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Preventive Role of Diet Interventions and Dietary Factors in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Umbrella Review
Article

Lifestyle Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and National Diabetes Care Systems in European Countries

1
Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
2
Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, Local Health Unit, 64100 Teramo, Italy
3
Rianimazione e TIPO Cardiochirurgica, Ospedale G. Mazzini, Local Health Unit, 64100 Teramo, Italy
4
Department of Community Health, Local Health Unit, 64100 Teramo, Italy
5
Public Health Unit, ASREM, 86100 Campobasso, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2806; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092806
Received: 11 August 2020 / Revised: 7 September 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 13 September 2020
Background. Diabetes is increasing by 3.09% per year in males and 1.92% in females. Lifestyle risk factors are related to diabetes. The aim of this work is to highlight within EU-28 countries the distribution percentages of some lifestyle risk factors and some components of diabetes health care. Methods. A literature search was conducted to highlight the presence of diabetes registries, which are fundamental tools for disease surveillance and health planning; the presence of a national diabetes plan (NDP); the care setting; and methods used for reimbursement of drugs, devices, and coverage of any comorbidities associated with diabetes. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was carried out to evaluate the possible associations between the variables considered. Results. The highest percentages of diabetes (>10%) are registered in Bulgaria, Malta, and Hungary. Concerning the prevalence of overweight, no European country shows overall percentages of less than 50%. Regarding obesity, 57% of countries show prevalence rates of 25%. The record for physical inactivity belongs to Malta, with 45% of individuals being inactive. The percentage of physical inactivity for females is higher than for males across Europe. In total, 57% of the countries have an insurance-based health system, while 12 countries have public national health systems. Further, 57% of countries have an NDP, while 42% of the EU countries have established a prevalence register for diabetes. Conclusions. Prevalence rates for type 2 DM in the range of 8–9% are noted in 50% of EU-28 countries. In total, 21 out of EU countries show a high prevalence rate for overweight, while 7% of EU-28 countries have an obesity prevalence rate of 25%. Diabetes treatment is entrusted to general practitioners in most countries. The results of this work highlight the differences between countries, but also between genders. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; lifestyle risk factors; EU 28; registries; health care system type 2 diabetes; lifestyle risk factors; EU 28; registries; health care system
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MDPI and ACS Style

Altobelli, E.; Angeletti, P.M.; Profeta, V.F.; Petrocelli, R. Lifestyle Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and National Diabetes Care Systems in European Countries. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2806. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092806

AMA Style

Altobelli E, Angeletti PM, Profeta VF, Petrocelli R. Lifestyle Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and National Diabetes Care Systems in European Countries. Nutrients. 2020; 12(9):2806. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092806

Chicago/Turabian Style

Altobelli, Emma, Paolo M. Angeletti, Valerio F. Profeta, and Reimondo Petrocelli. 2020. "Lifestyle Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and National Diabetes Care Systems in European Countries" Nutrients 12, no. 9: 2806. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092806

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