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Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Diet Quality are Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Severity: The PREDIMED-Plus Study

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CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Research Group on Community Nutrition & Oxidative Stress, University of Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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Health Research Institute of the Balearic Islands (IdISBa), 07120 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, IdISNA, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
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Human Nutrition Unit, Biochemistry and Biotechnology Department, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43201 Reus, Spain
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Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, 46100 Valencia, Spain
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Unit of Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition, Institut Hospital del Mar de Investigaciones Médicas Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica (IMIM), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
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Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Miguel Hernández University, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica de Alicante (ISABIAL), 46020 Alicante, Spain
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CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Bioaraba Health Research Institute, Osakidetza Basque Health Service, Araba University Hospital, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48013 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
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Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, University of Málaga-IBIMA, 29071 Málaga, Spain
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Precision Nutrition Program, IMDEA Food, CEI UAM + CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences, and Physiology, Center for Nutrition Research, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
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Institute for Biomedical Research, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
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Department of Internal Medicine, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
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Virgen de la Victoria Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, University of Málaga, 29010 Málaga, Spain
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Department of Family Medicine, Research Unit, Distrito Sanitario Atención Primaria Sevilla, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
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Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Bellvitge, Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08907 Barcelona, Spain
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Lipids and Atherosclerosis Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), Reina Sofia University Hospital, University of Cordoba, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
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Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
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Department of Health Sciences, Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Olivar y Aceites de Oliva, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen, Spain
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Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC), 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Nutritional Genomics and Epigenomics Group, IMDEA Food, CEI UAM + CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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CIBER Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Network of Researchers REDI Fundación SEMERGEN, 28009 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Endocrinology, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Endocrinology, Fundación Jiménez-Díaz, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Lipid Clinic, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
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Servicio Navarro de Salud, Osasunbidea. 31071 Pamplona, Spain
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Centro de Salud Raval, 03203 Elche, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
A complete list of the investigators in the PREDIMED-Plus is provided in the Acknowledgments.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041013
Received: 10 March 2020 / Revised: 31 March 2020 / Accepted: 1 April 2020 / Published: 7 April 2020
Healthy lifestyle factors, such as physical activity (PA) and Mediterranean diet (MD), decrease the likelihood of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to report main lifestyle components and related factors according to the MetS severity. Cross-sectional analysis was done of baseline lifestyle factors from 5739 participants with overweight/obesity and MetS features (aged 55–75 years) included in the PREDIMED-PLUS primary cardiovascular prevention randomized trial. Participants were categorized in tertiles according to a validated MetS severity score (MetSSS). Anthropometrics, visceral adiposity index, dietary nutrient intake, biochemical marker levels, as well as a Dietary Inflammatory Index and depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II) were measured. Diet quality was assessed using a 17-item energy-restricted MD questionnaire. Duration and intensity of PA was self-reported using the Minnesota-REGICOR Short Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sedentary behaviours were measured using the Spanish version of the Nurses’ Health Study questionnaire. The 30 s chair stand test was also assessed. Participants with highest MetSSS showed higher values of cardiovascular risk factors (except for total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol), depression risk, sedentary and TV viewing time, and lower moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). Highest MetSSS participants tended to a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern and tended to lower MD adherence. In addition, they showed lower carbohydrate and nut intake and higher intake of protein, saturated and trans fatty acids, cholesterol, iodine, sodium, red and processed meat products, other oils different from olive oil and spirit alcoholic drinks. The highest MetS severity score was associated with lower moderate and vigorous LTPA and higher sedentary time and depression risk, as they tended to a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern and lower MD adherence. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic syndrome severity; physical activity; Mediterranean diet; depression risk; sedentary behaviour metabolic syndrome severity; physical activity; Mediterranean diet; depression risk; sedentary behaviour
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gallardo-Alfaro, L.; Bibiloni, M.d.M.; Mascaró, C.M.; Montemayor, S.; Ruiz-Canela, M.; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Corella, D.; Fitó, M.; Romaguera, D.; Vioque, J.; Alonso-Gómez, Á.M.; Wärnberg, J.; Martínez, J.A.; Serra-Majem, L.; Estruch, R.; Fernández-García, J.C.; Lapetra, J.; Pintó, X.; García Ríos, A.; Bueno-Cavanillas, A.; Gaforio, J.J.; Matía-Martín, P.; Daimiel, L.; Micó-Pérez, R.M.; Vidal, J.; Vázquez, C.; Ros, E.; Fernandez-Lázaro, C.I.; Becerra-Tomás, N.; Gimenez-Alba, I.M.; Zomeño, M.D.; Konieczna, J.; Compañ-Gabucio, L.; Tojal-Sierra, L.; Pérez-López, J.; Zulet, M.Á.; Casañas-Quintana, T.; Castro-Barquero, S.; Gómez-Pérez, A.M.; Santos-Lozano, J.M.; Galera, A.; Basterra-Gortari, F.J.; Basora, J.; Saiz, C.; Pérez-Vega, K.A.; Galmés-Panadés, A.M.; Tercero-Maciá, C.; Sorto-Sánchez, C.; Sayón-Orea, C.; García-Gavilán, J.; Muñoz-Martínez, J.; Tur, J.A., on behalf of the PREDIMED-Plus Investigators. Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Diet Quality are Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Severity: The PREDIMED-Plus Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1013. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041013

AMA Style

Gallardo-Alfaro L, Bibiloni MdM, Mascaró CM, Montemayor S, Ruiz-Canela M, Salas-Salvadó J, Corella D, Fitó M, Romaguera D, Vioque J, Alonso-Gómez ÁM, Wärnberg J, Martínez JA, Serra-Majem L, Estruch R, Fernández-García JC, Lapetra J, Pintó X, García Ríos A, Bueno-Cavanillas A, Gaforio JJ, Matía-Martín P, Daimiel L, Micó-Pérez RM, Vidal J, Vázquez C, Ros E, Fernandez-Lázaro CI, Becerra-Tomás N, Gimenez-Alba IM, Zomeño MD, Konieczna J, Compañ-Gabucio L, Tojal-Sierra L, Pérez-López J, Zulet MÁ, Casañas-Quintana T, Castro-Barquero S, Gómez-Pérez AM, Santos-Lozano JM, Galera A, Basterra-Gortari FJ, Basora J, Saiz C, Pérez-Vega KA, Galmés-Panadés AM, Tercero-Maciá C, Sorto-Sánchez C, Sayón-Orea C, García-Gavilán J, Muñoz-Martínez J, Tur JA on behalf of the PREDIMED-Plus Investigators. Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Diet Quality are Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Severity: The PREDIMED-Plus Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4):1013. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041013

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gallardo-Alfaro, Laura, Maria d.M. Bibiloni, Catalina M. Mascaró, Sofía Montemayor, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Dolores Corella, Montserrat Fitó, Dora Romaguera, Jesús Vioque, Ángel M. Alonso-Gómez, Julia Wärnberg, J. A. Martínez, Lluís Serra-Majem, Ramon Estruch, José C. Fernández-García, José Lapetra, Xavier Pintó, Antonio García Ríos, Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas, José J. Gaforio, Pilar Matía-Martín, Lidia Daimiel, Rafael M. Micó-Pérez, Josep Vidal, Clotilde Vázquez, Emilio Ros, Cesar I. Fernandez-Lázaro, Nerea Becerra-Tomás, Ignacio M. Gimenez-Alba, María D. Zomeño, Jadwiga Konieczna, Laura Compañ-Gabucio, Lucas Tojal-Sierra, Jéssica Pérez-López, M. Á. Zulet, Tamara Casañas-Quintana, Sara Castro-Barquero, Ana M. Gómez-Pérez, José M. Santos-Lozano, Ana Galera, F. J. Basterra-Gortari, Josep Basora, Carmen Saiz, Karla A. Pérez-Vega, Aina M. Galmés-Panadés, Cristina Tercero-Maciá, Carolina Sorto-Sánchez, Carmen Sayón-Orea, Jesús García-Gavilán, Júlia Muñoz-Martínez, and Josep A. Tur on behalf of the PREDIMED-Plus Investigators. 2020. "Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Diet Quality are Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Severity: The PREDIMED-Plus Study" Nutrients 12, no. 4: 1013. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041013

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