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Special Issue "Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Massimo Lucarini
Website
Guest Editor
CREA-Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome, Italy
Interests: natural compounds; nutraceuticals; natural products; food science and nutrition; food composition databases; bioaccesibility; dietary intake
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The delineation and exploitation of extractable and non-extractable antioxidants in the main food groups, as well as by-products and biomass waste, are required. The focus should be addressed towards the description and updating of the methodological approach of antioxidant compounds in a multidisciplinary and innovative design. Conventional procedures and advanced extraction technologies, as well as analytical techniques, with particular attention to green procedures, will be considered. The combination of emerging analytical techniques and the application of statistical methods, i.e., infrared spectroscopy, multi-elemental analysis, isotopic ratio mass spectrometry, and nanotechnologies coupled with chemometrics are welcome.

The application of studies of extractable and non-extractable antioxidants on food waste, in line with concepts of circular economy and biorefineries, will be considered.

The utilization of extractable and non-extractable antioxidants in the nutraceuticals field is another focal point of this Special Issue: extracts, fractions, purified and semi-purified substances, used alone or in combination with other ingredients as dietary supplements or functional foods. This field needs to be explored using rigorous science approaches, considering a combination of studies from different fields (nutrition, food chemistry, medicine, etc.) is increasing.

Dr. Alessandra Durazzo
Dr. Massimo Lucarini
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • extractable and non-extractable antioxidants
  • antioxidant properties
  • integrated food research
  • food matrices
  • by-products
  • food waste
  • biomass
  • methodological approach
  • advanced technologies
  • green procedures
  • chemometrics
  • biorefinery
  • nutraceuticals
  • dietary supplements
  • functional foods

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101933 - 20 May 2019
Cited by 20
Abstract
In addition to documented scientific interest on antioxidant phytochemicals (plant secondary metabolites) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants) Printed Edition available

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

Open AccessCommunication
Antioxidant Properties of Four Commonly Consumed Popular Italian Dishes
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081543 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Four popular dishes belonging to Italian cuisine and widely consumed in the country were experimentally prepared in a dedicated lab-kitchen following a validated and standardized protocol. This study provides their antioxidant properties evaluating the contribution of extractable and non-extractable bioactive compounds, and identifying [...] Read more.
Four popular dishes belonging to Italian cuisine and widely consumed in the country were experimentally prepared in a dedicated lab-kitchen following a validated and standardized protocol. This study provides their antioxidant properties evaluating the contribution of extractable and non-extractable bioactive compounds, and identifying the assessment of interactions between their natural active compounds and the food matrix. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values in aqueous-organic extract ranged from the highest antioxidant activity in torta di mele (10.72 µmol/g d.m.) to that in besciamella (2.47 µmol/g d.m.); in residue, pasta alla carbonara reached the highest value (73.83 µmol/g d.m.) following by that in pasta alla amatriciana (68.64 µmol/g d.m.). Total polyphenol content (TPC) ranged in aqueous-organic extracts between 36.50 and 64.28 mg/100 g d.m. and in residue from 425.84 to 1747.35 mg/100 g d.m. Our findings may contribute to the updating of the Italian Food Composition Database, by providing for the first time a value for the antioxidant properties. This could contribute to encourage the consumption of recipes rich in key nutrients and bioactive molecules. This information is useful and important for determining the association between diet and a healthy status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Determination of Flavonoid and Proanthocyanidin Profile of Hungarian Sour Cherry
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3278; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123278 - 11 Dec 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Hungarian sour cherries (SC) are excellent source of anthocyanin (concentrations (100–300 mg in 100 g fresh fruit) and melatonin (0.15 mg in 100 g fresh fruit), but other flavonoid derivatives also can be isolated by aqueous alcoholic extraction. We have developed a new [...] Read more.
Hungarian sour cherries (SC) are excellent source of anthocyanin (concentrations (100–300 mg in 100 g fresh fruit) and melatonin (0.15 mg in 100 g fresh fruit), but other flavonoid derivatives also can be isolated by aqueous alcoholic extraction. We have developed a new process for extracting non-extractable procyanidines bound to the membrane, proteins, and fibers. These compounds were seperated with UHPLC-MS methods, and the structure of individual components were identified on the basis of their mass fragmentation spectra. The antioxidant capacity of soluble and non-soluble antioxidants were measured with ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (DPPH), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays, and compared to the new measurement methods of water-soluble antioxidant capacity (ACW), lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity (ACL). Furthermore, total phenolic content (TPC) and total procyanidin content (PAC) were determinated. As a result of our investigation, we found that the solvent combination, where in the first step is water–ethanol (1:1), then 100% ethanol were suitable for the extraction of the extractable antioxidants. However, the chemiluminescence method that is based on the elimination of the superoxide radical is more accurate than other colorimetric methods which measure antioxidant capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical, Functional, and Nutraceutical Properties of Eggplant Flours Obtained by Different Drying Methods
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3210; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123210 - 05 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The importance of consuming functional foods has led the food industry to look for alternative sources of ingredients of natural origin. Eggplants are a type of vegetable that is valued for its content in phytochemical compounds and it is due to the fact [...] Read more.
The importance of consuming functional foods has led the food industry to look for alternative sources of ingredients of natural origin. Eggplants are a type of vegetable that is valued for its content in phytochemical compounds and it is due to the fact that this research is conducted towards the development of eggplant flour as a proposal to be used as a functional ingredient in the food industry. In this study, the eggplant fruits were divided into four groups, based on the drying method and the equipment used: Minced, drying oven (T1); sliced, drying oven (T2); sliced and frozen, drying tunnel (T3); and sliced, drying tunnel (T4). All the eggplant flours showed the same trend regarding their antioxidant capacity and phenolic content in the order T2 > T4 > T1 > T3. The freezing of eggplant was found to have a negative effect on functional and antioxidant properties. With respect to their nutritional composition, the flours did not change in their crude fiber, protein, and fat contents. In general terms, the T2 flour is a potential ingredient for the preparation of foods with functional properties since it is rich in phenolic compounds and antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Different Degrees of Procyanidin Polymerization on the Nutrient Absorption and Digestive Enzyme Activity in Mice
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2916; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112916 - 08 Nov 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Proanthocyanidins, including polymers with both low and high degrees of polymerization, are the focus of intensive research worldwide due to their high antioxidant activity, medicinal applications, and pharmacological properties. However, the nutritional value of these compounds is limited because they readily form complexes [...] Read more.
Proanthocyanidins, including polymers with both low and high degrees of polymerization, are the focus of intensive research worldwide due to their high antioxidant activity, medicinal applications, and pharmacological properties. However, the nutritional value of these compounds is limited because they readily form complexes with proteins, polysaccharides, and metal ions when consumed. In this study, we examined the effects of proanthocyanidins with different degrees of polymerization on white mice. Twenty-four male white mice were randomly divided into three groups of eight mice each and fed proanthocyanidins with a low degree of polymerization or a high degree of polymerization or a distilled water control via oral gavage over a 56-day period. We examined the effects of these proanthocyanidins on digestive enzyme activity and nutrient absorption. Compared to the control group, the group fed high-polymer proanthocyanidins exhibited a significant reduction in net body mass, total food intake, food utility rate, amylase activity, protease activity, and major nutrient digestibility (p < 0.05), while the group fed low-polymerization proanthocyanidins only exhibited significant reductions in total food intake, α-amylase activity, and apparent digestibility of calcium and zinc (p < 0.05). Therefore, proanthocyanidins with a high degree of polymerization had a greater effect on digestive enzyme activity and nutrient absorption than did those with a low degree of polymerization. This study lays the foundation for elucidating the relationship between procyanidin polymerization and nutrient uptake, with the aim of reducing or eliminating the antinutritional effects of polyphenols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Time-Dependent Degradation of Polyphenols from Thermally-Processed Berries and Their In Vitro Antiproliferative Effects against Melanoma
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2534; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102534 - 04 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Polyphenols are natural occurring micronutrients that can protect plants from natural weathering and are also helpful to humans. These compounds are abundantly found in fruits or berries. Because of berry seasonal availability and also due to their rapid degradation, people have found multiple [...] Read more.
Polyphenols are natural occurring micronutrients that can protect plants from natural weathering and are also helpful to humans. These compounds are abundantly found in fruits or berries. Because of berry seasonal availability and also due to their rapid degradation, people have found multiple ways to preserve them. The most common options are freezing or making jams. Polyphenol stability, during processing is a continuous challenge for the food industry. There are also multiple published data providing that they are sensitive to light, pH or high temperature, vectors which are all present during jam preparation. In this context the aim of this study was to assess phytochemical composition and bioactive compounds degradation after jam preparation. We also monitored their degradation during storage time and their in vitro antiproliferative potential when tested on melanoma cells. The obtained results revealed that when processed and stored in time, the bioactive compounds from berries jams are degrading, but they still exert antioxidant and antiproliferative potential. Prior to LC-MS analysis, polyphenolic compounds were identified as: flavonoids (anthocyanins (ANT), flavonols (FLA)) and non-flavonoid (hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA) and hydroxybenzoic acids (HBA)). The most significant decrease was observed for HCA compared to other classes of compounds. This variation is expected due to differences in constituents and phenolic types among different analyzed berries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effect of Cyclically Pressurized Solid–Liquid Extraction Polyphenols from Cagnulari Grape Pomace on Oxidative Endothelial Cell Death
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2105; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092105 - 21 Aug 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The aim of this work is the evaluation of a green extraction technology to exploit winery waste byproducts. Specifically, a solid–liquid extraction technology (Naviglio Extractor®) was used to obtain polyphenolic antioxidants from the Cagnulari grape marc. The extract was then chemically [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is the evaluation of a green extraction technology to exploit winery waste byproducts. Specifically, a solid–liquid extraction technology (Naviglio Extractor®) was used to obtain polyphenolic antioxidants from the Cagnulari grape marc. The extract was then chemically characterized by spectrophotometric analysis, high-performance liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry, revealing a total polyphenol content of 4.00 g/L ± 0.05, and the presence of anthocyanins, one of the most representative groups among the total polyphenols in grapes. To investigate potential biological activities of the extract, its ability to counteract hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and cell death was assessed in primary human endothelial cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, used to assess potential extract cytotoxicity, failed to show any deleterious effect on cultured cells. Fluorescence measurements, attained with the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) probe 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA), revealed a strong antioxidant potential of the marc extract on the used cells, as indicated by the inhibition of the hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS generation and the counteraction of the oxidative-induced cell death. Our results indicate the Naviglio extraction, as a green technology process, can be used to exploit wine waste to obtain antioxidants which can be used to produce enriched foods and nutraceuticals high in antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
From Plant Compounds to Botanicals and Back: A Current Snapshot
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1844; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081844 - 24 Jul 2018
Cited by 42
Abstract
This work aims at giving an updated picture of the strict interaction between main plant biologically active compounds and botanicals. The main features of the emerging class of dietary supplements, the botanicals, are highlighted. Focus is also on the definition of actual possibilities [...] Read more.
This work aims at giving an updated picture of the strict interaction between main plant biologically active compounds and botanicals. The main features of the emerging class of dietary supplements, the botanicals, are highlighted. Focus is also on the definition of actual possibilities of study approach and research strategies. Examples of innovative directions are given: assessment of interaction of bioactive compounds, chemometrics and the new goal of biorefineries. Current models of existing databases, such as plant metabolic pathways, food composition, bioactive compounds, dietary supplements, and dietary markers, are described as usable tools for health research. The need for categorization of botanicals as well as for the implementation of specific and dedicated databases emerged, based on both analytical data and collected data taken from literature throughout a harmonized and standardized approach for the evaluation of an adequate dietary intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
A Novel HPLC Method for Direct Detection of Nitric Oxide Scavengers from Complex Plant Matrices and Its Application to Aloysia triphylla Leaves
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1574; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071574 - 28 Jun 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The present study aimed at developing an original pre-column HPLC assay allowing rapid characterization of nitric oxide (NO) scavengers from complex plant extracts. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was employed as a NO donor and spiked with an aqueous extract from Aloysia triphylla leaves prior [...] Read more.
The present study aimed at developing an original pre-column HPLC assay allowing rapid characterization of nitric oxide (NO) scavengers from complex plant extracts. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was employed as a NO donor and spiked with an aqueous extract from Aloysia triphylla leaves prior to HPLC analysis. Relying on the ability of radical scavenging constituents to be oxidized upon reaction with radicals, this assay successfully allowed direct identification of three potential NO scavengers, including verbascoside, isoverbascoside, and luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide. These three phenolics were also individually assessed for their NO scavenging activities by using a Griess colorimetric assay. With respective IC50 values of 56 ± 4, 51 ± 3, and 69 ± 5 µg/mL, verbascoside, isoverbascoside, and luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide were all reported as potent NO scavenging compounds, confirming the efficiency of the SNP spiking HPLC assay. The present method can, thus, be considered as a valuable and effective approach for speeding up the discovery of NO scavenging constituents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Activity and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Extractable and Non-Extractable Phenolics from Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC.
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061303 - 29 May 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of the extractable and non-extractable phenolics of Terminalia. Sericea Burch. Ex DC. Free, ester bound, ether or glycoside bound and insoluble phenolics were extracted from the fruit, leaves, stem, and root samples. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of the extractable and non-extractable phenolics of Terminalia. Sericea Burch. Ex DC. Free, ester bound, ether or glycoside bound and insoluble phenolics were extracted from the fruit, leaves, stem, and root samples. Follin Ciocalteu was used to estimate the phenolic content while DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay was used to determine the antioxidant activity. The data obtained were subjected to multivariate analysis for relationships. The result indicated that the highest average total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities were found in the free (14.8 mgGAE/g; IC50 6.8 μg/mL) and ester bound (15.1 mgGAE/g; IC50 6.4 μg/mL) extractable phenolics. There was a strong negative correlation between TPC and DPPH (r = −0.828). Agglomerative hierarchical clustering revealed three clusters. Cluster one contained the insoluble and glycoside phenolics while cluster 2 contained only free phenolic acid of the root. The third cluster was predominantly free and ester bound phenolic extracts. The principal component analysis score plot indicated two major clusters with factor 1 (F1) explaining 61% of the variation. The nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectra indicated that gallic acid and resveratrol are the major phenolic compounds present in the root. This study has demonstrated that extractable phenolics contributed more to the antioxidant activities compared to the non-extractables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Black Tea Samples Origin Discrimination Using Analytical Investigations of Secondary Metabolites, Antiradical Scavenging Activity and Chemometric Approach
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030513 - 26 Feb 2018
Cited by 14Correction
Abstract
A comprehensive study on the composition and antioxidant properties of black tea samples with a chemometric approach was performed via LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS, DPPH radical scavenging assay, and Folin–Ciocalteu assay (TPC). Marked differences between the teas from seven different countries (China, India, Iran, Japan, Kenya, [...] Read more.
A comprehensive study on the composition and antioxidant properties of black tea samples with a chemometric approach was performed via LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS, DPPH radical scavenging assay, and Folin–Ciocalteu assay (TPC). Marked differences between the teas from seven different countries (China, India, Iran, Japan, Kenya, Nepal, Sri Lanka) were shown. The Indian samples demonstrated the highest total catechin content (184.8 mg/100 mL), the largest TPC and DPPH scavenging potential (58.2 mg/100 mL and 84.5%, respectively). The applied principal component analysis (PCA) and ANOVA revealed several correlations between the level of catechins in tea infusions. EC (epicatechin), ECG (epicatechin gallate), EGC (epigallocatechin), and EGCG (epigallocatechin-3-gallate) content was not correlated with DPPH, gallic acid, and TPC; however, a strong correlation of EC and ECG between themselves and a negative correlation of these two catechins with EGCG and EGC was noted. Interestingly, simple catechins were not found to be responsible for antioxidant properties of the black teas. The samples collected in the higher altitudes were similar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Nectandra grandiflora By-Products Obtained by Alternative Extraction Methods as a Source of Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Antifungal Properties
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020372 - 09 Feb 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Nectandra grandiflora Nees (Lauraceae) is a Brazilian native tree recognized by its durable wood and the antioxidant compounds of its leaves. Taking into account that the forest industry offers the opportunity to recover active compounds from its residues and by-products, this study identifies [...] Read more.
Nectandra grandiflora Nees (Lauraceae) is a Brazilian native tree recognized by its durable wood and the antioxidant compounds of its leaves. Taking into account that the forest industry offers the opportunity to recover active compounds from its residues and by-products, this study identifies and underlines the potential of natural products from Nectandra grandiflora that can add value to the forest exploitation. This study shows the effect of three different extraction methods: conventional (CE), ultrasound-assisted (UAE) and microwave-assisted (MAE) on Nectandra grandiflora leaf extracts (NGLE) chemical yields, phenolic and flavonoid composition, physical characteristics as well as antioxidant and antifungal properties. Results indicate that CE achieves the highest extraction phytochemical yield (22.16%), but with similar chemical composition to that obtained by UAE and MAE. Moreover, CE also provided a superior thermal stability of NGLE. The phenolic composition of NGLE was confirmed firstly, by colorimetric assays and infrared spectra and then by chromatographic analysis, in which quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside was detected as the major compound (57.75–65.14%). Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of the NGLE was not altered by the extraction methods, finding a high radical inhibition in all NGLE (>80% at 2 mg/mL). Regarding the antifungal activity, there was observed that NGLE possess effective bioactive compounds, which inhibit the Aspergillus niger growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
Comparative Evaluation of Soluble and Insoluble-Bound Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Two Chinese Mistletoes
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020359 - 08 Feb 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Mistletoes are used medicinally in order to treat various human illnesses. Few studies have reported on the phenolic content and antioxidant properties of Chinese mistletoes (CMs). In this work, the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activities of soluble [...] Read more.
Mistletoes are used medicinally in order to treat various human illnesses. Few studies have reported on the phenolic content and antioxidant properties of Chinese mistletoes (CMs). In this work, the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activities of soluble and insoluble-bound phenolic extracts from CMs hosted by Camellia assamica (Mast.) Chang (CMC) and Pyrus, i, f. (CMP) were compared. Phenolic compounds in CMC and CMP were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the TPC of soluble phenolic extracts was higher than insoluble-bound phenolic counterparts in both CMC and CMP. In addition, the TPC of soluble, insoluble-bound and total phenolic fractions (9.91 ± 0.23, 4.59 ± 0.27 and 14.50 ± 0.35 μmol ferulic acid equivalents per gram (FAE/g) dry sample) extracted from CMP were higher than those extracted from CMC. The soluble phenolic extracts in CMP showed higher antioxidant activities than those in CMC. Eighteen phenolic compounds from soluble and insoluble-bound phenolic extracts from the CMs were identified and quantified by HPLC. This study indicates that CMC and CMP, especially the latter, could be sources of antioxidants in human health care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Increasing Antioxidant Activity and Protein Digestibility in Phaseolus vulgaris and Avena sativa by Fermentation with the Pleurotus ostreatus Fungus
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2275; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122275 - 20 Dec 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
The aim of the research was to determine the impact of fermentation with Pleurotus ostreatus on kidney beans, black beans, and oats. The results indicate that the fungus has a positive effect on the substrates when compared to the controls. The antioxidant activity [...] Read more.
The aim of the research was to determine the impact of fermentation with Pleurotus ostreatus on kidney beans, black beans, and oats. The results indicate that the fungus has a positive effect on the substrates when compared to the controls. The antioxidant activity (39.5% on kidney beans and 225% on oats in relation to the controls) and content of total polyphenols (kidney beans three times higher regarding the controls) increased significantly by the presence of the fungus mycelium, even after simulated digestion. There was a significant increase in protein digestibility (from 39.99 to 48.13% in black beans, 44.06 to 69.01% in kidney beans, and 63.25 to 70.01% in oats) and a decrease of antinutrient tannins (from 65.21 to 22.07 mg in black beans, 35.54 to 23.37 in kidney beans, and 55.67 to 28.11 in oats) as well as an increase in the contents of some essential amino acids. Overall, this fermentation treatment with Pleurotus ostreatus improved the nutritional quality of cereals and legumes, making them potential ingredients for the elaboration and/or fortification of foods for human nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Studies on the Anti-Oxidative Function of trans-Cinnamaldehyde-Included β-Cyclodextrin Complex
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 1868; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22121868 - 19 Dec 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
trans-Cinnamaldehyde (tCIN), an active compound found in cinnamon, is well known for its antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. The β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) oligomer has been used for a variety of applications in nanotechnology, including pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Here, we aimed [...] Read more.
trans-Cinnamaldehyde (tCIN), an active compound found in cinnamon, is well known for its antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. The β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) oligomer has been used for a variety of applications in nanotechnology, including pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Here, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of tCIN self-included in β-CD complexes (CIs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with increasing concentrations of β-CD, tCIN, or CIs for different times. β-CD alone did not affect the production of nitric oxide (NO) or reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, both tCIN and CI significantly reduced NO and ROS production. Thus, CIs may have strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, similar to those of tCIN when used alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Studies on the Inclusion Complexes of Daidzein with β-Cyclodextrin and Derivatives
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2183; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122183 - 08 Dec 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
The inclusion complexes between daidzein and three cyclodextrins (CDs), namely β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD, DS = 12.5) and (2-hydroxy)propyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD, DS = 4.2) were prepared. The effects of the inclusion behavior of daidzein with three kinds of cyclodextrins were investigated in both solution [...] Read more.
The inclusion complexes between daidzein and three cyclodextrins (CDs), namely β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD, DS = 12.5) and (2-hydroxy)propyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD, DS = 4.2) were prepared. The effects of the inclusion behavior of daidzein with three kinds of cyclodextrins were investigated in both solution and solid state by methods of phase-solubility, XRD, DSC, SEM, 1H-NMR and 2D ROESY methods. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of daidzein and daidzein-CDs inclusion complexes were determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The results showed that daidzein formed a 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex with β-CD, Me-β-CD and HP-β-CD. The results also showed that the solubility of daidzein was improved after encapsulating by CDs. 1H-NMR and 2D ROESY analyses show that the B ring of daidzein was the part of the molecule that was most likely inserted into the cavity of CDs, thus forming an inclusion complex. Antioxidant activity studies showed that the antioxidant performance of the inclusion complexes was enhanced in comparison to the native daidzein. It could be a potentially promising way to develop a new formulation of daidzein for herbal medicine or healthcare products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Potential of Fruit Juice with Added Chokeberry Powder (Aronia melanocarpa)
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2158; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122158 - 05 Dec 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of using chokeberry powder as a supplement in apple juice to increase the nutritional value of the final product with the aim of developing a new functional food product. Also, to determine the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of using chokeberry powder as a supplement in apple juice to increase the nutritional value of the final product with the aim of developing a new functional food product. Also, to determine the influence of ultrasound assisted extraction on the bioactive compounds content, nutritional composition and antioxidant potential of apple juice with added chokeberry powder. The juice samples with added chokeberry powder had higher antioxidant capacity, irrespective of the extraction technique used. Apple juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound had significantly higher content of all analyzed bioactive compounds. The application of high intensity ultrasound significantly reduced the extraction time of the plant material. A positive correlation between vitamin C content, total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant capacity was determined in juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperPerspective
Bio-Based Compounds from Grape Seeds: A Biorefinery Approach
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1888; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081888 - 28 Jul 2018
Cited by 16
Abstract
Food and agricultural waste represents a growing problem with negative effects on the economy, environment, and human health. Winemaking produces byproducts with high added value, which can be used for new productions in several application fields. From the perspective of biorefinery and circular [...] Read more.
Food and agricultural waste represents a growing problem with negative effects on the economy, environment, and human health. Winemaking produces byproducts with high added value, which can be used for new productions in several application fields. From the perspective of biorefinery and circular economy, grape seeds could be exploited by extracting bioactive compounds with high added value before using biomass for energy purposes. The markets concerned are, in addition to the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals sectors, which use bioactive compounds, the sector of biopolymeric materials and of energy for the production of biohydrogen and biomethane. Generally, bioactive components should be investigated through an integrated and multidisciplinary study approach based on emerging analytical techniques; in this context, attention is addressed towards green and sustainable procedures; an update of extraction techniques, innovative technologies, and chemometrics are described. Nowadays, processes so far tested on a pilot scale for grape waste are developed to enhance the extraction yields. Here, a picture of the Italian experience applied to the byproducts of the wine industry is given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants) Printed Edition available
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