Special Issue "Nutrition and Lifestyle for the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Kalliopi Karatzi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece
Interests: vascular health; dietary patterns; adult hypertension; childhood hypertension; nutraceuticals; vasoactive food constituents
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Yannis Manios
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece
Interests: assessment of dietary intake; health and nutrition education; prevention and rehabilitation from chronic diseases in children and adults; functional foods
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Type 2 diabetes and hypertension are two major global health problems that are responsible for many disabilities, increased healthcare costs and, most importantly, an increased rate of mortality. Although there are several options for drug intervention, lifestyle changes are always the cornerstone of both prevention and treatment. Nutrients, food items, and dietary and lifestyle patterns have proven effective and several mechanisms have been described to support the protective roles of such interventions on both type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Yet, we are still at the beginning of identifying the most appropriate lifestyle changes for preventing and treating these diseases.

The present Special Issue aims to gather the latest findings on nutrition and lifestyle interventions for Type 2 diabetes and hypertension prevention referring to both patients or apparently healthy children and adults. Authors are invited to submit relevant review articles, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and original contributions for consideration for inclusion in this Special Issue.

Dr. Kalliopi Karatzi
Prof. Yannis Manios
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • diabetes prevention
  • hypertension prevention
  • dietary patterns
  • physical activity
  • lifestyle patterns
  • vasoactive nutrients
  • nutraceuticals

Published Papers (26 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
The Role of Lifestyle, Eating Habits and Social Environment in the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051460 - 25 Apr 2021
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and hypertension are major health problems, with an undisputed growth burden in the past decades [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Dietary Patterns, Blood Pressure and the Glycemic and Lipidemic Profile of Two Teenage, European Populations
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010198 - 10 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 752
Abstract
The present study sought to retrospectively investigate the dietary habits of two adolescent, European populations from the cross-sectional Greek TEENAGE Study and French STANISLAS Family Study. We aimed to explore the relation between the populations’ dietary patterns and blood pressure, glycemic and lipidemic [...] Read more.
The present study sought to retrospectively investigate the dietary habits of two adolescent, European populations from the cross-sectional Greek TEENAGE Study and French STANISLAS Family Study. We aimed to explore the relation between the populations’ dietary patterns and blood pressure, glycemic and lipidemic profile. Dietary patterns were extracted via Principal Component Analysis (PCA), based on data collected from two 24 h dietary recalls for the TEENAGE study and a 3-day food consumption diary for the STANISLAS study. Multiple linear regressions and mixed models analyses, adjusting for confounding factors, were employed to investigate potential associations. A total of 766 Greek teenagers and 287 French teenagers, were included in analyses. Five dietary patterns were extracted for each population accounting for 49.35% and 46.69% of their respective total variance, with similarities regarding the consumption of specific food groups (i.e., western-type foods). In the TEENAGE Study, the “chicken and sugars” pattern was associated with lower CRP levels, after adjusting for confounding factors (p-value < 0.01). The “high protein and animal fat” dietary pattern of the STANISLAS Family Study was related to higher BMI (p-value < 0.01) and higher triglycerides levels (p-value < 0.01). Our findings summarize the dietary habits of two teenage, European populations and their associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Full article
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Article
Lipidemic Profile Changes over a Two-Year Intervention Period: Who Benefited Most from the Feel4Diabetes Program?
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3736; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123736 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 795
Abstract
Identification of participants’ characteristics who benefited most from large community-based intervention studies may guide future prevention initiatives in order to maximize their effectiveness. The current study aimed to examine the socio-demographic, anthropometric, and behavioral characteristics, as well as the health and eating perceptions [...] Read more.
Identification of participants’ characteristics who benefited most from large community-based intervention studies may guide future prevention initiatives in order to maximize their effectiveness. The current study aimed to examine the socio-demographic, anthropometric, and behavioral characteristics, as well as the health and eating perceptions of those who improved their lipidemic profile, in the Feel4Diabetes early screening and prevention program. In the present analyses, 1773 adults from families at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled, receiving either the standard care or the more intensive intervention, and 33.3–55.2% of them improved one or more of their lipidemic indices by >5%. Women, people living in Southeastern Europe, coming from two-parent families, having higher financial security, educational level and better diet quality were associated with a 27–64% higher likelihood for benefiting from the program regarding one or more of their lipidemic profile indices. Participants who were overweight or obese (especially with central obesity), employed, with prolonged sedentary behavior, prone to emotional eating and perceiving their weight status as lower than their actual weight were 24–43% less likely to have benefited. These findings should guide future interventions, prioritizing regions in greater need, and being tailor-made to specific population characteristics in order to further improve their effectiveness. Full article
Article
Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Prediabetes in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3322; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113322 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
Background: prediabetes prevention and management are the main methods used to combat the prevalence of diabetes. Exploratory factor analysis is an upcoming method that is successful in identifying dietary patterns that correlate with healthy or unhealthy outcomes. Aim: this study aims to identify [...] Read more.
Background: prediabetes prevention and management are the main methods used to combat the prevalence of diabetes. Exploratory factor analysis is an upcoming method that is successful in identifying dietary patterns that correlate with healthy or unhealthy outcomes. Aim: this study aims to identify dietary patterns in Taiwan that are associated with the risk of prediabetes. Methods: anthropometric, blood glucose, 3 d/24 h dietary records, and food frequency questionnaire data were collected from subjects recruited at Taipei Tzu-Chi Hospital. The following five dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis: Western, prudent, convenience, Asian traditional, and continental. This cross-sectional study compares tertiles of dietary patterns and analyzes the significance of the characteristics. Results: the Western and the prudent patterns are the major dietary patterns found in other studies. A higher factor loading in the Western pattern is significantly related to a higher risk of prediabetes. A higher factor loading in the continental pattern is significantly related to a lower risk of prediabetes. Conclusion: decreasing meat and seafood consumption while increasing egg, coffee, and milk consumption may be associated with a decreased risk for prediabetes. Full article
Article
Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Body Weight Perceptions of Study Participants Benefitting Most from the Feel4Diabetes Program Based on Their Anthropometric and Glycaemic Profile Changes
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3117; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103117 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 747
Abstract
The Feel4Diabetes program was comprised of a community-based screening and a two-year intervention phase aiming to prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D) in families at risk for diabetes across Europe. The current work aimed to identify the socio-demographic characteristics and body weight perceptions of [...] Read more.
The Feel4Diabetes program was comprised of a community-based screening and a two-year intervention phase aiming to prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D) in families at risk for diabetes across Europe. The current work aimed to identify the socio-demographic characteristics and body weight perceptions of participants who benefitted the most, achieving at least a 5% reduction in body weight, waist circumference and glycaemic indices (fasting plasma glucose, insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin levels), over two-year period. Following a two-stage screening procedure, 2294 high-risk parents were randomly allocated to standard care or more intensive intervention. The participants who benefitted most were living in Southern (OR 2.39–3.67, p < 0.001) and Eastern Europe (OR 1.55–2.47, p < 0.05), received more intensive intervention (OR 1.53–1.90, p = 0.002) and were younger (<40 years old) adults (OR 1.48–1.51, p < 0.05). Furthermore, individuals with tertiary education (OR 2.06, p < 0.001), who were unemployed (OR 1.62–1.68, p < 0.05) and perceived their body weight to be higher than normal (OR 1.58–3.00, p < 0.05) were more likely to benefit from the program. Lastly, males were more likely to show improvements in their glycaemic profiles compared to females (OR 1.40, p = 0.024). These findings point out the regions in Europe and the sociodemographic profile of individuals that benefitted the most in the current study, highlighting the need to prioritise regions in greater need for such interventions and also tailor future interventions to the characteristics and perceptions of the target populations. Full article
Article
A National e-Health Program for the Prevention and Management of Overweight and Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence in Greece
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2858; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092858 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 901
Abstract
Obesity in childhood and adolescence represents one of the most challenging public health problems of the 21st century owing to its epidemic proportions worldwide and the associated significant morbidity, mortality and public health costs. In Greece, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in [...] Read more.
Obesity in childhood and adolescence represents one of the most challenging public health problems of the 21st century owing to its epidemic proportions worldwide and the associated significant morbidity, mortality and public health costs. In Greece, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence exceeds 30–35%. To address the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in our country, we developed the ‘National e-Health Program for the Prevention and Management of Overweight and Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence’, which provides specific and detailed guidance to all primary health care physicians about the personalized management of children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. In the present study we evaluated 2400 children and adolescents [mean age ± SEM: 10.10 ± 0.09 years.; Males: 1088, Females: 1312; Obesity (n = 1370, 57.1%), Overweight (n = 674, 28.1%), normal BMI (n = 356, 14.8%)], who followed the personalized multi-disciplinary management plan specified by the ‘National e-Health Program for the Prevention and Management of Overweight and Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence’, and were studied prospectively for 1 year. We demonstrated that at the end of the first year, the prevalence of obesity decreased by 32.1%, the prevalence of overweight decreased by 26.7%, and the cardiometabolic risk factors improved significantly. These findings indicate that our National e-Health Program is effective at reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence after one year of intervention in the largest sample size reported to date. Full article
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Article
Lifestyle Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and National Diabetes Care Systems in European Countries
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2806; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092806 - 13 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
Background. Diabetes is increasing by 3.09% per year in males and 1.92% in females. Lifestyle risk factors are related to diabetes. The aim of this work is to highlight within EU-28 countries the distribution percentages of some lifestyle risk factors and some components [...] Read more.
Background. Diabetes is increasing by 3.09% per year in males and 1.92% in females. Lifestyle risk factors are related to diabetes. The aim of this work is to highlight within EU-28 countries the distribution percentages of some lifestyle risk factors and some components of diabetes health care. Methods. A literature search was conducted to highlight the presence of diabetes registries, which are fundamental tools for disease surveillance and health planning; the presence of a national diabetes plan (NDP); the care setting; and methods used for reimbursement of drugs, devices, and coverage of any comorbidities associated with diabetes. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was carried out to evaluate the possible associations between the variables considered. Results. The highest percentages of diabetes (>10%) are registered in Bulgaria, Malta, and Hungary. Concerning the prevalence of overweight, no European country shows overall percentages of less than 50%. Regarding obesity, 57% of countries show prevalence rates of 25%. The record for physical inactivity belongs to Malta, with 45% of individuals being inactive. The percentage of physical inactivity for females is higher than for males across Europe. In total, 57% of the countries have an insurance-based health system, while 12 countries have public national health systems. Further, 57% of countries have an NDP, while 42% of the EU countries have established a prevalence register for diabetes. Conclusions. Prevalence rates for type 2 DM in the range of 8–9% are noted in 50% of EU-28 countries. In total, 21 out of EU countries show a high prevalence rate for overweight, while 7% of EU-28 countries have an obesity prevalence rate of 25%. Diabetes treatment is entrusted to general practitioners in most countries. The results of this work highlight the differences between countries, but also between genders. Full article
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Article
Prediabetes Conversion to Normoglycemia Is Superior Adding a Low-Carbohydrate and Energy Deficit Formula Diet to Lifestyle Intervention—A 12-Month Subanalysis of the ACOORH Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2022; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072022 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1230
Abstract
Lifestyle interventions have been shown to reverse hyperglycemia to normoglycemia. However, these effects are not long-lasting and are accompanied with high dropout rates. As formula diets have been shown to be simple in usage and effective in improving glycemic control, we hypothesised that [...] Read more.
Lifestyle interventions have been shown to reverse hyperglycemia to normoglycemia. However, these effects are not long-lasting and are accompanied with high dropout rates. As formula diets have been shown to be simple in usage and effective in improving glycemic control, we hypothesised that adding a low-carbohydrate and energy deficit formula diet to a low-intensity lifestyle intervention is superior in reversing prediabetes compared with lifestyle intervention alone. In this predefined subanalysis of an international, multicenter randomised controlled trial (Almased Concept against Overweight and Obesity and Related Health Risk (ACOORH) study (ID DRKS00006811)), 141 persons with prediabetes were randomised (1:2) into either a control group with lifestyle intervention only (CON, n = 45) or a lifestyle intervention group accompanied with a formula diet (INT, n = 96). Both groups were equipped with telemonitoring devices. INT received a low-carbohydrate formula diet substituting three meals/day (~1200 kcal/day) within the first week, two meals/day during week 2–4, and one meal/day during week 5–26 (1300–1500 kcal/day). Follow-up was performed after 52 weeks and 105 participants (75%, INT: n = 74; CON: n = 31) finished the 26-week intervention phase. Follow-up data after 52 weeks were available from 93 participants (66%, INT: n = 65; CON: n = 28). Compared with CON, significantly more INT participants converted to normoglycemia after 52 weeks (50% vs. 31%; p < 0.05). The risk reduction led to a number-needed-to-treat of 5.3 for INT. Lifestyle intervention with a low-carbohydrate formula diet reduces prediabetes prevalence stronger than lifestyle intervention alone and is effective for type 2 diabetes prevention. Full article
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Article
Lifestyle Changes Observed among Adults Participating in a Family- and Community-Based Intervention for Diabetes Prevention in Europe: The 1st Year Results of the Feel4Diabetes-Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071949 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
The Feel4Diabetes intervention was a school and community-based intervention aiming to promote healthy lifestyle and tackle obesity and obesity-related metabolic risk factors for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) among families at risk of developing this disease. The current study aims to [...] Read more.
The Feel4Diabetes intervention was a school and community-based intervention aiming to promote healthy lifestyle and tackle obesity and obesity-related metabolic risk factors for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) among families at risk of developing this disease. The current study aims to present the results on lifestyle behaviors obtained from parents during the first year of the Feel4Diabetes intervention. This multicomponent intervention had a cluster randomized design and was implemented in Belgium, Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Hungary and Spain over two years (2016–2018). Standardized protocols and procedures were used by the participating centers in all countries to collect data on parents’ lifestyle behaviors (diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior). The Feel4Diabetes intervention was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (registration number: NCT02393872). In total, 2110 high-risk parents participated in the baseline and 12-month follow-up examination measurements. Participants allocated to the intervention group reduced their daily consumption of sugary drinks (p = 0.037) and sweets (p = 0.031) and their daily screen time (p = 0.032), compared with the control group. In addition, participants in the intervention group in Greece and Spain increased their consumption of breakfast (p = 0.034) and fruits (p = 0.029), while in Belgium and Finland they increased their water intake (p = 0.024). These findings indicate that the first year of the Feel4Diabetes intervention resulted in the improvement of certain lifestyle behaviors in parents from high-risk families. Full article
Article
Fish Cooking Methods and Impaired Glucose Metabolism Among Japanese Workers: The Furukawa Nutrition and Health Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1775; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061775 - 14 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 871
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between fish and shellfish intake and impaired glucose metabolism with consideration for cooking methods in a Japanese working population. Participants were 1774 workers aged 18–69 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between fish and shellfish intake and impaired glucose metabolism with consideration for cooking methods in a Japanese working population. Participants were 1774 workers aged 18–69 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Participants were asked about their most frequently used cooking method for fish, and the method was classified as either “raw and stewing” or “broiling, deep-frying, and stir-frying”. Impaired glucose metabolism was defined by a history of diabetes, current use of anti-diabetic drugs, fasting blood glucose ≥110 mg/dl, or HbA1c ≥6.0%. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of impaired glucose metabolism for fish intake by cooking method. Fish intake was not associated with impaired glucose metabolism in either group. When the outcome was defined as diabetes, the odds of diabetes increased with fish intake among participants who most frequently used broiling, deep-frying, or stir-frying methods, albeit they were not statistically significant; the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for the highest versus the lowest tertiles of fish intake was 1.95 (95%CI, 0.71–5.41). Cooking methods for fish may not modify the association between fish intake and impaired glucose metabolism among Japanese populations. Full article
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Article
Lifestyle and Progression to Type 2 Diabetes in a Cohort of Workers with Prediabetes
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051538 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
Background: People with prediabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Few studies have evaluated the influence of lifestyle factors on the risk of progression to diabetes and reversion to normoglycemia. The aim of this study was to determine the [...] Read more.
Background: People with prediabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Few studies have evaluated the influence of lifestyle factors on the risk of progression to diabetes and reversion to normoglycemia. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of T2D in a large cohort of workers with prediabetes, and to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic, clinical, metabolic, and lifestyle factors that affect the persistence of prediabetes and the progression to T2D. Methods: A cohort study of 27,844 adult workers (aged 20 to 65 years) from Spain who had prediabetes based on an occupational medical examination from 2012 to 2013. Prediabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) between 100 and 125 mg/dL. At the baseline evaluation, sociodemographic, anthropometric, metabolic, and lifestyle data were collected. At the 5-year follow-up, incident T2D was defined as an FPG of at least 126 mg/dL or initiation of an antidiabetic medication. Results: Among 235,995 initially screened workers, the prevalence of T2D was 14.19% (95% confidence interval (CI) 14.05 to 14.33) and the prevalence of prediabetes was 11.85% (95% CI 11.71 to 11.99). Follow-up data were available for 23,293 individuals with prediabetes. Among them, 36.08% (95% CI 35.46 to 36.70) returned to normoglycemia, 40.92% (95% CI 40.29 to 41.55) had persistent prediabetes, and 23.00% (95% CI 22.46 to 23.54) progressed to T2D. The risk for persistence of prediabetes and for progression to T2D increased with age, body mass index (BMI), triglyceride level, and less than 150 min/week of physical activity. An HbA1c level of 6% or greater was the strongest individual predictor of progression to T2D. Conclusions: Physical activity, diet, smoking, and BMI are modifiable factors that are associated with the persistence of prediabetes and the progression to T2D. The workplace is a feasible setting for the early detection of prediabetes and the promotion of lifestyles that can prevent progression to T2D. Full article
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Article
Research Implications for Future Telemedicine Studies and Innovations in Diabetes and Hypertension—A Mixed Methods Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1340; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051340 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1466
Abstract
(1) Background: The objective of this study was to identify, categorize and prioritize current implications for future research in the use telemedicine for diabetes and hypertension in order to inform policy and practice decisions. (2) Methods: An iterative mixed methods design was followed, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The objective of this study was to identify, categorize and prioritize current implications for future research in the use telemedicine for diabetes and hypertension in order to inform policy and practice decisions. (2) Methods: An iterative mixed methods design was followed, including three consecutive steps: An updated umbrella review of telemedicine effectiveness, qualitative content analysis of extracted data on current research needs and a quantitative survey with practitioners and health care researchers in order to prioritize the identified needs. (3) Results: Overall, 32 included records reported on future research implications. Qualitative content analysis yielded five categories as well as subcategories, covering a need for high quality studies, comprehensive technology assessments, in-depth considerations of patients’ characteristics, ethics and safety as well as implementation strategies. The online survey revealed that the most pressing future research needs are data security, patient safety, patient satisfaction, implementation strategies and longer follow-ups. Chi² statistics and t-tests revealed significant differences in the priorities of participants with and without experience in telemedicine use, evaluation and development. A factor analysis revealed six over-arching factors. (4) Conclusion: These results may help learning from mistakes previously made and may serve as key topics of a future telemedicine research agenda. Full article
Article
Energy Dense Salty Food Consumption Frequency Is Associated with Diastolic Hypertension in Spanish Children
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041027 - 09 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
High blood pressure (BP) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and sodium consumption is related to high BP. Moreover, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) influence BP. For this reason, we investigated whether: 1) children with risk [...] Read more.
High blood pressure (BP) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and sodium consumption is related to high BP. Moreover, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) influence BP. For this reason, we investigated whether: 1) children with risk of elevated BP had a higher consumption frequency (CF) of energy-dense salty foods (EDSF), high-sugary foods (HSF) and SSB or a low DASH score; and 2) children with a higher CF of EDSF showed a worse anthropometric and metabolic profile. Anthropometry, BP and general biochemical parameters were measured in 687 Spanish children (5–16 years) with normal or excess weight. A food frequency questionnaire was used to calculate EDSF, HSF and SSB consumption, and modified DASH score. Results showed that sex and pubertal stage influenced modified DASH score. Diastolic hypertension was associated to higher CF of EDSF in the whole sample and to higher CF of SSB in pubertal children, both independently of nutritional status. In addition, CF of EDSF was positively associated with CF of HSF and SSB and inversely associated with modified DASH score. Targeted policies and intervention programs, specific for different age ranges, should be established that aim to reduce salt consumption from snacks and processed foods, which could reduce HSF and SSB consumption as well. Full article
Article
Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Diet Quality are Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Severity: The PREDIMED-Plus Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041013 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3007
Abstract
Healthy lifestyle factors, such as physical activity (PA) and Mediterranean diet (MD), decrease the likelihood of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to report main lifestyle components and related factors according to the MetS severity. Cross-sectional analysis was done [...] Read more.
Healthy lifestyle factors, such as physical activity (PA) and Mediterranean diet (MD), decrease the likelihood of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to report main lifestyle components and related factors according to the MetS severity. Cross-sectional analysis was done of baseline lifestyle factors from 5739 participants with overweight/obesity and MetS features (aged 55–75 years) included in the PREDIMED-PLUS primary cardiovascular prevention randomized trial. Participants were categorized in tertiles according to a validated MetS severity score (MetSSS). Anthropometrics, visceral adiposity index, dietary nutrient intake, biochemical marker levels, as well as a Dietary Inflammatory Index and depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II) were measured. Diet quality was assessed using a 17-item energy-restricted MD questionnaire. Duration and intensity of PA was self-reported using the Minnesota-REGICOR Short Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sedentary behaviours were measured using the Spanish version of the Nurses’ Health Study questionnaire. The 30 s chair stand test was also assessed. Participants with highest MetSSS showed higher values of cardiovascular risk factors (except for total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol), depression risk, sedentary and TV viewing time, and lower moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). Highest MetSSS participants tended to a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern and tended to lower MD adherence. In addition, they showed lower carbohydrate and nut intake and higher intake of protein, saturated and trans fatty acids, cholesterol, iodine, sodium, red and processed meat products, other oils different from olive oil and spirit alcoholic drinks. The highest MetS severity score was associated with lower moderate and vigorous LTPA and higher sedentary time and depression risk, as they tended to a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern and lower MD adherence. Full article
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Article
Development and Validation of Two Self-Reported Tools for Insulin Resistance and Hypertension Risk Assessment in A European Cohort: The Feel4Diabetes-Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040960 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Early identification of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension (HTN) risk may improve prevention and promote public health. Implementation of self-reported scores for risk assessment provides an alternative cost-effective tool. The study aimed to develop and validate two easy-to-apply screening tools identifying [...] Read more.
Early identification of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension (HTN) risk may improve prevention and promote public health. Implementation of self-reported scores for risk assessment provides an alternative cost-effective tool. The study aimed to develop and validate two easy-to-apply screening tools identifying high-risk individuals for insulin resistance (IR) and HTN in a European cohort. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, anthropometric and clinical data obtained from 1581 and 1350 adults (baseline data from the Feel4Diabetes-study) were used for the European IR and the European HTN risk assessment index respectively. Body mass index, waist circumference, sex, age, breakfast consumption, alcohol, legumes and sugary drinks intake, physical activity and sedentary behavior were significantly correlated with Homeostatic Model Assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) and/or HTN and incorporated in the two models. For the IR index, the Area Under the Curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity for identifying individuals above the 75th and 95th of HOMA-IR percentiles were 0.768 (95%CI: 0.721–0.815), 0.720 and 0.691 and 0.828 (95%CI: 0.766–0.890), 0.696 and 0.778 respectively. For the HTN index, the AUC, sensitivity and specificity were 0.778 (95%CI: 0.680–0.876), 0.667 and 0.797. The developed risk assessment tools are easy-to-apply, valid, and low-cost, identifying European adults at high risk for developing T2DM or having HTN. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Structured Nutrition Therapy for Ramadan with Standard Care in Type 2 Diabetes Patients
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030813 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
(1) Background: Structured nutrition therapy (NT) is essential for the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the optimal delivery during Ramadan fasting remains unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of structured NT program versus standard care in patients with [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Structured nutrition therapy (NT) is essential for the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the optimal delivery during Ramadan fasting remains unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of structured NT program versus standard care in patients with T2D during Ramadan. (2) Methods: The present study was an 8-week, parallel, non-randomized study with patients’ preference design involving 64 patients with T2D. The participants were asked to choose their preferred group, i.e., structured NT (Structured Ramadan NT, sRNT) or standard care (SC). The participants in the sRNT group received a Ramadan-focused nutrition plan, including a diabetes-specific formula throughout the study, whereas the patients in the SC group received standard nutrition care. Study outcomes included clinical outcomes and quality of life (QoL). Data was analyzed using two-way repeated-measures ANOVA and linear mixed-effects model. (3) Results: More than half of the participants (n = 38, 63%) chose sRNT as their preferred group. Both groups had comparable baseline characteristics. After 8-weeks of the respective intervention, participants in the sRNT group had lower levels of fasting plasma glucose (−0.9 ± 0.3 mmol/L vs. 0.2 ± 0.3 mmol/L, p < 0.05), triglycerides (−0.21 ± 0.08 mmol/L vs. 0.20 ± 0.17 mmol/L, p < 0.05), and self-monitoring glucose at pre-dawn (6.9 mmol/L vs. 7.8 mmol/L, p < 0.05) and pre-bedtime (7.6 mmol/L vs. 8.6 mmol/L, p < 0.05) than participants in the SC group. Although not different between groups, HbA1c levels decreased significantly in the sRNT (−0.72 ± 0.16%, p < 0.001) but not in the SC group (−0.35 ± 0.24%, p = 0.155). QoL and satisfaction scores improved significantly in sRNT group, but not in SC group. (4) Conclusions: The structured NT regimen for Ramadan is a feasible and beneficial program for T2D patients observing Ramadan fasting as it showed an improvement in clinical outcomes and QoL. Full article
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Article
The Visceral Adipose Index in Relation to Incidence of Hypertension in Chinese Adults: China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030805 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1156
Abstract
Hypertension is the most crucial single contributor to global burden of disease and mortality, while weight loss as a non-pharmacological strategy is recommended to reduce blood pressure. This study aims to examine the association between visceral adipose index (VAI) and hypertension in Chinese [...] Read more.
Hypertension is the most crucial single contributor to global burden of disease and mortality, while weight loss as a non-pharmacological strategy is recommended to reduce blood pressure. This study aims to examine the association between visceral adipose index (VAI) and hypertension in Chinese adults. Data were collected from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), consisting of 8374 apparently healthy participants aged ≥18 years in the 2009 CHNS for cross-sectional analysis, and 4275 participants at entry from 2009 to 2011 for cohort analysis. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP), and blood lipid were measured. Information of population characteristics, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet were determined by validated questionnaire. Higher VAI scores were significantly associated with higher BP levels and higher risk of hypertension after adjustment with potential confounders (all p-trend < 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio of hypertension was 1.526 (95%CI: 1.194, 1.952; p-trend < 0.01) for participants in the highest quartile of VAI scores when compared with those in the lowest quartile after adjustment for age, physical activity, antihypertensive medication, total energy intake, salt intake, and other major lifestyle factors. VAI scores were significantly, longitudinally associated with hypertension development among apparently healthy Chinese adults. Full article
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Article
Reversal of Prediabetes in Saudi Adults: Results from an 18 Month Lifestyle Intervention
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030804 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1293
Abstract
Aim: This 18 month intervention study aims to determine the efficacy of a lifestyle modification program on prediabetes reversal among Saudi adults. Methods: An 18 month randomized, multicenter trial was conducted among Saudis with prediabetes aged 25–60 recruited from King Salman Hospital and [...] Read more.
Aim: This 18 month intervention study aims to determine the efficacy of a lifestyle modification program on prediabetes reversal among Saudi adults. Methods: An 18 month randomized, multicenter trial was conducted among Saudis with prediabetes aged 25–60 recruited from King Salman Hospital and primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 180 consenting individuals were randomized (1:1) to receive either intensive lifestyle intervention (ILIG) or guidance (control group, CG). ILIG was provided with a personalized lifestyle counseling by nutritionists every 3 months to improve diet and exercise behaviors. CG was given booklets containing information on prediabetes and its prevention. Data from lifestyle assessments and laboratory measurements were analyzed at baseline and every 6 months. The primary outcome was the reversal rate of prediabetes. Results: 158 participants were analyzed (CG:85, ILIG:73) at the 12 month follow-up and 28 participants (CG:11 and ILIG:17) completed the entire 18 month study. Post-intervention, the cumulative incidence of prediabetes reversal in the ILIG was 38 participants (52.1%) which was significantly higher than CG with 26 participants (30.6%) (p = 0.02). Conclusion: A tailored lifestyle intervention is effective in reversing prediabetes, at least for a year, among Arab adults with prediabetes. The challenge of sustaining interest in adopting lifestyle changes for a longer duration should be addressed in this population. Full article
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Article
Can Self-Determination Explain Dietary Patterns Among Adults at Risk of or with Type 2 Diabetes? A Cross-Sectional Study in Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Areas in Stockholm
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030620 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1296
Abstract
Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a major health concern in Sweden, where prevalence rates have been increasing in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) is posited as an optimal framework to build interventions targeted to improve and maintain long-term healthy habits preventing and [...] Read more.
Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a major health concern in Sweden, where prevalence rates have been increasing in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) is posited as an optimal framework to build interventions targeted to improve and maintain long-term healthy habits preventing and delaying the onset of T2D. However, research on SDT, T2D and diet has been widely overlooked in socio-economically disadvantaged populations. This study aims to identify the main dietary patterns of adults at risk of and with T2D from two socio-economically disadvantaged Stockholm areas and to determine the association between those patterns and selected SDT constructs (relatedness, autonomy motivation and competence). Cross-sectional data of 147 participants was collected via questionnaires. Exploratory Factor Analysis was used to identify participants’ main dietary patterns. Multiple linear regressions were conducted to assess associations between the SDT and diet behaviours, and path analysis was used to explore mediations. Two dietary patterns (healthy and unhealthy) were identified. Competence construct was most strongly associated with healthy diet. Autonomous motivation and competence mediated the effect of relatedness on diet behaviour. In conclusion, social surroundings can promote adults at high risk of or with T2D to sustain healthy diets by supporting their autonomous motivation and competence. Full article
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Article
Snapshots of Urban and Rural Food Environments: EPOCH-Based Mapping in a High-, Middle-, and Low-Income Country from a Non-Communicable Disease Perspective
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020484 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1485
Abstract
A changing food environment is implicated as a primary contributor to the increasing levels of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study aimed to generate snapshots of selected external food environments to inform intervention strategies for NCD prevention in three countries: Uganda (low income), South [...] Read more.
A changing food environment is implicated as a primary contributor to the increasing levels of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study aimed to generate snapshots of selected external food environments to inform intervention strategies for NCD prevention in three countries: Uganda (low income), South Africa (middle income) and Sweden (high income), with one matched pair of urban–rural sites per country. Fifty formal and informal food retail outlets were assessed, and descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were performed. We found that formal food retail outlets in these countries had both positive and negative traits, as they were the main source of basic food items but also made unhealthy food items readily available. The Ugandan setting had predominantly informal outlets, while the Swedish setting had primarily formal outlets and South Africa had both, which fits broadly into the traditional (Uganda), mixed (South Africa) and modern (Sweden) conceptualized food systems. The promotion of unhealthy food products was high in all settings. Uganda had the highest in-community advertising, followed by South Africa and Sweden with the lowest, perhaps related to differences in regulation and implementation. The findings speak to the need to address contextual differences in NCD-related health interventions by incorporating strategies that address the food environment, and for a critical look at regulations that tackle key environment-related factors of food on a larger scale. Full article
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Article
Eating Competence Is Associated with Lower Prevalence of Obesity and Better Insulin Sensitivity in Finnish Adults with Increased Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: The StopDia Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010104 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1852
Abstract
A healthy diet prevents type 2 diabetes but is often difficult to adhere to. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether eating competence is associated with diet or risk factors and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in individuals screened for type 2 diabetes [...] Read more.
A healthy diet prevents type 2 diabetes but is often difficult to adhere to. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether eating competence is associated with diet or risk factors and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in individuals screened for type 2 diabetes risk. Eating competence is an indicator of food acceptance, positive attitudes, internal regulation and contextual skills related to food and eating. In total, 3147 Finnish adults aged 18–74 at an increased risk for type 2 diabetes identified via online risk screening participated in the baseline examinations of the Stop Diabetes (StopDia) study. The participants filled out the digital questionnaire on food intake, physical activity and sleep, and the Satter Eating Competence Inventory 2.0TM (ecSI 2.0TM). In addition, anthropometric and laboratory measurements were performed at primary healthcare centres. Eating competent individuals (37%, classified by ecSI 2.0TM) had a better quality of diet (p < 0.05 for all). Additionally, eating competence was associated with a lower prevalence of previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes, abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridaemia, and with better insulin sensitivity (p < 0.05 for all). However, these associations, except for metabolic syndrome, were at least partly mediated by body mass index. Eating competence is associated with a healthy diet and could, thus, in the long term, support the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Full article
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Article
A Dietary Pattern with High Sugar Content Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the Pomak Population
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3043; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123043 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1839
Abstract
The present study describes the geographically isolated Pomak population and its particular dietary patterns in relationship to cardiovascular risk factors. We collected a population-based cohort in a cross-sectional study, with detailed anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and lifestyle parameter information. Dietary patterns were derived through [...] Read more.
The present study describes the geographically isolated Pomak population and its particular dietary patterns in relationship to cardiovascular risk factors. We collected a population-based cohort in a cross-sectional study, with detailed anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and lifestyle parameter information. Dietary patterns were derived through principal component analysis based on a validated food-frequency questionnaire, administered to 1702 adult inhabitants of the Pomak villages on the Rhodope mountain range in Greece. A total of 69.9% of the participants were female with a population mean age of 44.9 years; 67% of the population were overweight or obese with a significantly different prevalence for obesity between men and women (17.5% vs. 37.5%, respectively, p < 0.001). Smoking was more prevalent in men (45.8% vs. 2.2%, p < 0.001), as 97.3% of women had never smoked. Four dietary patterns emerged as characteristic of the population, and were termed “high in sugars”, “quick choices”, “balanced”, and “homemade”. Higher adherence to the “high in sugars” dietary pattern was associated with increased glucose levels (p < 0.001) and increased risk of hypertension (OR (95% CI) 2.61 (1.55, 4.39), p < 0.001) and nominally associated with high blood glucose levels (OR (95% CI) 1.85 (1.11, 3.08), p = 0.018), compared to lower adherence. Overall, we characterize the dietary patterns of the Pomak population and describe associations with cardiovascular risk factors. Full article
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Article
“I Did Not Believe You Could Get Better”—Reversal of Diabetes Risk Through Dietary Changes in Older Persons with Prediabetes in Region Stockholm
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2658; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112658 - 04 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1632
Abstract
Diabetes risk can be controlled and even reversed by making dietary changes. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of how older persons with a high risk of developing Type 2 diabetes manage and relate to information about diabetes risk [...] Read more.
Diabetes risk can be controlled and even reversed by making dietary changes. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of how older persons with a high risk of developing Type 2 diabetes manage and relate to information about diabetes risk over a ten-year period. Fifteen qualitative interviews were conducted among participants from the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP). The participants were asked to recall the health examinations conducted by the SDPP related to their prediabetes and to describe their experiences and potential changes related to diet and physical activity. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The main theme found was that T2D (type 2 diabetes) risk is not perceived as concrete enough to motivate lifestyle modifications, such as changing dietary patterns, without other external triggers. Diagnosis was recognized as a reason to modify diet, and social interactions were found to be important for managing behavior change. Diagnosis was also a contributing factor to lifestyle modification, while prognosis of risk was not associated with efforts to change habits. The results from this study suggest that the potential of reversing prediabetes needs to be highlighted and more clearly defined for older persons to serve as motivators for lifestyle modification. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Review
Preventive Role of Diet Interventions and Dietary Factors in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Umbrella Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2722; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092722 - 06 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2279
Abstract
Background: Although the body of evidence indicates clear benefits of dietary modifications for prevention of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), it may be difficult for healthcare providers to recommend which diet interventions or dietary factors are appropriate for patients as there are too many [...] Read more.
Background: Although the body of evidence indicates clear benefits of dietary modifications for prevention of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), it may be difficult for healthcare providers to recommend which diet interventions or dietary factors are appropriate for patients as there are too many modalities available. Accordingly, we performed an umbrella review to synthesize evidence on diet interventions and dietary factors in prevention of T2DM. Methods: Medline and Scopus databases were searched for relevant studies. Systematic reviews with meta-analyses of randomized-controlled trial or observational studies were eligible if they measured effects of diet interventions and/or dietary factors including dietary patterns, food groups, and nutrients on risk of T2DM. The effect of each diet intervention/factor was summarized qualitatively. Results: Sixty systematic reviews and meta-analyses were eligible. Results of the review suggest that healthy dietary patterns such as Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets, and high consumption of whole grains, low-fat dairy products, yogurt, olive oil, chocolate, fiber, magnesium, and flavonoid significantly reduced the risk of T2DM. In contrast, high glycemic index and glycemic load diets, high consumption of red and processed meat, and sugar or artificial sugar-sweetened beverages significantly increased risk of T2DM. Prescribing diet interventions with or without physical activity interventions significantly decreased risk of T2DM in both high-risk and general population. Conclusion: High consumption of Mediterranean and DASH diet, and interventions that modified the quality of diet intake significantly reduced risk of T2DM especially in the high-risk population. These lifestyle modifications should be promoted in both individual and population levels to prevent and decrease burden from T2DM in the future. Full article
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Review
Novel e-Health Applications for the Management of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents in Greece
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051380 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1153
Abstract
Obesity in childhood and adolescence represents a major health problem. Novel e-Health technologies have been developed in order to provide a comprehensive and personalized plan of action for the prevention and management of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence. We used information [...] Read more.
Obesity in childhood and adolescence represents a major health problem. Novel e-Health technologies have been developed in order to provide a comprehensive and personalized plan of action for the prevention and management of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence. We used information and communication technologies to develop a “National Registry for the Prevention and Management of Overweight and Obesity” in order to register online children and adolescents nationwide, and to guide pediatricians and general practitioners regarding the management of overweight or obese subjects. Furthermore, intelligent multi-level information systems and specialized artificial intelligence algorithms are being developed with a view to offering precision and personalized medical management to obese or overweight subjects. Moreover, the Big Data against Childhood Obesity platform records behavioral data objectively by using inertial sensors and Global Positioning System (GPS) and combines them with data of the environment, in order to assess the full contextual framework that is associated with increased body mass index (BMI). Finally, a computerized decision-support tool was developed to assist pediatric health care professionals in delivering personalized nutrition and lifestyle optimization advice to overweight or obese children and their families. These e-Health applications are expected to play an important role in the management of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence. Full article
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Review
Dietary Protein Consumption and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: ADose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2783; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112783 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2503
Abstract
The relationship between dietary protein consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the relations between dietary protein consumption and the risk of T2D. We conducted systematic retrieval of prospective studies [...] Read more.
The relationship between dietary protein consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the relations between dietary protein consumption and the risk of T2D. We conducted systematic retrieval of prospective studies in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Summary relative risks were compiled with a fixed effects model or a random effects model, and a restricted cubic spline regression model and generalized least squares analysis were used to evaluate the diet–T2D incidence relationship. T2D risk increased with increasing consumption of total protein and animal protein, red meat, processed meat, milk, and eggs, respectively, while plant protein and yogurt had an inverse relationship. A non-linear association with the risk for T2D was found for the consumption of plant protein, processed meat, milk, yogurt, and soy. This meta-analysis suggests that substitution of plant protein and yogurt for animal protein, especially red meat and processed meat, can reduce the risk for T2D. Full article
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