and changes in daily activity patterns (reduced sleep duration with higher sleep quality and reduced physical activity). Additionally, the increase in general media usage was observed during the pandemic alongside a reduction in smartphone usage. Together, the findings indicate increased sleep, physical activity, and reduced media usage and screen time among Polish children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
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Article
Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown on Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors in Kuwait: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2252; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072252 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2620
Abstract
The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has brought about drastic measures that have significantly altered the norms of daily living. These measures have affected human behaviors in disparate ways. This study seeks to understand the impact of the pandemic on physical activity and dietary [...] Read more.
The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has brought about drastic measures that have significantly altered the norms of daily living. These measures have affected human behaviors in disparate ways. This study seeks to understand the impact of the pandemic on physical activity and dietary behavior among adults living in Kuwait. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 18 June and 15 July 2020, using a questionnaire disseminated through social media, including WhatsApp and Facebook. The target population was individuals aged 21 years or older living in the State of Kuwait. The study included 679 respondents; 57.9% were females, and 67.7% were Kuwaiti nationals. Both genders reported an increased consumption of vegetables, fruits, and carbohydrates, and a decreased consumption of fish and sugary drinks. Compared to males, females reported eating more during the outbreak than their pre-pandemic eating behaviors (32.3% vs. 35.9%, p < 0.05). Approximately one-third of respondents (33.1%) reported performing less than 30 min of physical activity or exercise in a week, and 36.4% of respondents rated their quality of sleep as ‘poor’ or ‘very poor’. The rate of smoking cigarettes among males was significantly higher than in females (40.6% vs. 5.3%, p < 0.001). Physical activity was positively correlated with vegetable consumption and quality of sleep. Quality of sleep was negatively correlated with the consumption of sweets and snacks, just as the consumption of vegetables was negatively correlated with the consumption of sugary drinks. The overall negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Kuwait necessitates the development of health promotion interventions to support positive physical activity and dietary behaviors using alternative coping strategies among the residents of Kuwait. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Effectiveness of Curcumin on Outcomes of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020256 - 07 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6752
Abstract
Despite the ongoing vaccination efforts, there is still an urgent need for safe and effective treatments to help curb the debilitating effects of COVID-19 disease. This systematic review aimed to investigate the efficacy of supplemental curcumin treatment on clinical outcomes and inflammation-related biomarker [...] Read more.
Despite the ongoing vaccination efforts, there is still an urgent need for safe and effective treatments to help curb the debilitating effects of COVID-19 disease. This systematic review aimed to investigate the efficacy of supplemental curcumin treatment on clinical outcomes and inflammation-related biomarker profiles in COVID-19 patients. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, ProQuest, and Ovid databases up to 30 June 2021 to find studies that assessed the effects of curcumin-related compounds in mild to severe COVID-19 patients. Six studies were identified which showed that curcumin supplementation led to a significant decrease in common symptoms, duration of hospitalization and deaths. In addition, all of these studies showed that the intervention led to amelioration of cytokine storm effects thought to be a driving force in severe COVID-19 cases. This was seen as a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in proinflammatory cytokines such as IL1β and IL6, with a concomitant significant (p < 0.05) increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-10, IL-35 and TGF-α. Taken together, these findings suggested that curcumin exerts its beneficial effects through at least partial restoration of pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. In conclusion, curcumin supplementation may offer an efficacious and safe option for improving COVID-19 disease outcomes. We highlight the point that future clinical studies of COVID-19 disease should employ larger cohorts of patients in different clinical settings with standardized preparations of curcumin-related compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
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Review
Recovery Focused Nutritional Therapy across the Continuum of Care: Learning from COVID-19
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3293; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093293 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2820
Abstract
Targeted nutritional therapy should be started early in severe illness and sustained through to recovery if clinical and patient-centred outcomes are to be optimised. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has shone a light on this need. The literature on nutrition and COVID-19 [...] Read more.
Targeted nutritional therapy should be started early in severe illness and sustained through to recovery if clinical and patient-centred outcomes are to be optimised. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has shone a light on this need. The literature on nutrition and COVID-19 mainly focuses on the importance of nutrition to preserve life and prevent clinical deterioration during the acute phase of illness. However, there is a lack of information guiding practice across the whole patient journey (e.g., hospital to home) with a focus on targeting recovery (e.g., long COVID). This review paper is of relevance to doctors and other healthcare professionals in acute care and primary care worldwide, since it addresses early, multi-modal individualised nutrition interventions across the continuum of care to improve COVID-19 patient outcomes. It is of relevance to nutrition experts and non-nutrition experts and can be used to promote inter-professional and inter-organisational knowledge transfer on the topic. The primary goal is to prevent complications and support recovery to enable COVID-19 patients to achieve the best possible nutritional, physical, functional and mental health status and to apply the learning to date from the COVID-19 pandemic to other patient groups experiencing acute severe illness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition in COVID-19)
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