Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Diseases

A special issue of Gastroenterology Insights (ISSN 2036-7422). This special issue belongs to the section "Gastrointestinal Disease".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 August 2021) | Viewed by 21895

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Research and Training Center in Human Nutrition, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, 00168 Rome, Italy
2. Clinical Nutrition Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, IRCCS, 00168 Rome, Italy
Interests: clinical nutrition; perioperative nutrition; body composition; gut microbiota dietary modulation; digestive cancer
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Guest Editor
Children's Hospital Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L1, Canada
Interests: microbiota; cancer; metabolic disorders; gut microbiota; diet
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, nutrition has gained visibility among several areas of Medicine and Surgery. A healthy diet is crucial for a long and healthy lifespan. Moreover, nutritional status in cancer patients or severely ill patients is nowadays recognized as an independent prognostic factor of clinical outcomes. In this context, the gastrointestinal system has a pivotal role, given its importance in the absorption, metabolism, and storage of nutrients. Furthermore, recent studies on the gut microbiota unveiled the crosstalk between gut and immune system; many “axes” have been proposed, such as the gut–brain, gut–eye, gut–muscle, and gut–joint axes. Every day, the gut barrier deals with a large amount of nutrients. Thus, nutrition and gastrointestinal diseases are strictly connected. To cite a few examples, gastrointestinal cancer patients (gastric, pancreatic, and hepatocellular carcinoma) are among those at a higher risk of malnutrition. Similarly, inflammatory bowel diseases (e.g., Crohn’s diseases and ulcerative colitis), acute and chronic pancreatitis and liver diseases need personalized nutritional strategies. The low “Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols” (FODMAP) diet has become a therapeutic pillar for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).

The aim of this Special Issue is to dissect the role of nutrition as a therapeutic approach in gastrointestinal diseases, as well as to fill the gap between research and clinical practice to achieve better outcomes. Papers addressing these topics are invited for this Special Issue, especially those investigating new diagnostic tools and therapies.

Dr. Emanuele Rinninella
Prof. Dr. Julio Plaza-Díaz
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • diet
  • malnutrition
  • gut microbiota
  • gastrointestinal cancers
  • inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)
  • liver diseases
  • pancreatic diseases
  • irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Review

11 pages, 274 KiB  
Review
Nutritional Status and the Critically Ill Patient: Gut Microbiota and Immuno-Nutrition in I.C.U. at the Time of SARS-COV 2 Pandemic
by Emidio Scarpellini, Laura Scarcella, Giorgio Romanelli, Martina Basilico, Emiliano Lattanzi, Carlo Rasetti, Ludovico Abenavoli and Pierangelo Santori
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 259-269; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent12020022 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2838
Abstract
Background: Gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem of bacteria, viruses, archaea, protozoa and yeasts in our intestine. It has several functions, including maintaining human body equilibrium. Microbial “dysbiosis” can be responsible for outbreak of local and systemic infections, especially in critically ill patients. [...] Read more.
Background: Gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem of bacteria, viruses, archaea, protozoa and yeasts in our intestine. It has several functions, including maintaining human body equilibrium. Microbial “dysbiosis” can be responsible for outbreak of local and systemic infections, especially in critically ill patients. Methods: to build a narrative review, we performed a Pubmed, Medline and EMBASE search for English language papers, reviews, meta-analyses, case series and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by keywords and their associations: critically ill patient; nutrition; gut microbiota; probiotics; gut virome; SARS-COV 2. Results: Over the antibiotic-based “selective decontamination”, potentially responsible for drug-resistant microorganisms development, there is growing interest of scientists and the pharmaceutical industry for pre-, probiotics and their associations as safe and reliable remedies restoring gut microbial “eubiosis”. Very first encouraging evidences link different gut microbiota profiles with SARS-COV 2 disease stage and gravity. Thus, there is frame for a probiotic therapeutic approach of COVID-19. Conclusions: gut microbiota remodulation seems to be a promising and safe therapeutic approach to prevent local and systemic multi-resistant bug infections in the intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This approach deserves more and more attention at the time of SARS-COV 2 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Diseases)
15 pages, 763 KiB  
Review
Effects of Polyphenols in Tea (Camellia sinensis sp.) on the Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Human Trials and Animal Studies
by Mus Azza Suhana Khairudin, Abbe Maleyki Mhd Jalil and Napisah Hussin
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 202-216; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent12020018 - 6 May 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4413
Abstract
A diet high in polyphenols is associated with a diversified gut microbiome. Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world, after water. The health benefits of tea might be attributed to the presence of polyphenol compounds such as flavonoids (e.g., catechins [...] Read more.
A diet high in polyphenols is associated with a diversified gut microbiome. Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world, after water. The health benefits of tea might be attributed to the presence of polyphenol compounds such as flavonoids (e.g., catechins and epicatechins), theaflavins, and tannins. Although many studies have been conducted on tea, little is known of its effects on the trillions of gut microbiota. Hence, this review aimed to systematically study the effect of tea polyphenols on the stimulation or suppression of gut microbiota in humans and animals. It was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol. Articles were retrieved from PubMed and Scopus databases, and data were extracted from 6 human trials and 15 animal studies. Overall, large variations were observed in terms of microbiota composition between humans and animals. A more consistent pattern of diversified microbiota was observed in animal studies. Tea alleviated the gut microbiota imbalance caused by high-fat diet-induced obesity, diabetes, and ultraviolet-induced damage. The overall changes in microbiota composition measured by beta diversity analysis showed that tea had shifted the microbiota from the pattern seen in animals that received tea-free intervention. In humans, a prebiotic-like effect was observed toward the gut microbiota, but these results appeared in lower-quality studies. The beta diversity in human microbiota remains intact despite tea intervention; supplementation with different teas affects different types of bacterial taxa in the gut. These studies suggest that tea polyphenols may have a prebiotic effect in disease-induced animals and in a limited number of human interventions. Further intervention is needed to identify the mechanisms of action underlying the effects of tea on gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Diseases)
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17 pages, 799 KiB  
Review
The Healthy Gluten-Free Diet: Practical Tips to Prevent Metabolic Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies in Celiac Patients
by Emanuele Rinninella, Marco Cintoni, Pauline Raoul, Silvia Triarico, Tommaso Dionisi, Giovanni Battista Gasbarrini, Antonio Gasbarrini and Maria Cristina Mele
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 166-182; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent12020015 - 1 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6997
Abstract
The gluten-free diet (GFD) is the cornerstone treatment for coeliac disease (CD). However, a healthy GFD is more complex than the only exclusion of gluten-containing foods. Most celiac patients do not receive nutritional advice and tend to consume industrial gluten-free products (GFPs), which [...] Read more.
The gluten-free diet (GFD) is the cornerstone treatment for coeliac disease (CD). However, a healthy GFD is more complex than the only exclusion of gluten-containing foods. Most celiac patients do not receive nutritional advice and tend to consume industrial gluten-free products (GFPs), which often lack fiber, vitamins, and other micronutrients while being rich in saturated fats and refined sugars. This review focuses on the main potential metabolic disorders and nutritional deficiencies in CD patients at diagnosis and dissects the main nutritional and metabolic issues due to a non-balanced GFD. Nutritional tips to achieve an adequate dietary approach in CD are provided. We also compared the main nutritional components of naturally gluten-free cereals (including pseudocereals) to give an exhaustive overview of the possible healthy alternatives to processed GFPs. Clinicians and dietitians should be systematically involved in the diagnosis of CD to monitor the appropriateness of GFD and the patient’s nutritional status over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Diseases)
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11 pages, 814 KiB  
Review
Role of Probiotics and Their Metabolites in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs)
by Toumi Ryma, Arezki Samer, Imene Soufli, Hayet Rafa and Chafia Touil-Boukoffa
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(1), 56-66; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent12010006 - 4 Feb 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 6224
Abstract
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a term used to describe a group of complex disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. IBDs include two main forms: Crohn’s Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC), which share similar clinical symptoms but differ in the anatomical distribution [...] Read more.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a term used to describe a group of complex disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. IBDs include two main forms: Crohn’s Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC), which share similar clinical symptoms but differ in the anatomical distribution of the inflammatory lesions. The etiology of IBDs is undetermined. Several hypotheses suggest that Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis result from an abnormal immune response against endogenous flora and luminal antigens in genetically susceptible individuals. While there is no cure for IBDs, most common treatments (medication and surgery) aim to reduce inflammation and help patients to achieve remission. There is growing evidence and focus on the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of probiotics in IBDs. Probiotics are live microorganisms that regulate the mucosal immune system, the gut microbiota and the production of active metabolites such as Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs). This review will focus on the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the immunopathogenesis of IBDs and understanding the health-promoting effects of probiotics and their metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Diseases)
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