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Special Issue "Nutrition, Microbiota and Noncommunicable Diseases"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Julio Plaza-Díaz

Univ Granada, Biomed Res Ctr, Inst Nutr & Food Technol Jose Mataix, Granada 18016, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: gut microbiota; probiotics, noncommunicable diseases; nutrition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Health is defined as “the state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease”, and surprisingly, the words “microbes” or “microorganism” are missing in this definition. The regulation of gut microbiota is mediated by an enormous quantity of aspects, such as, microbiological factors, host characteristics, diet patterns and environmental variables. Some protective, structural and metabolic functions are reported for gut microbiota, and these functions are related to the regulation of homeostasis and host health. Host defence against pathogens is, in part, mediated through gut microbiota action and requires intimate interpretation of the current microenvironment and discrimination between commensal and occasional bacteria.

Prof. Dr. Julio Plaza-Díaz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Microbiota or microbiome
  • Nutrition
  • Noncommunicable diseases
  • Diet
  • Probiotics
  • Prebiotics
  • Intestinal microbiota
  • Health

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Lactobacillus reuteri V3401 Reduces Inflammatory Biomarkers and Modifies the Gastrointestinal Microbiome in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: The PROSIR Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1761; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081761
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 29 July 2019 / Published: 31 July 2019
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Abstract
Previous studies have reported that probiotics may improve clinical and inflammatory parameters in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Lactobacillus (L.) reuteri V3401 has shown promising results on the components of MetS in animal studies. We aimed to evaluate the effects of [...] Read more.
Previous studies have reported that probiotics may improve clinical and inflammatory parameters in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Lactobacillus (L.) reuteri V3401 has shown promising results on the components of MetS in animal studies. We aimed to evaluate the effects of L. reuteri V3401 together with healthy lifestyle recommendations on adult patients with MetS. Methods: We carried out a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-center trial in which we included 53 adult patients newly diagnosed with MetS. Patients were block randomly allocated by body mass index (BMI) and sex to receive a capsule containing either the probiotic L. reuteri V3401 (5 × 109 colony-forming units) or a placebo once daily for 12 weeks. Anthropometric variables, biochemical and inflammatory biomarkers, as well as the gastrointestinal microbiome composition were determined. Results: There were no differences between groups in the clinical characteristics of MetS. However, we found that interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) diminished by effect of the treatment with L. reuteri V3401. Analysis of the gastrointestinal microbiome revealed a rise in the proportion of Verrucomicrobia. Conclusions: Consumption of L. reuteri V3401 improved selected inflammatory parameters and modified the gastrointestinal microbiome. Further studies are needed to ascertain additional beneficial effects of other probiotic strains in MetS as well as the mechanisms by which such effects are exerted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Microbiota and Noncommunicable Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Probiotic Ingestion, Obesity, and Metabolic-Related Disorders: Results from NHANES, 1999–2014
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071482
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
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Abstract
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been recognized as having key importance in obesity- and metabolic-related diseases. Although there is increasing evidence of the potential benefits induced by probiotics in metabolic disturbances, there is a lack of large cross-sectional studies to assess population-based prevalence of [...] Read more.
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been recognized as having key importance in obesity- and metabolic-related diseases. Although there is increasing evidence of the potential benefits induced by probiotics in metabolic disturbances, there is a lack of large cross-sectional studies to assess population-based prevalence of probiotic intake and metabolic diseases. Our aim was to evaluate the association of probiotic ingestion with obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. A cross-sectional study was designed using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2014. Probiotic ingestion was considered when a subject reported consumption of yogurt or a probiotic supplement during the 24-h dietary recall or during the Dietary Supplement Use 30-Day questionnaire. We included 38,802 adults and 13.1% reported probiotic ingestion. The prevalence of obesity and hypertension was lower in the probiotic group (obesity-adjusted Odds Ratio (OR): 0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.92, p < 0.001; hypertension-adjusted OR: 0.79, 95% CI 0.71–0.88, p < 0.001). Accordingly, even after analytic adjustments, body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower in the probiotic group, as were systolic and diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly higher in the probiotic group for the adjusted model. In this large-scale study, ingestion of probiotic supplements or yogurt was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Microbiota and Noncommunicable Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Aerobic Exercise Training with Brisk Walking Increases Intestinal Bacteroides in Healthy Elderly Women
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040868
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1678 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study examined the effect of an exercise intervention on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in healthy elderly women. Thirty-two sedentary women that were aged 65 years and older participated in a 12-week, non-randomized comparative trial. The subjects were allocated to two [...] Read more.
This study examined the effect of an exercise intervention on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in healthy elderly women. Thirty-two sedentary women that were aged 65 years and older participated in a 12-week, non-randomized comparative trial. The subjects were allocated to two groups receiving different exercise interventions, trunk muscle training (TM), or aerobic exercise training (AE). AE included brisk walking, i.e., at an intensity of ≥ 3 metabolic equivalents (METs). The composition of the intestinal microbiota in fecal samples was determined before and after the training period. We also assessed the daily physical activity using an accelerometer, trunk muscle strength by the modified Kraus–Weber (K-W) test, and cardiorespiratory fitness by a 6-min. walk test (6MWT). K-W test scores and distance achieved during the 6MWT (6MWD) improved in both groups. The relative abundance of intestinal Bacteroides only significantly increased in the AE group, particularly in subjects showing increases in the time spent in brisk walking. Overall, the increases in intestinal Bacteroides following the exercise intervention were associated with increases in 6MWD. In conclusion, aerobic exercise training that targets an increase of the time spent in brisk walking may increase intestinal Bacteroides in association with improved cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy elderly women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Microbiota and Noncommunicable Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Diet Supplemented with Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Probiotics Improves Sperm Quality after Only One Spermatogenic Cycle in Zebrafish Model
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040843
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 13 April 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Infertility is a medical concern worldwide and could also have economic consequences in farmed animals. Developing an efficient diet supplement with immediate effects on sperm quality is a promising tool for human reproduction and for domesticated animal species. This study aims at elucidating [...] Read more.
Infertility is a medical concern worldwide and could also have economic consequences in farmed animals. Developing an efficient diet supplement with immediate effects on sperm quality is a promising tool for human reproduction and for domesticated animal species. This study aims at elucidating the effect of a short-time probiotic supplementation consisting of a mixture of two probiotic bacteria with proven antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities on zebrafish sperm quality and male behavior. For this purpose, three homogeneous groups of males in terms of motility (<60%) were established. The control group was fed with a normal standard diet. The other received supplements: One group (vehicle control) was fed with maltodextrin and the other received a probiotic preparation based on a mixture (1:1) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CECT8361 and Bifidobacterium longum CECT7347. The feeding regime was 21 days corresponding with a single spermatogenesis in zebrafish. The preparation did not modify animal weight, positively affected the number of fluent males, increased sperm concentration, total motility, progressive motility, and fast spermatozoa subpopulations. Moreover, the animals fed with the supplement showed different behavior patterns compared to control groups. Our results suggest a diet-related modulation on the exploration activity indicating a lower stress-like conduct. The studied formulation described here should be considered as advantageous in male reproductive biotechnology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Microbiota and Noncommunicable Diseases)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Xylitol’s Health Benefits beyond Dental Health: A Comprehensive Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1813; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081813
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 28 July 2019 / Accepted: 31 July 2019 / Published: 6 August 2019
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Abstract
Xylitol has been widely documented to have dental health benefits, such as reducing the risk for dental caries. Here we report on other health benefits that have been investigated for xylitol. In skin, xylitol has been reported to improve barrier function and suppress [...] Read more.
Xylitol has been widely documented to have dental health benefits, such as reducing the risk for dental caries. Here we report on other health benefits that have been investigated for xylitol. In skin, xylitol has been reported to improve barrier function and suppress the growth of potential skin pathogens. As a non-digestible carbohydrate, xylitol enters the colon where it is fermented by members of the colonic microbiota; species of the genus Anaerostipes have been reported to ferment xylitol and produce butyrate. The most common Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species do not appear to be able to grow on xylitol. The non-digestible but fermentable nature of xylitol also contributes to a constipation relieving effect and improved bone mineral density. Xylitol also modulates the immune system, which, together with its antimicrobial activity contribute to a reduced respiratory tract infection, sinusitis, and otitis media risk. As a low caloric sweetener, xylitol may contribute to weight management. It has been suggested that xylitol also increases satiety, but these results are not convincing yet. The benefit of xylitol on metabolic health, in addition to the benefit of the mere replacement of sucrose, remains to be determined in humans. Additional health benefits of xylitol have thus been reported and indicate further opportunities but need to be confirmed in human studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Microbiota and Noncommunicable Diseases)
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Open AccessReview
Gut Microbiome: Profound Implications for Diet and Disease
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071613
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
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Abstract
The gut microbiome plays an important role in human health and influences the development of chronic diseases ranging from metabolic disease to gastrointestinal disorders and colorectal cancer. Of increasing prevalence in Western societies, these conditions carry a high burden of care. Dietary patterns [...] Read more.
The gut microbiome plays an important role in human health and influences the development of chronic diseases ranging from metabolic disease to gastrointestinal disorders and colorectal cancer. Of increasing prevalence in Western societies, these conditions carry a high burden of care. Dietary patterns and environmental factors have a profound effect on shaping gut microbiota in real time. Diverse populations of intestinal bacteria mediate their beneficial effects through the fermentation of dietary fiber to produce short-chain fatty acids, endogenous signals with important roles in lipid homeostasis and reducing inflammation. Recent progress shows that an individual’s starting microbial profile is a key determinant in predicting their response to intervention with live probiotics. The gut microbiota is complex and challenging to characterize. Enterotypes have been proposed using metrics such as alpha species diversity, the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes phyla, and the relative abundance of beneficial genera (e.g., Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia) versus facultative anaerobes (E. coli), pro-inflammatory Ruminococcus, or nonbacterial microbes. Microbiota composition and relative populations of bacterial species are linked to physiologic health along different axes. We review the role of diet quality, carbohydrate intake, fermentable FODMAPs, and prebiotic fiber in maintaining healthy gut flora. The implications are discussed for various conditions including obesity, diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, depression, and cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Microbiota and Noncommunicable Diseases)
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