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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Ultrasound and Microwave Assisted Extraction of Opuntia Fruit Peels Biocompounds: Optimization and Comparison Using RSM-CCD

1
Institute of Food Engineering for Development (IIAD), Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera, s/n CP, 46022 Valencia, Spain
2
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
3
Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety (ISIRYM), Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera, s/n CP, 46022 Valencia, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3618; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193618
Received: 11 September 2019 / Revised: 27 September 2019 / Accepted: 2 October 2019 / Published: 8 October 2019
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of bioactive compounds, peels from Opuntia engelmannii cultivar (cv.) Valencia were optimized by response surface methodology. Randomized extraction runs were performed for each of the technologies employed in order to build effective models with maximum (bioactive molecules content and yield) and minimum (antioxidant activity) responses. A 5-level, 4-factor central composite design was used to obtain target responses as a function of extraction time (t), solid to liquid ratio (S/L), methanol concentration (metOH), and temperature (T). Specific response optimization for each technology was analyzed, discussed, and general optimization from all the responses together was also gather. The optimum values for each factor were: t = 2.5 and 1.4 min, S/L = 5 and 5 g/L, metOH = 34.6 and 0% of methanol and T = 30 and 36.6 °C, achieving maximum responses of 201.6 and 132.9 mg of betalains/g, 13.9 and 8.0 mg of phenolic acids/g, 2.4 and 1.5 mg of flavonoids/g, 71.8% and 79.1% of extractable solid and IC50 values for the antioxidant activity of 2.9 and 3.6, for UAE and MAE, respectively. The present study suggested UAE as the best extraction system, in order to maximize recovery of bioactive compounds with a high antioxidant activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Opuntia; by-products; phenolic compounds; betalains; extraction optimization; response surface methodology (RSM) Opuntia; by-products; phenolic compounds; betalains; extraction optimization; response surface methodology (RSM)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Melgar, B.; Dias, M.I.; Barros, L.; Ferreira, I.C.; Rodriguez-Lopez, A.D.; Garcia-Castello, E.M. Ultrasound and Microwave Assisted Extraction of Opuntia Fruit Peels Biocompounds: Optimization and Comparison Using RSM-CCD. Molecules 2019, 24, 3618.

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