Special Issue "Health-Promoting Components of Foods in Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Maria Annunziata Carluccio
Website
Guest Editor
National Research Council (CNR) Institute of Clinical Physiology (IFC), 73100 Lecce, Italy
Interests: Mediterranean diet; nutraceuticals and functional food; polyphenols; unsaturated fatty acids; nutrigenomics; gene expression; cell signaling; molecular targets; inflammation; atherosclerosis; angiogenesis; cardiometabolic diseases
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Marika Massaro
Website
Guest Editor
National Research Council (CNR) Institute of Clinical Physiology (IFC), 73100 Lecce, Italy
Interests: pathogenesis of chronic disese; nutri- and pharmacogenomics applied to obesity and cardiovascular disease prevention; analysis of the anti-aterogenic and anti-inflammatory properties of nutritional fatty acids and plant food bioactives in the field of vascular biology and physical exercise; analysis of dietary patterns and nutritional status in health and chronic disease
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dietary habits are recognized as key determinants of well-being, longevity, and chronic disease prevention. Healthy eating lifestyles, including Mediterranean diets, are characterized by many different beneficial bioactive components which include, but are not limited to, the classical long chain fatty acids of the omega-3 series, oleic acid, and antioxidant polyphenols, as well as a huge mass of new phytochemicals which are spread throughout the entire vegetable kingdom, from fruits and its beverages, to whole cereals, legumes, and spices.

Deeper evaluations of the healthy activities of such food components have accumulated in recent years in humans and in experimental models of disease. Many different mechanisms underlining their protective effects have been widely documented, including the reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation, the regulation of gene expression, cell signaling, and metabolism. However, many aspects related to the bioactivity of these compounds in different clinical settings remain to be clarified, and further studies are invoked to establish novel health effects of individual components as well as their synergistic combination and the influences with the host microbiota.

Furthermore, the assessment of the individual responsivity to the different bioactive components should also be considered in the final evaluation of the health-promoting effects of these compounds.

This Special Issue entitled “Health-Promoting Components of Foods in Human Health” welcomes the submission of either original research manuscripts or reviews of the scientific literature, concerning biological properties of new and classical dietary bioactive compounds, nutraceutical or functional food, their metabolism, and bioavailability in different clinical and experimental settings of disease.

We sincerely hope that this Special Issue will advance our understanding of how specific health-promoting components of foods can contribute towards long-term health maintenance and disease prevention in humans, looking towards personalized nutrition.

Dr. Maria Annunziata Carluccio
Dr. Marika Massaro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nutraceuticals
  • Phytochemicals
  • Polyphenols
  • Nutritional fatty acids
  • Oxidative stress
  • Inflammation
  • Chronic and degenerative diseases
  • Functional food

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Phosphoethanolamine Supplementation on Mitochondrial Activity and Lipogenesis in a Caffeine Ingestion Caenorhabditis elegans Model
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3348; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113348 - 30 Oct 2020
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Caffeine intake is strongly linked to lipid metabolism. We previously reported the age-dependent physiological effects of caffeine intake in a Caenorhabditis elegans model. Since nutritional status can actively influence metabolism and overall health, in this study, we evaluated the effect of caffeine intake [...] Read more.
Caffeine intake is strongly linked to lipid metabolism. We previously reported the age-dependent physiological effects of caffeine intake in a Caenorhabditis elegans model. Since nutritional status can actively influence metabolism and overall health, in this study, we evaluated the effect of caffeine intake on lipid metabolism in adult-stage C. elegans. We found that, in C. elegans, fat storage and the level of phosphoethanolamine (PE) were significantly reduced with caffeine intake. In addition, mitochondrial activity decreased and mitochondrial morphology was disrupted, and the expression of oxidative stress response genes, hsp-6, gst-4, and daf-16, was induced by caffeine intake. Furthermore, the level of an energy metabolism sensor, phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase, was increased, whereas the expression of the sterol regulatory element binding protein gene and its target stearoyl-CoA desaturase genes, fat-5, -6, and -7, was decreased with caffeine intake. These findings suggest that caffeine intake causes mitochondrial dysfunction and reduces lipogenesis. Interestingly, these changes induced by caffeine intake were partially alleviated by PE supplementation, suggesting that the reduction in mitochondrial activity and lipogenesis is in part because of the low PE level, and proper dietary supplementation can improve organelle integrity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Foods in Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Standardized Green Tea Extract and Its Main Component, EGCG, on Mitochondrial Function and Contractile Performance of Healthy Rat Cardiomyocytes
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 2949; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12102949 - 25 Sep 2020
Viewed by 776
Abstract
We recently showed that the long-term in vivo administration of green tea catechin extract (GTE) resulted in hyperdynamic cardiomyocyte contractility. The present study investigates the mechanisms underlying GTE action in comparison to its major component, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), given at the equivalent amount that [...] Read more.
We recently showed that the long-term in vivo administration of green tea catechin extract (GTE) resulted in hyperdynamic cardiomyocyte contractility. The present study investigates the mechanisms underlying GTE action in comparison to its major component, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), given at the equivalent amount that would be in the entirety of GTE. Twenty-six male Wistar rats were given 40 mL/day of a tap water solution with either standardized GTE or pure EGCG for 4 weeks. Cardiomyocytes were then isolated for the study. Cellular bioenergetics was found to be significantly improved in both GTE- and EGCG-fed rats compared to that in controls as shown by measuring the maximal mitochondrial respiration rate and the cellular ATP level. Notably, the improvement of mitochondrial function was associated with increased levels of oxidative phosphorylation complexes, whereas the cellular mitochondrial mass was unchanged. However, only the GTE supplement improved cardiomyocyte mechanics and intracellular calcium dynamics, by lowering the expression of total phospholamban (PLB), which led to an increase of both the phosphorylated-PLB/PLB and the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase/PLB ratios. Our findings suggest that GTE might be a valuable adjuvant tool for counteracting the occurrence and/or the progression of cardiomyopathies in which mitochondrial dysfunction and alteration of intracellular calcium dynamics constitute early pathogenic factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Foods in Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Chlorogenic Acid Potentiates the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin in LPS-Stimulated THP-1 Cells
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2706; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092706 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 884
Abstract
The anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin are well documented. However, the bioavailability of curcumin is a major barrier to its biological efficacy. Low-dose combination of complimentary bioactives appears to be an attractive strategy for limiting barriers to efficacy of bioactive compounds. In this study, [...] Read more.
The anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin are well documented. However, the bioavailability of curcumin is a major barrier to its biological efficacy. Low-dose combination of complimentary bioactives appears to be an attractive strategy for limiting barriers to efficacy of bioactive compounds. In this study, the anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin in combination with chlorogenic acid (CGA), was investigated using human THP-1 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Curcumin alone suppressed TNF-α production in a dose-dependent manner with a decrease in cell viability at higher doses. Although treatment with CGA alone had no effect on TNF-α production, it however enhanced cell viability and co-administration with curcumin at a 1:1 ratio caused a synergistic reduction in TNF-α production with no impact on cell viability. Furthermore, an qRT-PCR analysis of NF-κB pathway components and inflammatory biomarkers indicated that CGA alone was not effective in reducing the mRNA expression of any of the tested inflammatory marker genes, except TLR-4. However, co-administration of CGA with curcumin, potentiated the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin. Curcumin and CGA together reduced the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines [TNF-α (~88%) and IL-6 (~99%)], and COX-2 (~92%), possibly by suppression of NF-κB (~78%), IκB-β-kinase (~60%) and TLR-4 receptor (~72%) at the mRNA level. Overall, co-administration with CGA improved the inflammation-lowering effects of curcumin in THP-1 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Foods in Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Modification of In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity by Consumption of Cooked Chickpea in a Colon Cancer Model
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2572; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092572 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 787
Abstract
Chickpea has been classified as a nutraceutical food due to its phytochemical compounds, showing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activity. To investigate this, we evaluated the effect of cooking on the nutritional and non-nutritional composition and the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity [...] Read more.
Chickpea has been classified as a nutraceutical food due to its phytochemical compounds, showing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activity. To investigate this, we evaluated the effect of cooking on the nutritional and non-nutritional composition and the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of chickpea seed. The latter was determined by the variation in the concentration of nitric oxide (NO), oxidized carbonyl groups (CO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and the expression of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) in the colon of male BALB/c mice fed with a standard diet with 10 and 20% cooked chickpea (CC). We induced colon cancer in mice by administering azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS); for the evaluation, these were sacrificed 1, 7, and 14 weeks after the induction. Results show that cooking does not significantly modify (p < 0.05) nutritional compounds; however, it decreases the concentration of non-nutritional ones and, consequently, in vitro antioxidant activity. The in vivo evaluation showed that animals administered with AOM/DSS presented higher concentrations of NO, CO, MDA, and 4-HNE than those in animals without AOM/DSS administration. However, in the three evaluated times, these markers were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) with CC consumption. The best effect on the oxidation markers was with the 20% CC diet, demonstrating the antioxidant potential of CC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Foods in Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Lemon Extract Reduces Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Expression and Activity and Increases Insulin Sensitivity and Lipolysis in Mouse Adipocytes
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2348; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082348 - 06 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1116
Abstract
Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular complications. In this paper, we examine the possible beneficial role of lemon juice in dieting. Lemon extract (LE) has been proposed to improve serum insulin levels and decrease angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in mouse [...] Read more.
Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular complications. In this paper, we examine the possible beneficial role of lemon juice in dieting. Lemon extract (LE) has been proposed to improve serum insulin levels and decrease angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in mouse models. ACE is also a biomarker for sustained weight loss and ACE inhibitors improve insulin sensitivity in humans. Here, we show that LE impacts adipose tissue metabolism directly. In 3T3-L1 differentiated adipocyte cells, LE improved insulin sensitivity as evidenced by a 3.74 ± 0.54-fold increase in both pAKT and GLUT4 levels. LE also induced lipolysis as demonstrated by a 16.6 ± 1.2 fold-change in pHSL protein expression levels. ACE gene expression increased 12.0 ± 0.1 fold during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in the absence of LE, and treatment with LE decreased ACE gene expression by 80.1 ± 0.5% and protein expression by 55 ± 0.37%. We conclude that LE’s reduction of ACE expression causes increased insulin sensitivity and breakdown of lipids in adipocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Foods in Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Osteoprotective Activity and Metabolite Fingerprint via UPLC/MS and GC/MS of Lepidium sativum in Ovariectomized Rats
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2075; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072075 - 13 Jul 2020
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Lepidium sativum seeds are used traditionally to accelerate healing of bone fracture in addition to its culinary uses. This study aimed to characterize the osteoprotective effect of L. sativum in an ovariectomized rat model at two dose levels (50 and 100 mg/kg) using [...] Read more.
Lepidium sativum seeds are used traditionally to accelerate healing of bone fracture in addition to its culinary uses. This study aimed to characterize the osteoprotective effect of L. sativum in an ovariectomized rat model at two dose levels (50 and 100 mg/kg) using 17β-estradiol as a positive reference standard. Moreover, a complete metabolite profile of L. sativum via UHPLC/PDA/ESI–MS, as well as headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-GC/MS is presented. Results revealed that L. sativum extract exhibited significant anti-osteoporotic actions as evidenced by mitigating the decrease in relative bone weight concurrent with improved longitudinal and perpendicular femur compression strength. Further, the extract enhanced the serum bone formation biomarkers lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and osteocalcin levels. The extract also inhibited exhaustion of superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and accumulation of lipid peroxides in bone tissues. This is in addition to ameliorating the rise in the markers of bone resorption carboxyterminal telopeptide, type I (CTXI) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and modulating receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL)/ osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression. Metabolite characterization suggests that glucosinolates, lignans, coumarins, phenolic acids, and alkaloids mediate these anti-osteoporotic effects in a synergistic manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Foods in Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Acute Cocoa Supplementation on Postprandial Apolipoproteins, Lipoprotein Subclasses, and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after a High-Fat Meal
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1902; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071902 - 27 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Dyslipidemia and inflammation exacerbate postprandial metabolic stress in people with diabetes. Acute dietary supplementation with polyphenols shows promise in improving postprandial metabolic stress in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Cocoa is a rich source of dietary polyphenols with demonstrated cardioprotective effects in adults without [...] Read more.
Dyslipidemia and inflammation exacerbate postprandial metabolic stress in people with diabetes. Acute dietary supplementation with polyphenols shows promise in improving postprandial metabolic stress in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Cocoa is a rich source of dietary polyphenols with demonstrated cardioprotective effects in adults without diabetes. To date, the acute effects of cocoa on postprandial lipids and inflammation have received little attention in the presence of T2D. This report expands on our earlier observation that polyphenol-rich cocoa, given as a beverage with a fast-food-style, high-fat breakfast, increased postprandial high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in adults with T2D. We now test whether polyphenol-rich cocoa modulated postprandial apolipoproteins (Apo-A1, B), non-esterified fatty acids, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-derived lipoprotein subclass profiles, and select biomarkers of inflammation following the same dietary challenge. We found that cocoa decreased NMR-derived concentrations of total very low-density lipoprotein and chylomicron particles and increased the concentration of total HDL particles over the 6-hour postprandial phase. Serum interleukin-18 was decreased by cocoa vs. placebo. Thus, polyphenol-rich cocoa may alleviate postprandial dyslipidemia and inflammation following a high-fat dietary challenge in adults with T2D. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01886989. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Foods in Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Fatigue Effect of Prunus Mume Vinegar in High-Intensity Exercised Rats
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051205 - 25 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
Nowadays, new types of vinegar have been developed using various raw materials and biotechnological processes. The fruit of Prunus mume has been extensively distributed in East Asia and used as a folk medication for fatigue. In this study, the Prunus mume vinegar (PV) [...] Read more.
Nowadays, new types of vinegar have been developed using various raw materials and biotechnological processes. The fruit of Prunus mume has been extensively distributed in East Asia and used as a folk medication for fatigue. In this study, the Prunus mume vinegar (PV) was produced by a two-step fermentation and was evaluated for its anti-fatigue activity by C2C12 myoblasts and high-intensity exercised rats. The administration of PV significantly improved running endurance and glycogen accumulation in the liver and muscle of PV supplemented rats compared to sedentary and exercised control groups. In addition, PV supplementation elicited lower fatigue-related serum biomarkers, for instance, ammonia, inorganic phosphate, and lactate. PV administered rats exhibited higher lactate dehydrogenase activity and glutathione peroxidase activity, and lower creatine kinase activity and malondialdehyde levels. Furthermore, phenolic compounds in PV were identified using HPLC analysis. The phenolic acids analyzed in PV were protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, chlorogenic acid, and its derivates. These results indicate that the administration of PV with antioxidative property contributes to the improvement of fatigue recovery in exhausted rats. The findings of this study suggest that the PV containing various bioactive constituents can be used as a functional material against fatigue caused by high-intensity exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Foods in Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Therapeutic Potential of β-Caryophyllene: A Dietary Cannabinoid in Diabetes and Associated Complications
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 2963; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12102963 - 28 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic disorder is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide across developed as well as developing nations. Hyperglycemia is the core feature of the type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), following insulin deficiency [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic disorder is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide across developed as well as developing nations. Hyperglycemia is the core feature of the type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), following insulin deficiency and impaired insulin secretion or sensitivity leads insulin resistance (IR), respectively. Genetic and environmental factors attributed to the pathogenesis of DM and various therapeutic strategies are available for the prevention and treatment of T2DM. Among the numerous therapeutic approaches, the health effects of dietary/nutraceutical approach due to the presence of bioactive constituents, popularly termed phytochemicals are receiving special interest for pharmacological effects and therapeutic benefits. The phytochemicals classes, in particular sesquiterpenes received attention because of potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperglycemic effects and health benefits mediating modulation of enzymes, receptors, and signaling pathways deranged in DM and its complications. One of the terpene compounds, β-caryophyllene (BCP), received enormous attention because of its abundant occurrence, non-psychoactive nature, and dietary availability through consumption of edible plants including spices. BCP exhibit selective full agonism on cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R), an important component of endocannabinoid system, and plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism and represents the newest drug target for chronic inflammatory diseases. BCP also showed agonist action on peroxisome proliferated activated receptor subtypes, PPAR-α and PPAR-γ, the main target of currently used fibrates and imidazolidinones for dyslipidemia and IR, respectively. Many studies demonstrated its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, organoprotective, and antihyperglycemic properties. In the present review, the plausible therapeutic potential of BCP in diabetes and associated complications has been comprehensively elaborated based on experimental and a few clinical studies available. Further, the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms of BCP in diabetes and its complications have been represented using synoptic tables and schemes. Given the safe status, abundant natural occurrence, oral bioavailability, dietary use and pleiotropic properties modulating receptors and enzymes, BCP appears as a promising molecule for diabetes and its complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Foods in Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Select Polyphenol-Rich Berry Consumption to Defer or Deter Diabetes and Diabetes-Related Complications
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2538; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092538 - 21 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1282
Abstract
Berries are considered “promising functional fruits” due to their distinct and ubiquitous therapeutic contents of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, flavanols, alkaloids, polysaccharides, hydroxycinnamic, ellagic acid derivatives, and organic acids. These polyphenols are part of berries and the human diet, and evidence suggests [...] Read more.
Berries are considered “promising functional fruits” due to their distinct and ubiquitous therapeutic contents of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, flavanols, alkaloids, polysaccharides, hydroxycinnamic, ellagic acid derivatives, and organic acids. These polyphenols are part of berries and the human diet, and evidence suggests that their intake is associated with a reduced risk or the reversal of metabolic pathophysiologies related to diabetes, obesity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and hypertension. This work reviewed and summarized both clinical and non-clinical findings that the consumption of berries, berry extracts, purified compounds, juices, jams, jellies, and other berry byproducts aided in the prevention and or otherwise management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and related complications. The integration of berries and berries-derived byproducts into high-carbohydrate (HCD) and high-fat (HFD) diets, also reversed/reduced the HCD/HFD-induced alterations in glucose metabolism-related pathways, and markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid oxidation in healthy/obese/diabetic subjects. The berry polyphenols also modulate the intestinal microflora ecology by opposing the diabetic and obesity rendered symbolic reduction of Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction-restoring bacteria, short-chain fatty acids, and organic acid producing microflora. All studies proposed a number of potential mechanisms of action of respective berry bioactive compounds, although further mechanistic and molecular studies are warranted. The metabolic profiling of each berry is also included to provide up-to-date information regarding the potential anti-oxidative/antidiabetic constituents of each berry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Foods in Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
The Seed of Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.): Nutritional Quality and Potential Functionality for Human Health and Nutrition
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071935 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2969
Abstract
Hempseeds, the edible fruits of the Cannabis sativa L. plant, were initially considered a by-product of the hemp technical fibre industry. Nowadays, following the restorationing of the cultivation of C. sativa L. plants containing an amount of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) <0.3% or 0.2% (industrial [...] Read more.
Hempseeds, the edible fruits of the Cannabis sativa L. plant, were initially considered a by-product of the hemp technical fibre industry. Nowadays, following the restorationing of the cultivation of C. sativa L. plants containing an amount of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) <0.3% or 0.2% (industrial hemp) there is a growing interest for the hempseeds production due to their high nutritional value and functional features. The goal of this review is to examine the scientific literature concerning the nutritional and functional properties of hempseeds. Furthermore, we revised the scientific literature regarding the potential use of hempseeds and their derivatives as a dietary supplement for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory and chronic-degenerative diseases on animal models and humans too. In the first part of the work, we provide information regarding the genetic, biochemical, and legislative aspects of this plant that are, in our opinion essential to understand the difference between “industrial” and “drug-type” hemp. In the final part of the review, the employment of hempseeds by the food industry as livestock feed supplement and as ingredient to enrich or fortify daily foods has also revised. Overall, this review intends to encourage further and comprehensive investigations about the adoption of hempseeds in the functional foods field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Foods in Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Olive Oil on Blood Pressure: Epidemiological, Clinical, and Mechanistic Evidence
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061548 - 26 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2586
Abstract
The increasing access to antihypertensive medications has improved longevity and quality of life in hypertensive patients. Nevertheless, hypertension still remains a major risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction, suggesting the need to implement management of pre- and hypertensive patients. In addition to [...] Read more.
The increasing access to antihypertensive medications has improved longevity and quality of life in hypertensive patients. Nevertheless, hypertension still remains a major risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction, suggesting the need to implement management of pre- and hypertensive patients. In addition to antihypertensive medications, lifestyle changes, including healthier dietary patterns, such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean diet, have been shown to favorably affect blood pressure and are now recommended as integrative tools in hypertension management. An analysis of the effects of nutritional components of the Mediterranean diet(s) on blood pressure has therefore become mandatory. After a literature review of the impact of Mediterranean diet(s) on cardiovascular risk factors, we here analyze the effects of olive oil and its major components on blood pressure in healthy and cardiovascular disease individuals and examine underlying mechanisms of action. Both experimental and human studies agree in showing anti-hypertensive effects of olive oil. We conclude that due to its high oleic acid and antioxidant polyphenol content, the consumption of olive oil may be advised as the optimal fat choice in the management protocols for hypertension in both healthy and cardiovascular disease patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Foods in Human Health)
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