Special Issue "Nutrition and Lifestyle for the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Kalliopi Karatzi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece
Interests: vascular health; dietary patterns; adult hypertension; childhood hypertension; nutraceuticals; vasoactive food constituents
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Yannis Manios
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece
Interests: nutritional assessment; public health nutrition; nutritional cancelling; health promotion; diabetes prevention; obesity; children; physical activity; dietary patterns

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Type 2 diabetes and hypertension are two major global health problems that are responsible for many disabilities, increased healthcare costs and, most importantly, an increased rate of mortality. Although there are several options for drug intervention, lifestyle changes are always the cornerstone of both prevention and treatment. Nutrients, food items, and dietary and lifestyle patterns have proven effective and several mechanisms have been described to support the protective roles of such interventions on both type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Yet, we are still at the beginning of identifying the most appropriate lifestyle changes for preventing and treating these diseases.

The present Special Issue aims to gather the latest findings on nutrition and lifestyle interventions for Type 2 diabetes and hypertension prevention referring to both patients or apparently healthy children and adults. Authors are invited to submit relevant review articles, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and original contributions for consideration for inclusion in this Special Issue.

Dr. Kalliopi Karatzi
Prof. Yannis Manios
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • diabetes prevention
  • hypertension prevention
  • dietary patterns
  • physical activity
  • lifestyle patterns
  • vasoactive nutrients
  • nutraceuticals

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Snapshots of Urban and Rural Food Environments: EPOCH-Based Mapping in a High-, Middle-, and Low-Income Country from a Non-Communicable Disease Perspective
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020484 (registering DOI) - 14 Feb 2020
Abstract
A changing food environment is implicated as a primary contributor to the increasing levels of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study aimed to generate snapshots of selected external food environments to inform intervention strategies for NCD prevention in three countries: Uganda (low income), South [...] Read more.
A changing food environment is implicated as a primary contributor to the increasing levels of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study aimed to generate snapshots of selected external food environments to inform intervention strategies for NCD prevention in three countries: Uganda (low income), South Africa (middle income) and Sweden (high income), with one matched pair of urban–rural sites per country. Fifty formal and informal food retail outlets were assessed, and descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were performed. We found that formal food retail outlets in these countries had both positive and negative traits, as they were the main source of basic food items but also made unhealthy food items readily available. The Ugandan setting had predominantly informal outlets, while the Swedish setting had primarily formal outlets and South Africa had both, which fits broadly into the traditional (Uganda), mixed (South Africa) and modern (Sweden) conceptualized food systems. The promotion of unhealthy food products was high in all settings. Uganda had the highest in-community advertising, followed by South Africa and Sweden with the lowest, perhaps related to differences in regulation and implementation. The findings speak to the need to address contextual differences in NCD-related health interventions by incorporating strategies that address the food environment, and for a critical look at regulations that tackle key environment-related factors of food on a larger scale. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Eating Competence Is Associated with Lower Prevalence of Obesity and Better Insulin Sensitivity in Finnish Adults with Increased Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: The StopDia Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010104 - 30 Dec 2019
Abstract
A healthy diet prevents type 2 diabetes but is often difficult to adhere to. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether eating competence is associated with diet or risk factors and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in individuals screened for type 2 diabetes [...] Read more.
A healthy diet prevents type 2 diabetes but is often difficult to adhere to. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether eating competence is associated with diet or risk factors and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in individuals screened for type 2 diabetes risk. Eating competence is an indicator of food acceptance, positive attitudes, internal regulation and contextual skills related to food and eating. In total, 3147 Finnish adults aged 18–74 at an increased risk for type 2 diabetes identified via online risk screening participated in the baseline examinations of the Stop Diabetes (StopDia) study. The participants filled out the digital questionnaire on food intake, physical activity and sleep, and the Satter Eating Competence Inventory 2.0TM (ecSI 2.0TM). In addition, anthropometric and laboratory measurements were performed at primary healthcare centres. Eating competent individuals (37%, classified by ecSI 2.0TM) had a better quality of diet (p < 0.05 for all). Additionally, eating competence was associated with a lower prevalence of previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes, abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridaemia, and with better insulin sensitivity (p < 0.05 for all). However, these associations, except for metabolic syndrome, were at least partly mediated by body mass index. Eating competence is associated with a healthy diet and could, thus, in the long term, support the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Dietary Pattern with High Sugar Content Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the Pomak Population
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3043; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123043 - 13 Dec 2019
Abstract
The present study describes the geographically isolated Pomak population and its particular dietary patterns in relationship to cardiovascular risk factors. We collected a population-based cohort in a cross-sectional study, with detailed anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and lifestyle parameter information. Dietary patterns were derived through [...] Read more.
The present study describes the geographically isolated Pomak population and its particular dietary patterns in relationship to cardiovascular risk factors. We collected a population-based cohort in a cross-sectional study, with detailed anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and lifestyle parameter information. Dietary patterns were derived through principal component analysis based on a validated food-frequency questionnaire, administered to 1702 adult inhabitants of the Pomak villages on the Rhodope mountain range in Greece. A total of 69.9% of the participants were female with a population mean age of 44.9 years; 67% of the population were overweight or obese with a significantly different prevalence for obesity between men and women (17.5% vs. 37.5%, respectively, p < 0.001). Smoking was more prevalent in men (45.8% vs. 2.2%, p < 0.001), as 97.3% of women had never smoked. Four dietary patterns emerged as characteristic of the population, and were termed “high in sugars”, “quick choices”, “balanced”, and “homemade”. Higher adherence to the “high in sugars” dietary pattern was associated with increased glucose levels (p < 0.001) and increased risk of hypertension (OR (95% CI) 2.61 (1.55, 4.39), p < 0.001) and nominally associated with high blood glucose levels (OR (95% CI) 1.85 (1.11, 3.08), p = 0.018), compared to lower adherence. Overall, we characterize the dietary patterns of the Pomak population and describe associations with cardiovascular risk factors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“I Did Not Believe You Could Get Better”—Reversal of Diabetes Risk Through Dietary Changes in Older Persons with Prediabetes in Region Stockholm
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2658; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112658 - 04 Nov 2019
Abstract
Diabetes risk can be controlled and even reversed by making dietary changes. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of how older persons with a high risk of developing Type 2 diabetes manage and relate to information about diabetes risk [...] Read more.
Diabetes risk can be controlled and even reversed by making dietary changes. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of how older persons with a high risk of developing Type 2 diabetes manage and relate to information about diabetes risk over a ten-year period. Fifteen qualitative interviews were conducted among participants from the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP). The participants were asked to recall the health examinations conducted by the SDPP related to their prediabetes and to describe their experiences and potential changes related to diet and physical activity. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The main theme found was that T2D (type 2 diabetes) risk is not perceived as concrete enough to motivate lifestyle modifications, such as changing dietary patterns, without other external triggers. Diagnosis was recognized as a reason to modify diet, and social interactions were found to be important for managing behavior change. Diagnosis was also a contributing factor to lifestyle modification, while prognosis of risk was not associated with efforts to change habits. The results from this study suggest that the potential of reversing prediabetes needs to be highlighted and more clearly defined for older persons to serve as motivators for lifestyle modification. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Dietary Protein Consumption and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: ADose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2783; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112783 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
The relationship between dietary protein consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the relations between dietary protein consumption and the risk of T2D. We conducted systematic retrieval of prospective studies [...] Read more.
The relationship between dietary protein consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the relations between dietary protein consumption and the risk of T2D. We conducted systematic retrieval of prospective studies in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Summary relative risks were compiled with a fixed effects model or a random effects model, and a restricted cubic spline regression model and generalized least squares analysis were used to evaluate the diet–T2D incidence relationship. T2D risk increased with increasing consumption of total protein and animal protein, red meat, processed meat, milk, and eggs, respectively, while plant protein and yogurt had an inverse relationship. A non-linear association with the risk for T2D was found for the consumption of plant protein, processed meat, milk, yogurt, and soy. This meta-analysis suggests that substitution of plant protein and yogurt for animal protein, especially red meat and processed meat, can reduce the risk for T2D. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

  1. Novel e-health applications for the management of cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents.
    Athanasia Tragomalou, Penio Kassari, Yannis Manios, George Moschonis, Ioannis Ioakeimidis, Christos Giannios, Christos Diou, Nikolaos Magklaveras, Anastasios Delopoulos and Evangelia Charmandari.
    ([email protected])
  2. Type 2 diabetes prevention by lifestyle intervention, a 20 year journey. Where do we stand in the real world?
    Karamanakos Georgios, Liatis Stavros, Makrilakis Konstantinos
    ([email protected])
  3. Energy Dense Salty Food consumption frequency is associated with diastolic hypertension in Spanish children.
    Pérez-Gimeno G, Rupérez A. I, Vázquez-Cobela R, Latorre-Millan M, Gil Campos M, Leis R, Aguilera C.M, Gil A, Moreno L. A, Bueno-Lozano G.
    ([email protected])
  4. Eating competence is associated with lower prevalence of obesity and better insulin sensitivity in Finnish adults with increased risk for type 2 diabetes: the StopDia Study.
    Tanja Tilles-Tirkkonen, Kirsikka Aittola, Reija Männikkö, Pilvikki Absetz, Marjukka Kolehmainen, Ursula Schwab, Jaana Lindström, Timo Lakka, Jussi Pihlajamäki and Leila Karhunen.
    ([email protected])
  5. Snapshots of urban and rural food environments: Results of EPOCH-based mapping in a high-, middle-, and low-income country.
    Spires M, Khan Berggreen-Clausen A, Kasujja F, Delobelle P, Puoane T, Sanders D., Daivadanam M.
    ([email protected])
  6. Improving understanding of food choices and dietary changes among migrants in host countries.
    Pha S, Khan Berggreen-Clausen A, Daivadanam M
    ([email protected])
  7. Research implications for future telemedicine studies and innovations in diabetes, dyslipidaemia and hypertension – a mixed method study.
    Patrick Timpel & Lorenz Harst.
    ([email protected])
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