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Open AccessArticle

Energy Dense Salty Food Consumption Frequency Is Associated with Diastolic Hypertension in Spanish Children

1
GENUD Research group, Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria (IIS) Aragón, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
2
Investigation Unit in Nutrition, Growth and Human Development of Galicia GI Pediatric Nutrition-Santiago Health Research Institute (IDIS), Pediatrics Department, Universitary Clinical Hospital of Santiago, Santiago de Compostela University, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
3
Unidad de Endocrinología Pediátrica, Hospital Clínico Lozano Blesa, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
4
Metabolic Pediatric and Investigation Unit, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, 14004 Córdoba, Spain
5
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
6
Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular II, Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Centro de Investigación Biomédica, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041027
Received: 20 February 2020 / Revised: 4 April 2020 / Accepted: 7 April 2020 / Published: 9 April 2020
High blood pressure (BP) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and sodium consumption is related to high BP. Moreover, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) influence BP. For this reason, we investigated whether: 1) children with risk of elevated BP had a higher consumption frequency (CF) of energy-dense salty foods (EDSF), high-sugary foods (HSF) and SSB or a low DASH score; and 2) children with a higher CF of EDSF showed a worse anthropometric and metabolic profile. Anthropometry, BP and general biochemical parameters were measured in 687 Spanish children (5–16 years) with normal or excess weight. A food frequency questionnaire was used to calculate EDSF, HSF and SSB consumption, and modified DASH score. Results showed that sex and pubertal stage influenced modified DASH score. Diastolic hypertension was associated to higher CF of EDSF in the whole sample and to higher CF of SSB in pubertal children, both independently of nutritional status. In addition, CF of EDSF was positively associated with CF of HSF and SSB and inversely associated with modified DASH score. Targeted policies and intervention programs, specific for different age ranges, should be established that aim to reduce salt consumption from snacks and processed foods, which could reduce HSF and SSB consumption as well. View Full-Text
Keywords: consumption frequency; dietary approach stop hypertension; energy-dense salty food; hypertension; pubertal stage; sugar-sweetened beverages consumption frequency; dietary approach stop hypertension; energy-dense salty food; hypertension; pubertal stage; sugar-sweetened beverages
MDPI and ACS Style

Pérez-Gimeno, G.; Rupérez, A.I.; Vázquez-Cobela, R.; Herráiz-Gastesi, G.; Gil-Campos, M.; Aguilera, C.M.; Moreno, L.A.; Leis Trabazo, M.R.; Bueno-Lozano, G. Energy Dense Salty Food Consumption Frequency Is Associated with Diastolic Hypertension in Spanish Children. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1027. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041027

AMA Style

Pérez-Gimeno G, Rupérez AI, Vázquez-Cobela R, Herráiz-Gastesi G, Gil-Campos M, Aguilera CM, Moreno LA, Leis Trabazo MR, Bueno-Lozano G. Energy Dense Salty Food Consumption Frequency Is Associated with Diastolic Hypertension in Spanish Children. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4):1027. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041027

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pérez-Gimeno, Gloria; Rupérez, Azahara I.; Vázquez-Cobela, Rocío; Herráiz-Gastesi, Gonzalo; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Aguilera, Concepción M.; Moreno, Luis A.; Leis Trabazo, María R.; Bueno-Lozano, Gloria. 2020. "Energy Dense Salty Food Consumption Frequency Is Associated with Diastolic Hypertension in Spanish Children" Nutrients 12, no. 4: 1027. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041027

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