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Special Issue "Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Alessandra Durazzo

Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria – Centro di ricerca CREA-Alimenti e Nutrizione, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178, Rome, Italy
E-Mail
Interests: antioxidants; bioactive compounds; food quality; nutrition; food composition databases; bioavailability, metabolic pathway
Guest Editor
Dr. Massimo Lucarini

Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria – Centro di ricerca Alimenti e Nutrizione, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178, Rome, Italy
E-Mail
Interests: natural compounds; nutraceuticals; natural products; food science and nutrition; food composition databases; bioaccesibility; dietary intake

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The delineation and exploitation of extractable and non-extractable antioxidants in the main food groups, as well as by-products and biomass waste, are required. The focus should be addressed towards the description and updating of the methodological approach of antioxidant compounds in a multidisciplinary and innovative design. Conventional procedures and advanced extraction technologies, as well as analytical techniques, with particular attention to green procedures, will be considered. The combination of emerging analytical techniques and the application of statistical methods, i.e., infrared spectroscopy, multi-elemental analysis, isotopic ratio mass spectrometry, and nanotechnologies coupled with chemometrics are welcome.

The application of studies of extractable and non-extractable antioxidants on food waste, in line with concepts of circular economy and biorefineries, will be considered.

The utilization of extractable and non-extractable antioxidants in the nutraceuticals field is another focal point of this Special Issue: extracts, fractions, purified and semi-purified substances, used alone or in combination with other ingredients as dietary supplements or functional foods. This field needs to be explored using rigorous science approaches, considering a combination of studies from different fields (nutrition, food chemistry, medicine, etc.) is increasing.

Dr. Alessandra Durazzo
Dr. Massimo Lucarini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • extractable and non-extractable antioxidants
  • antioxidant properties
  • integrated food research
  • food matrices
  • by-products
  • food waste
  • biomass
  • methodological approach
  • advanced technologies
  • green procedures
  • chemometrics
  • biorefinery
  • nutraceuticals
  • dietary supplements
  • functional foods

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Time-Dependent Degradation of Polyphenols from Thermally-Processed Berries and Their In Vitro Antiproliferative Effects against Melanoma
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2534; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102534
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 30 September 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
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Abstract
Polyphenols are natural occurring micronutrients that can protect plants from natural weathering and are also helpful to humans. These compounds are abundantly found in fruits or berries. Because of berry seasonal availability and also due to their rapid degradation, people have found multiple
[...] Read more.
Polyphenols are natural occurring micronutrients that can protect plants from natural weathering and are also helpful to humans. These compounds are abundantly found in fruits or berries. Because of berry seasonal availability and also due to their rapid degradation, people have found multiple ways to preserve them. The most common options are freezing or making jams. Polyphenol stability, during processing is a continuous challenge for the food industry. There are also multiple published data providing that they are sensitive to light, pH or high temperature, vectors which are all present during jam preparation. In this context the aim of this study was to assess phytochemical composition and bioactive compounds degradation after jam preparation. We also monitored their degradation during storage time and their in vitro antiproliferative potential when tested on melanoma cells. The obtained results revealed that when processed and stored in time, the bioactive compounds from berries jams are degrading, but they still exert antioxidant and antiproliferative potential. Prior to LC-MS analysis, polyphenolic compounds were identified as: flavonoids (anthocyanins (ANT), flavonols (FLA)) and non-flavonoid (hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA) and hydroxybenzoic acids (HBA)). The most significant decrease was observed for HCA compared to other classes of compounds. This variation is expected due to differences in constituents and phenolic types among different analyzed berries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Cyclically Pressurized Solid–Liquid Extraction Polyphenols from Cagnulari Grape Pomace on Oxidative Endothelial Cell Death
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2105; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092105
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this work is the evaluation of a green extraction technology to exploit winery waste byproducts. Specifically, a solid–liquid extraction technology (Naviglio Extractor®) was used to obtain polyphenolic antioxidants from the Cagnulari grape marc. The extract was then chemically
[...] Read more.
The aim of this work is the evaluation of a green extraction technology to exploit winery waste byproducts. Specifically, a solid–liquid extraction technology (Naviglio Extractor®) was used to obtain polyphenolic antioxidants from the Cagnulari grape marc. The extract was then chemically characterized by spectrophotometric analysis, high-performance liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry, revealing a total polyphenol content of 4.00 g/L ± 0.05, and the presence of anthocyanins, one of the most representative groups among the total polyphenols in grapes. To investigate potential biological activities of the extract, its ability to counteract hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and cell death was assessed in primary human endothelial cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, used to assess potential extract cytotoxicity, failed to show any deleterious effect on cultured cells. Fluorescence measurements, attained with the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) probe 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA), revealed a strong antioxidant potential of the marc extract on the used cells, as indicated by the inhibition of the hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS generation and the counteraction of the oxidative-induced cell death. Our results indicate the Naviglio extraction, as a green technology process, can be used to exploit wine waste to obtain antioxidants which can be used to produce enriched foods and nutraceuticals high in antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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Open AccessCommunication From Plant Compounds to Botanicals and Back: A Current Snapshot
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1844; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081844
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 21 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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Abstract
This work aims at giving an updated picture of the strict interaction between main plant biologically active compounds and botanicals. The main features of the emerging class of dietary supplements, the botanicals, are highlighted. Focus is also on the definition of actual possibilities
[...] Read more.
This work aims at giving an updated picture of the strict interaction between main plant biologically active compounds and botanicals. The main features of the emerging class of dietary supplements, the botanicals, are highlighted. Focus is also on the definition of actual possibilities of study approach and research strategies. Examples of innovative directions are given: assessment of interaction of bioactive compounds, chemometrics and the new goal of biorefineries. Current models of existing databases, such as plant metabolic pathways, food composition, bioactive compounds, dietary supplements, and dietary markers, are described as usable tools for health research. The need for categorization of botanicals as well as for the implementation of specific and dedicated databases emerged, based on both analytical data and collected data taken from literature throughout a harmonized and standardized approach for the evaluation of an adequate dietary intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle A Novel HPLC Method for Direct Detection of Nitric Oxide Scavengers from Complex Plant Matrices and Its Application to Aloysia triphylla Leaves
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1574; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071574
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
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Abstract
The present study aimed at developing an original pre-column HPLC assay allowing rapid characterization of nitric oxide (NO) scavengers from complex plant extracts. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was employed as a NO donor and spiked with an aqueous extract from Aloysia triphylla leaves prior
[...] Read more.
The present study aimed at developing an original pre-column HPLC assay allowing rapid characterization of nitric oxide (NO) scavengers from complex plant extracts. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was employed as a NO donor and spiked with an aqueous extract from Aloysia triphylla leaves prior to HPLC analysis. Relying on the ability of radical scavenging constituents to be oxidized upon reaction with radicals, this assay successfully allowed direct identification of three potential NO scavengers, including verbascoside, isoverbascoside, and luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide. These three phenolics were also individually assessed for their NO scavenging activities by using a Griess colorimetric assay. With respective IC50 values of 56 ± 4, 51 ± 3, and 69 ± 5 µg/mL, verbascoside, isoverbascoside, and luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide were all reported as potent NO scavenging compounds, confirming the efficiency of the SNP spiking HPLC assay. The present method can, thus, be considered as a valuable and effective approach for speeding up the discovery of NO scavenging constituents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Activity and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Extractable and Non-Extractable Phenolics from Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC.
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061303
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of the extractable and non-extractable phenolics of Terminalia. Sericea Burch. Ex DC. Free, ester bound, ether or glycoside bound and insoluble phenolics were extracted from the fruit, leaves, stem, and root samples.
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of the extractable and non-extractable phenolics of Terminalia. Sericea Burch. Ex DC. Free, ester bound, ether or glycoside bound and insoluble phenolics were extracted from the fruit, leaves, stem, and root samples. Follin Ciocalteu was used to estimate the phenolic content while DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay was used to determine the antioxidant activity. The data obtained were subjected to multivariate analysis for relationships. The result indicated that the highest average total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities were found in the free (14.8 mgGAE/g; IC50 6.8 μg/mL) and ester bound (15.1 mgGAE/g; IC50 6.4 μg/mL) extractable phenolics. There was a strong negative correlation between TPC and DPPH (r = −0.828). Agglomerative hierarchical clustering revealed three clusters. Cluster one contained the insoluble and glycoside phenolics while cluster 2 contained only free phenolic acid of the root. The third cluster was predominantly free and ester bound phenolic extracts. The principal component analysis score plot indicated two major clusters with factor 1 (F1) explaining 61% of the variation. The nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectra indicated that gallic acid and resveratrol are the major phenolic compounds present in the root. This study has demonstrated that extractable phenolics contributed more to the antioxidant activities compared to the non-extractables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle Black Tea Samples Origin Discrimination Using Analytical Investigations of Secondary Metabolites, Antiradical Scavenging Activity and Chemometric Approach
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030513
Received: 3 February 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 24 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1011 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A comprehensive study on the composition and antioxidant properties of black tea samples with a chemometric approach was performed via LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS, DPPH radical scavenging assay, and Folin–Ciocalteu assay (TPC). Marked differences between the teas from seven different countries (China, India, Iran, Japan, Kenya,
[...] Read more.
A comprehensive study on the composition and antioxidant properties of black tea samples with a chemometric approach was performed via LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS, DPPH radical scavenging assay, and Folin–Ciocalteu assay (TPC). Marked differences between the teas from seven different countries (China, India, Iran, Japan, Kenya, Nepal, Sri Lanka) were shown. The Indian samples demonstrated the highest total catechin content (184.8 mg/100 mL), the largest TPC and DPPH scavenging potential (58.2 mg/100 mL and 84.5%, respectively). The applied principal component analysis (PCA) and ANOVA revealed several correlations between the level of catechins in tea infusions. EC (epicatechin), ECG (epicatechin gallate), EGC (epigallocatechin), and EGCG (epigallocatechin-3-gallate) content was not correlated with DPPH, gallic acid, and TPC; however, a strong correlation of EC and ECG between themselves and a negative correlation of these two catechins with EGCG and EGC was noted. Interestingly, simple catechins were not found to be responsible for antioxidant properties of the black teas. The samples collected in the higher altitudes were similar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle Nectandra grandiflora By-Products Obtained by Alternative Extraction Methods as a Source of Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Antifungal Properties
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020372
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nectandra grandiflora Nees (Lauraceae) is a Brazilian native tree recognized by its durable wood and the antioxidant compounds of its leaves. Taking into account that the forest industry offers the opportunity to recover active compounds from its residues and by-products, this study identifies
[...] Read more.
Nectandra grandiflora Nees (Lauraceae) is a Brazilian native tree recognized by its durable wood and the antioxidant compounds of its leaves. Taking into account that the forest industry offers the opportunity to recover active compounds from its residues and by-products, this study identifies and underlines the potential of natural products from Nectandra grandiflora that can add value to the forest exploitation. This study shows the effect of three different extraction methods: conventional (CE), ultrasound-assisted (UAE) and microwave-assisted (MAE) on Nectandra grandiflora leaf extracts (NGLE) chemical yields, phenolic and flavonoid composition, physical characteristics as well as antioxidant and antifungal properties. Results indicate that CE achieves the highest extraction phytochemical yield (22.16%), but with similar chemical composition to that obtained by UAE and MAE. Moreover, CE also provided a superior thermal stability of NGLE. The phenolic composition of NGLE was confirmed firstly, by colorimetric assays and infrared spectra and then by chromatographic analysis, in which quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside was detected as the major compound (57.75–65.14%). Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of the NGLE was not altered by the extraction methods, finding a high radical inhibition in all NGLE (>80% at 2 mg/mL). Regarding the antifungal activity, there was observed that NGLE possess effective bioactive compounds, which inhibit the Aspergillus niger growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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Open AccessCommunication Comparative Evaluation of Soluble and Insoluble-Bound Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Two Chinese Mistletoes
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020359
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Mistletoes are used medicinally in order to treat various human illnesses. Few studies have reported on the phenolic content and antioxidant properties of Chinese mistletoes (CMs). In this work, the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activities of soluble
[...] Read more.
Mistletoes are used medicinally in order to treat various human illnesses. Few studies have reported on the phenolic content and antioxidant properties of Chinese mistletoes (CMs). In this work, the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activities of soluble and insoluble-bound phenolic extracts from CMs hosted by Camellia assamica (Mast.) Chang (CMC) and Pyrus, i, f. (CMP) were compared. Phenolic compounds in CMC and CMP were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the TPC of soluble phenolic extracts was higher than insoluble-bound phenolic counterparts in both CMC and CMP. In addition, the TPC of soluble, insoluble-bound and total phenolic fractions (9.91 ± 0.23, 4.59 ± 0.27 and 14.50 ± 0.35 μmol ferulic acid equivalents per gram (FAE/g) dry sample) extracted from CMP were higher than those extracted from CMC. The soluble phenolic extracts in CMP showed higher antioxidant activities than those in CMC. Eighteen phenolic compounds from soluble and insoluble-bound phenolic extracts from the CMs were identified and quantified by HPLC. This study indicates that CMC and CMP, especially the latter, could be sources of antioxidants in human health care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle Increasing Antioxidant Activity and Protein Digestibility in Phaseolus vulgaris and Avena sativa by Fermentation with the Pleurotus ostreatus Fungus
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2275; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122275
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
The aim of the research was to determine the impact of fermentation with Pleurotus ostreatus on kidney beans, black beans, and oats. The results indicate that the fungus has a positive effect on the substrates when compared to the controls. The antioxidant activity
[...] Read more.
The aim of the research was to determine the impact of fermentation with Pleurotus ostreatus on kidney beans, black beans, and oats. The results indicate that the fungus has a positive effect on the substrates when compared to the controls. The antioxidant activity (39.5% on kidney beans and 225% on oats in relation to the controls) and content of total polyphenols (kidney beans three times higher regarding the controls) increased significantly by the presence of the fungus mycelium, even after simulated digestion. There was a significant increase in protein digestibility (from 39.99 to 48.13% in black beans, 44.06 to 69.01% in kidney beans, and 63.25 to 70.01% in oats) and a decrease of antinutrient tannins (from 65.21 to 22.07 mg in black beans, 35.54 to 23.37 in kidney beans, and 55.67 to 28.11 in oats) as well as an increase in the contents of some essential amino acids. Overall, this fermentation treatment with Pleurotus ostreatus improved the nutritional quality of cereals and legumes, making them potential ingredients for the elaboration and/or fortification of foods for human nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle Studies on the Anti-Oxidative Function of trans-Cinnamaldehyde-Included β-Cyclodextrin Complex
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 1868; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22121868
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1950 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
trans-Cinnamaldehyde (tCIN), an active compound found in cinnamon, is well known for its antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. The β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) oligomer has been used for a variety of applications in nanotechnology, including pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Here, we aimed
[...] Read more.
trans-Cinnamaldehyde (tCIN), an active compound found in cinnamon, is well known for its antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. The β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) oligomer has been used for a variety of applications in nanotechnology, including pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Here, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of tCIN self-included in β-CD complexes (CIs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with increasing concentrations of β-CD, tCIN, or CIs for different times. β-CD alone did not affect the production of nitric oxide (NO) or reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, both tCIN and CI significantly reduced NO and ROS production. Thus, CIs may have strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, similar to those of tCIN when used alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle Studies on the Inclusion Complexes of Daidzein with β-Cyclodextrin and Derivatives
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2183; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122183
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 2 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The inclusion complexes between daidzein and three cyclodextrins (CDs), namely β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD, DS = 12.5) and (2-hydroxy)propyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD, DS = 4.2) were prepared. The effects of the inclusion behavior of daidzein with three kinds of cyclodextrins were investigated in both solution
[...] Read more.
The inclusion complexes between daidzein and three cyclodextrins (CDs), namely β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD, DS = 12.5) and (2-hydroxy)propyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD, DS = 4.2) were prepared. The effects of the inclusion behavior of daidzein with three kinds of cyclodextrins were investigated in both solution and solid state by methods of phase-solubility, XRD, DSC, SEM, 1H-NMR and 2D ROESY methods. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of daidzein and daidzein-CDs inclusion complexes were determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The results showed that daidzein formed a 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex with β-CD, Me-β-CD and HP-β-CD. The results also showed that the solubility of daidzein was improved after encapsulating by CDs. 1H-NMR and 2D ROESY analyses show that the B ring of daidzein was the part of the molecule that was most likely inserted into the cavity of CDs, thus forming an inclusion complex. Antioxidant activity studies showed that the antioxidant performance of the inclusion complexes was enhanced in comparison to the native daidzein. It could be a potentially promising way to develop a new formulation of daidzein for herbal medicine or healthcare products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Potential of Fruit Juice with Added Chokeberry Powder (Aronia melanocarpa)
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2158; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122158
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (459 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of using chokeberry powder as a supplement in apple juice to increase the nutritional value of the final product with the aim of developing a new functional food product. Also, to determine the
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of using chokeberry powder as a supplement in apple juice to increase the nutritional value of the final product with the aim of developing a new functional food product. Also, to determine the influence of ultrasound assisted extraction on the bioactive compounds content, nutritional composition and antioxidant potential of apple juice with added chokeberry powder. The juice samples with added chokeberry powder had higher antioxidant capacity, irrespective of the extraction technique used. Apple juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound had significantly higher content of all analyzed bioactive compounds. The application of high intensity ultrasound significantly reduced the extraction time of the plant material. A positive correlation between vitamin C content, total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant capacity was determined in juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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Open AccessFeature PaperPerspective Bio-Based Compounds from Grape Seeds: A Biorefinery Approach
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1888; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081888
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 28 July 2018
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Abstract
Food and agricultural waste represents a growing problem with negative effects on the economy, environment, and human health. Winemaking produces byproducts with high added value, which can be used for new productions in several application fields. From the perspective of biorefinery and circular
[...] Read more.
Food and agricultural waste represents a growing problem with negative effects on the economy, environment, and human health. Winemaking produces byproducts with high added value, which can be used for new productions in several application fields. From the perspective of biorefinery and circular economy, grape seeds could be exploited by extracting bioactive compounds with high added value before using biomass for energy purposes. The markets concerned are, in addition to the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals sectors, which use bioactive compounds, the sector of biopolymeric materials and of energy for the production of biohydrogen and biomethane. Generally, bioactive components should be investigated through an integrated and multidisciplinary study approach based on emerging analytical techniques; in this context, attention is addressed towards green and sustainable procedures; an update of extraction techniques, innovative technologies, and chemometrics are described. Nowadays, processes so far tested on a pilot scale for grape waste are developed to enhance the extraction yields. Here, a picture of the Italian experience applied to the byproducts of the wine industry is given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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