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Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040868

Aerobic Exercise Training with Brisk Walking Increases Intestinal Bacteroides in Healthy Elderly Women

1
Department of Environmental Physiology for Exercise, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 558-8585, Japan
2
Department of Physical Therapy Faculty of Health Science, Aino University, 4-5-4 Higashiohda, Ibaraki-shi, Osaka 567-0012, Japan
3
Research Center for Urban Health and Sports, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 558-8585, Japan
4
Department of Health and Sports Science, Osaka Electro-communication University, 1130-70 Kiyotaki, Shijonawate-shi, Osaka 575-0063, Japan
5
TechnoSuruga Laboratory Company, Ltd., 330 Nagasaki, Shimizu-ku, Shizuoka-shi, Shizuoka 424-0065, Japan
6
Metabolism, Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3, Asahi-Machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 545-8586, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Microbiota and Noncommunicable Diseases)
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Abstract

This study examined the effect of an exercise intervention on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in healthy elderly women. Thirty-two sedentary women that were aged 65 years and older participated in a 12-week, non-randomized comparative trial. The subjects were allocated to two groups receiving different exercise interventions, trunk muscle training (TM), or aerobic exercise training (AE). AE included brisk walking, i.e., at an intensity of ≥ 3 metabolic equivalents (METs). The composition of the intestinal microbiota in fecal samples was determined before and after the training period. We also assessed the daily physical activity using an accelerometer, trunk muscle strength by the modified Kraus–Weber (K-W) test, and cardiorespiratory fitness by a 6-min. walk test (6MWT). K-W test scores and distance achieved during the 6MWT (6MWD) improved in both groups. The relative abundance of intestinal Bacteroides only significantly increased in the AE group, particularly in subjects showing increases in the time spent in brisk walking. Overall, the increases in intestinal Bacteroides following the exercise intervention were associated with increases in 6MWD. In conclusion, aerobic exercise training that targets an increase of the time spent in brisk walking may increase intestinal Bacteroides in association with improved cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy elderly women.
Keywords: intestinal microbiota; intestinal Bacteroides; cardiorespiratory fitness; trunk muscle training; aerobic exercise training; brisk walking intestinal microbiota; intestinal Bacteroides; cardiorespiratory fitness; trunk muscle training; aerobic exercise training; brisk walking
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Link: https://figshare.com/s/56ea29d334cd2786dcea
    Description: Figure 1. Modified Kraus–Weber test. Strength-of-trunk-muscle test: the subject clasps his/her hands behind his/her head in the supine position with knees extended (test 1) or flexed (test 2). The subject is asked to roll up into a sitting position. Performance is rated based on a five-point scale (sitting up without support, 5 points; sitting up with support, 4 points; lumbar vertebrae not touching the floor, 3 points; scapula not touching the floor, 2 points; cervical vertebrae not touching the floor, 1 point). Endurance-of-trunk-muscle test: the subject in supine position with knees extended (test 3) or flexed (test 4). The examiner holds the subject's feet on the floor. The subject is asked to maintain posture with lifted head and shoulders off the floor for 60 s; the subject is further asked to lift his/her feet 25 cm above the floor, with knees extended, and maintain position for 60 s (test 5). Next, the subject in prone position with knees extended and hands clasped behind his/her head; the examiner holds the subject's feet, and the subject is asked to lift his/her chest and head and maintain position for 60 s (test 6). Finally, the subject is asked to lift without bending knees and maintain position for 60 s (test 7). Each component of the endurance of trunk muscle test was evaluated on a six-point scale (hold for ≥60 s, 6 points; for 50–59 s, 5 points; for 40–49 s, 4 points; for 30–39 s, 3 points; for 20–29 s, 2 points; for 10–19 s, 1 point; for ≤9 s, 0 points). Reference: Koyama, Y.; Ishikawa, S.; Sukigara, S. Trunk Fitness of Female University Student evaluated by modified Kraus-Weber Test. Journal of Ibaraki Christian University. II, Social and natural sciences. 2007, 41, 211-220 (in Japanese).
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Morita, E.; Yokoyama, H.; Imai, D.; Takeda, R.; Ota, A.; Kawai, E.; Hisada, T.; Emoto, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Okazaki, K. Aerobic Exercise Training with Brisk Walking Increases Intestinal Bacteroides in Healthy Elderly Women. Nutrients 2019, 11, 868.

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