Next Article in Journal
Central But Not General Obesity Is Positively Associated with the Risk of Hyperhomocysteinemia in Middle-Aged Women
Next Article in Special Issue
Lactobacillus reuteri V3401 Reduces Inflammatory Biomarkers and Modifies the Gastrointestinal Microbiome in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: The PROSIR Study
Previous Article in Journal
Evidence for Toxic Advanced Glycation End-Products Generated in the Normal Rat Liver
Previous Article in Special Issue
Probiotic Ingestion, Obesity, and Metabolic-Related Disorders: Results from NHANES, 1999–2014
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Gut Microbiome: Profound Implications for Diet and Disease

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New England, Portland, ME 04103, USA
2
Pharmacy Service, Boise Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Boise, ID 83702, USA
3
College of Pharmacy, Ferris State University, Big Rapids, MI 49307, USA
4
College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Austin, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071613
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Microbiota and Noncommunicable Diseases)
  |  
PDF [604 KB, uploaded 22 July 2019]
  |  

Abstract

The gut microbiome plays an important role in human health and influences the development of chronic diseases ranging from metabolic disease to gastrointestinal disorders and colorectal cancer. Of increasing prevalence in Western societies, these conditions carry a high burden of care. Dietary patterns and environmental factors have a profound effect on shaping gut microbiota in real time. Diverse populations of intestinal bacteria mediate their beneficial effects through the fermentation of dietary fiber to produce short-chain fatty acids, endogenous signals with important roles in lipid homeostasis and reducing inflammation. Recent progress shows that an individual’s starting microbial profile is a key determinant in predicting their response to intervention with live probiotics. The gut microbiota is complex and challenging to characterize. Enterotypes have been proposed using metrics such as alpha species diversity, the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes phyla, and the relative abundance of beneficial genera (e.g., Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia) versus facultative anaerobes (E. coli), pro-inflammatory Ruminococcus, or nonbacterial microbes. Microbiota composition and relative populations of bacterial species are linked to physiologic health along different axes. We review the role of diet quality, carbohydrate intake, fermentable FODMAPs, and prebiotic fiber in maintaining healthy gut flora. The implications are discussed for various conditions including obesity, diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, depression, and cardiovascular disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; nutrition; habitual diets; Western diet; obesity; cardiometabolic risk factors; chronic health conditions; gastrointestinal disorders; prebiotics and probiotics gut microbiota; nutrition; habitual diets; Western diet; obesity; cardiometabolic risk factors; chronic health conditions; gastrointestinal disorders; prebiotics and probiotics
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hills, R.D., Jr.; Pontefract, B.A.; Mishcon, H.R.; Black, C.A.; Sutton, S.C.; Theberge, C.R. Gut Microbiome: Profound Implications for Diet and Disease. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1613.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top