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Reviewing the Composition of Vaginal Microbiota: Inclusion of Nutrition and Probiotic Factors in the Maintenance of Eubiosis

1
Hospital Clínico Universitario San Cecilio. Servicio de Microbiología, Instituto de Investigación ibs. GRANADA. Avenida de la Ilustración S/N, 18016 Granada, Spain
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
3
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology “José Mataix”, Biomedical Research Center, University of Granada, Armilla, 18016 Granada, Spain
4
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs GRANADA, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Granada, 18014 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have equally contributed to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020419
Received: 27 November 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2020 / Accepted: 4 February 2020 / Published: 6 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Microbiota and Noncommunicable Diseases)
The vaginal microbiota has importance in preserving vaginal health and defending the host against disease. The advent of new molecular techniques and computer science has allowed researchers to discover microbial composition in depth and associate the structure of vaginal microbial communities. There is a consensus that vaginal flora is grouped into a restricted number of communities, although the structure of the community is constantly changing. Certain Community-Sate Types (CSTs) are more associated with poor reproductive outcomes and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) meanwhile, CSTs dominated by Lactobacillus species—particularly Lactobacillus crispatus—are more related to vaginal health. In this work, we have reviewed how modifiable and non-modifiable factors may affect normal vaginal microbiota homeostasis—including sexual behavior, race or ethnicity, and hygiene. Special interest has been given to how the use of probiotics, diet intake, and use of hormone replacement therapies (HRTs) can potentially impact vaginal microbiota composition.
Keywords: vaginal microbiome; bacterial communities; vaginal dysbiosis; bacterial vaginosis; risk factors; nutrition; probiotics; hormone replacement therapy vaginal microbiome; bacterial communities; vaginal dysbiosis; bacterial vaginosis; risk factors; nutrition; probiotics; hormone replacement therapy
MDPI and ACS Style

Barrientos-Durán, A.; Fuentes-López, A.; de Salazar, A.; Plaza-Díaz, J.; García, F. Reviewing the Composition of Vaginal Microbiota: Inclusion of Nutrition and Probiotic Factors in the Maintenance of Eubiosis. Nutrients 2020, 12, 419.

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