Special Issue "Safety and Microbiological Quality"

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Fabienne Remize
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of La Réunion, UMR QualiSud, F-34398 Montpellier, France
Interests: fermentation; non-conventional processing; lactic acid bacteria; aquaculture; waste recovery; bioactive compounds; antioxidants
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Didier Montet
E-Mail
Guest Editor
UMR C-95 QualiSud, CIRAD, Université Montpellier, Montpellier SupAgro, Université d’Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de La Réunion, F-34398 Montpellier, France
Interests: food safety; hazard analysis; control; mycotoxin; microbiota

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food fermentation aims, primarily, to increase the shelf-life of perishable foodstuffs, with an extremely large diversity of origins.

Safety issues are related to the control of growth and persistence of foodborne pathogens, but also to the presence of toxic compounds, such as mycotoxins, biogenic amines, ethylcarbamate or other chemical hazards, formed over fermentation. Moreover, fermentation of some plant-derived foods aims to decrease the level of toxic molecules, like cyanogens and other anti-nutritional factors. This Special Issue will consider manuscripts dealing with management or control of chemical or microbiological hazards, including HACCP approaches and ferment quality.

In addition, microbiological quality of fermented foods and beverages is closely connected to sensory or nutritional quality, may influence shelf-life of resulting products by the control of microbial spoilage but also can directly influence process reproducibility. Lastly, microbial activity in fermented products can impact intestinal microbiota of host. Hence, this issue will also focus on the management of microorganisms to ensure a high microbiological quality.

Prof. Dr. Fabienne Remize
Dr. Didier Montet
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

Safety
Hazard
Spoilage
Shelf-life
HACCP
Pathogens
Toxins

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Safety and Microbiological Quality
Fermentation 2019, 5(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5020050 - 19 Jun 2019
Abstract
Food fermentation aims, primarily, to increase the shelf life of perishable foodstuffs [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Microbiological Quality) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Screening of Growth and Viability of 10 Strains of Bifidobacterium spp.: Effect of Media Composition
Fermentation 2019, 5(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5020038 - 28 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) alone or with special adjunct probiotic strains are inevitable for the preparation of specific functional foods. Moreover, because of their growth and metabolism, final products are preserved for a certain time. Thus, in this work, growth and metabolic activity [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) alone or with special adjunct probiotic strains are inevitable for the preparation of specific functional foods. Moreover, because of their growth and metabolism, final products are preserved for a certain time. Thus, in this work, growth and metabolic activity of novel animal origin isolates and culture collection strains of Bifidobacterium spp. were investigated. The influence of milk media (reconstituted or ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk), compared with synthetic modified Wilkins–Chalgren (WCH) broth under aerobic conditions was investigated. All tested bifidobacterial strains (n = 10) were grown well (1–2 log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL for 24 h at 37 °C) in all substrates and levels higher than 5 log CFU/mL remained during the cold storage period. Generally, different substrates determined almost the same maximal population densities (MPD) after 24 h that range within the average values of 8.96 ± 0.43 log CFU/mL, 8.87 ± 0.52 log CFU/mL, and 8.75 ± 0.54 log CFU/mL in reconstituted milk, UHT milk, and WCH broth, respectively. After 28 days of storage, the pH levels in milk media and broth were reduced to 4.50–5.60 and 4.60–4.90, respectively, representing a decrease of 0.8–2.13 units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Microbiological Quality) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Diverse Carbon Sources and Cultivation Conditions for Enhanced Growth and Lipid and Medium-Chain Fatty Acid (MCFA) Production by Mucor circinelloides
Fermentation 2019, 5(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5020035 - 23 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The effects of various carbon sources and cultivation conditions on the growth kinetics, lipid accumulation, and medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) production of Mucor circinelloides (MC) was investigated for 72 h in shake flask cultivation. Our previous investigation reported increments of 28 to 46% [...] Read more.
The effects of various carbon sources and cultivation conditions on the growth kinetics, lipid accumulation, and medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) production of Mucor circinelloides (MC) was investigated for 72 h in shake flask cultivation. Our previous investigation reported increments of 28 to 46% MCFAs among total cell lipids when the MC genome was genetically modified, in comparison to the wild-type. However, the growth of the engineered strain M65-TE-04 was adversely affected. Therefore, the current study was designed to enhance the growth, lipid production, and MCFA productivity of engineered M. circinelloides by optimizing the pH, agitation speed, temperature, and carbon sources. The findings for individual variables disclosed that the highest biomass (17.0 g/L) was obtained when coconut oil mixed with glucose was used as a carbon source under normal culture conditions. Additionally, the maximum lipid contents (67.5% cell dry weight (CDW)), MCFA contents (53% total fatty acid (TFA)), and overall lipid productivity (3.53 g/L·d) were attained at 26 °C, pH 6.0, and 150 rpm, respectively. The maximum biomass (19.4 g/L), TFA (14.3g/L), and MCFA (4.71 g/L) contents were achieved with integration of a temperature of 26 °C, pH 6.0, agitation speed 300 rpm, and coconut oil mixed medium as the carbon source. This work illustrates that biomass, TFA, and MCFA contents were increased 1.70–2.0-fold by optimizing the initial pH, agitation speed, temperature, and carbon sources in the M. circinelloides engineered strain (M65-TE-04) in comparison to initial cultivation conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Microbiological Quality) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Pesticide Residues and Stuck Fermentation in Wine: New Evidences Indicate the Urgent Need of Tailored Regulations
Fermentation 2019, 5(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5010023 - 24 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
For three consecutive years, an Italian winery in Apulia has dealt with sudden alcoholic stuck fermentation in the early stages of vinification process, i.e., typical defects addressable to bacterial spoilage. After a prescreening trial, we assessed, for the first time, the influence of [...] Read more.
For three consecutive years, an Italian winery in Apulia has dealt with sudden alcoholic stuck fermentation in the early stages of vinification process, i.e., typical defects addressable to bacterial spoilage. After a prescreening trial, we assessed, for the first time, the influence of the commercial fungicide preparation Ridomil Gold® (Combi Pepite), containing Metalaxyl-M (4.85%) and Folpet (40%) as active principles, on the growth of several yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces spp.) and lactic acid bacteria of oenological interest. We also tested, separately and in combination, the effects of Metalaxyl-M and Folpet molecules on microbial growth both in culture media and in grape must. We recalled the attention on Folpet negative effect on yeasts, extending its inhibitory spectrum on non-Saccharomyces (e.g., Candida spp.). Moreover, we highlighted a synergic effect of Metalaxyl-M and Folpet used together and a possible inhibitory role of the fungicide excipients. Interestingly, we identified the autochthonous S. cerevisiae strain E4 as moderately resistant to the Folpet toxicity. Our findings clearly indicate the urgent need for integrating the screening procedures for admission of pesticides for use on wine grape with trials testing their effects on the physiology of protechnological microbes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Salt and Temperature on the Growth of Fresco Culture
Fermentation 2019, 5(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5010002 - 20 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The effect of environmental factors, including temperature and water activity, has a considerable impact on the growth dynamics of each microbial species, and it is complicated in the case of mixed cultures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe and analyze [...] Read more.
The effect of environmental factors, including temperature and water activity, has a considerable impact on the growth dynamics of each microbial species, and it is complicated in the case of mixed cultures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe and analyze the growth dynamics of Fresco culture (consisting of 3 different bacterial species) using predictive microbiology tools. The growth parameters from primary fitting were modelled against temperature using two different secondary models. The intensity of Fresco culture growth in milk was significantly affected by incubation temperature described by Gibson’s model, from which the optimal temperature for growth of 38.6 °C in milk was calculated. This cardinal temperature was verified with the Topt = 38.3 °C calculated by the CTMI model (cardinal temperature model with inflection), providing other cardinal temperatures, i.e., minimal Tmin = 4.0 °C and maximal Tmax = 49.6 °C for Fresco culture growth. The specific growth rate of the culture under optimal temperature was 1.56 h−1. The addition of 1% w/v salt stimulated the culture growth dynamics under temperatures down to 33 °C but not the rate of milk acidification. The prediction data were validated and can be used in dairy practice during manufacture of fermented dairy products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Microbiological Quality) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Enterococci Isolated from Cypriot Green Table Olives as a New Source of Technological and Probiotic Properties
Fermentation 2018, 4(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4020048 - 20 Jun 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Τable olive is one of the main fermented vegetable worldwide and can be processed as treated or natural product. Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are responsible for the fermentation of treated olives. The aim of this work was to study the technological characteristics and [...] Read more.
Τable olive is one of the main fermented vegetable worldwide and can be processed as treated or natural product. Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are responsible for the fermentation of treated olives. The aim of this work was to study the technological characteristics and the potential probiotic properties of LAB isolated from Cypriot green table olives. This is the first comprehensive report on the isolation and characterization of LAB isolates retrieved from Cypriot green table olives. From a collection of 92 isolates from spontaneously fermenting green olives, 64 g positive isolates were firstly identified to genus level using biochemical tests, and secondly to species level using multiplex species specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifications of the sodA gene. Moreover, each of our isolates were tested for their technological and probiotics properties, as well as for their safety characteristics, using biochemical and molecular methods, in order to be used as starter cultures. Finally, to discriminate the most promising isolates on the base of their technological and probiotics properties, Principal component analysis was used. All the isolates were identified as Enteroccocus faecium, having interesting technological properties, while pathogenicity determinants were absent. Principal component analysis showed that some isolates had a combination of the tested parameters. These findings demonstrate that enteroccoci from Cypriot table olives should be considered as a new source of potential starter cultures for fermented products, having possibly promising technological and probiotic attributes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Principal Component Analysis for Clustering Probiotic-Fortified Beverage Matrices Efficient in Elimination of Shigella sp.
Fermentation 2018, 4(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4020034 - 08 May 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Vast amounts of information can be obtained by systematic explorations of synergy between phytochemicals and probiotics, which is required for the development of non-dairy probiotic products, globally. Evidence confirms that the same probiotic strain can have different efficiencies depending on the food matrix. [...] Read more.
Vast amounts of information can be obtained by systematic explorations of synergy between phytochemicals and probiotics, which is required for the development of non-dairy probiotic products, globally. Evidence confirms that the same probiotic strain can have different efficiencies depending on the food matrix. One such functional property, viz., antipathogenicity of the probiotic strain against Shigella was investigated in this study. The potential of two fruit based (apple and sea buckthorn) beverage matrices fortified with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103), against outbreak-causing serotypes of Shigella dysenteriae (ATCC 29026) and Shigella flexneri (ATCC 12022) was evaluated. The originality of this study lies in the fact that the functionality assessment was performed with a more realistic approach under storage conditions from 0–14 days at 4 °C. The finding confirms that Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) differs in its potential depending on beverage matrices. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) clustered the matrices based on their pathogen clearance. LGG fortified sea buckthorn beverage matrix showed 99% clearance of S. dysenteriae within the first hour compared to 11% in apple beverage matrix. Interestingly, S. flexneri showed more resistance and was cleared (99%) in the LGG fortified sea buckthorn beverage matrix within three hours compared to 5.6% in apple matrix. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Quality Ingredients and Safety Concerns for Traditional Fermented Foods and Beverages from Asia: A Review
Fermentation 2019, 5(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5010008 - 10 Jan 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Fermented foods and beverages serve as vehicles for beneficial microorganisms that play an important role in human health and remain the oldest prevalent means of food processing and preservation. Traditional fermented foods are popular in Asia for their nutritional balance and food security. [...] Read more.
Fermented foods and beverages serve as vehicles for beneficial microorganisms that play an important role in human health and remain the oldest prevalent means of food processing and preservation. Traditional fermented foods are popular in Asia for their nutritional balance and food security. Techniques for preserving cereals, vegetables, and meat products are well developed in many Asian countries. Due to their cultural and nutritional significance, many of these foods have been studied in detail and their quality and safety have also been improved. These fermented foods and beverages provide benefits through enhanced nutritional content, digestibility, microbial stability, and detoxification. They represent is thus one of the most affordable and suitable methods to maintain hygiene condition and food quality and security in poor and underdeveloped countries. There is an industrial interest and scope related to traditional fermented foods and beverages in Asia. However, urgent attention is required to improve the quality of the ingredients and the integration of food safety management systems for industrial growth. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nutritional and Microbiological Quality of Tiger Nut Tubers (Cyperus esculentus), Derived Plant-Based and Lactic Fermented Beverages
Fermentation 2019, 5(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5010003 - 20 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) is a tuber that can be consumed raw or processed into beverages. Its nutritional composition shows a high content of lipid and dietary fiber, close to those of nuts, and a high content of starch, like in [...] Read more.
Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) is a tuber that can be consumed raw or processed into beverages. Its nutritional composition shows a high content of lipid and dietary fiber, close to those of nuts, and a high content of starch, like in other tubers. Tiger nuts also contain high levels of phosphorus, calcium, and phenolic compounds, which contribute to their antioxidant activity. From those characteristics, tiger nuts and derived beverages are particularly relevant to limit food insecurity in regions where the plant can grow. In Europe and United States, the tiger nut derived beverages are of high interest as alternatives to milk and for gluten-free diets. Fermentation or addition of probiotic cultures to tiger nut beverages has proven the ability of lactic acid bacteria to acidify the beverages. Preliminary sensory assays concluded that acceptable products are obtained. In the absence of pasteurization, the safety of tiger nut-based beverages is not warranted. In spite of fermentation, some foodborne pathogens or mycotoxigenic fungi have been observed in fermented beverages. Further studies are required to select a tailored bacterial cocktail which would effectively dominate endogenous flora, preserve bioactive compounds and result in a well-accepted beverage. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Discovering the Health Promoting Potential of Fermented Papaya Preparation—Its Future Perspectives for the Dietary Management of Oxidative Stress During Diabetes
Fermentation 2018, 4(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4040083 - 28 Sep 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The simplistic morphological characteristics of Carica papaya fruit or “pawpaw” should not be the cause for underestimating its potential as a nutraceutical. The market for papaya has been expanding at a staggering rate, partly due to its applicability as a biofortified product, but [...] Read more.
The simplistic morphological characteristics of Carica papaya fruit or “pawpaw” should not be the cause for underestimating its potential as a nutraceutical. The market for papaya has been expanding at a staggering rate, partly due to its applicability as a biofortified product, but also due to its phytochemical properties and traditional health benefits. Papaya or formulations of fermented papaya promotion (FPP) display effective free radical scavenging abilities thought to be influenced by its phenolic, carotenoid, flavonoid, or amino acid profile. The antioxidant properties of FPP have been extensively reported in literature to potently target a broad spectrum of free radical-induced diseases ranging from neurological impairments, such as senile dementia, to systemic diseases, to its interference at the cellular level and the support of normal biological ageing processes. FPP has thus been extensively investigated for its ability to exert cellular protective effects and reduce oxidative stress via the mitigation of genetic damage, reduction of lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic inactivation in specific diseases. The focus of this review is to appraise the potential of oxidative stress reduction strategies of FPP and discuss its holistic approach in disease prevention and management, with a particular focus on diabetes and cancer. However, with the current lack of information surrounding its mechanism of action, this review wishes to set the stage and aspire researchers to more profoundly investigate molecular pathways related to how FPP can unequivocally contribute to wellness in an aging population. Full article
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