Special Issue "Dissimilar Metal Welding"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Pierpaolo Carlone
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Manufacturing Technologies and Systems - Department of Industrial Engineering -University of Salerno - 84084 Fisciano (SA) - Italy
Interests: friction stir welding; surface modification technologies; cold spray process
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Antonello Astarita
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical, Materials and Production Engineering, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy
Interests: manufacturing processes; welding and joining; additive manufacturing; plastic deformation; metallurgy; material science and processing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The combination of distinct materials is a key issue in modern industry, whereas the driving concept is to design parts with the right material in the right place. In this framework, a great deal of attention is directed towards dissimilar welding and joining technologies. In the automotive sector, for instance, the concept of “tailored blanks”, introduced in the last decade, has further highlighted the necessity to weld dissimilar materials. As far as the aeronautic field is concerned, most structures are built combining very different materials and alloys, in order to match lightweight and structural performance requirements.

In this framework, the application of fusion welding techniques, namely tungsten inert gas or laser welding, is quite challenging due to the difference in physical properties, in particular the melting point, between adjoining materials. On the other hand, solid state welding methods, such as the friction stir welding as well as linear friction welding processes process, already proved to be capable of manufacturing sound Al-Cu, Al-Ti, Al-SS, Al-Mg joints, to cite but a few. Recently, promising results have also been obtained using hybrid methods.

Considering the novelty of the topic, different relevant issues are still open and many research groups are continuously publishing valuable results concerning:

  • Welding process development (tooling and fixtures design, force analysis, temperature analysis, hybrid welding, process monitoring and control);
  • Metallurgical aspects (microstructure evolution and precipitation of intermetallic compounds);
  • Electrochemical studies (galvanic corrosion);
  • Mechanical characterization and fracture analysis;
  • Numerical modelling of the process and of the joint behavior.

The aim of this Special Issue is to wrap up the latest studies on these topics.

Prof. Dr. Pierpaolo Carlone
Dr. Antonello Astarita
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (17 papers)

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Electromagnetic Pulse Welding of Tubular Products: Influence of Process Parameters and Workpiece Geometry on the Joint Characteristics and Investigation of Suitable Support Systems for the Target Tube
Metals 2019, 9(5), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9050514 - 01 May 2019
Abstract
In this experimental research, copper to steel tubular joints were produced by electromagnetic pulse welding. In a first phase, non-supported target tubes were used in order to investigate the influence of the workpiece geometry on the weld formation and joint characteristics. For this [...] Read more.
In this experimental research, copper to steel tubular joints were produced by electromagnetic pulse welding. In a first phase, non-supported target tubes were used in order to investigate the influence of the workpiece geometry on the weld formation and joint characteristics. For this purpose, different joint configurations were used, more specific the tube-to-rod and the tube-to-tube configurations, with target workpieces with different diameters and wall thicknesses. Also, some preliminary investigations were performed to examine a support method for the target tubes. In a second phase, suitable support systems for the target tubes were identified. The resulting welds were evaluated in terms of their leak tightness, weld length and deformation of the target tube. It can be concluded that polyurethane (PU), polymethylmethacrylaat (PMMA), polyamide (PA6.6) and steel rods can be considered as valuable internal supports leading to high-quality welds and a sufficient cross-sectional area after welding. Welds with a steel bar support exhibit the highest cross-sectional area after welding, but at the same time the obtained weld quality is lower compared to welds with a PA6.6 or PMMA support. In contrast, welds with a PA6.6 or PU support show the highest weld quality, but also have a lower cross-sectional area after welding compared to steel internal supports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissimilar Metal Welding)
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Open AccessArticle
Resistance Spot Welding of Aluminum Alloy and Carbon Steel with Spooling Process Tapes
Metals 2019, 9(4), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9040410 - 03 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Many lightweight materials, including aluminum alloy, magnesium alloy, and plastic, have been used for automotives. Aluminum alloy—the most commonly utilized lightweight metal—has poor resistance spot weldability owing to its inherent properties, which demand the development of welding solutions. Various welding techniques are utilized [...] Read more.
Many lightweight materials, including aluminum alloy, magnesium alloy, and plastic, have been used for automotives. Aluminum alloy—the most commonly utilized lightweight metal—has poor resistance spot weldability owing to its inherent properties, which demand the development of welding solutions. Various welding techniques are utilized to improve the resistance spot weldability of aluminum alloy, including DeltaSpot welding. However, the technological development for welding dissimilar metals (aluminum alloy and steel) required for vehicle body assembly is still in its nascent stages. This study proposes DeltaSpot welding (a resistance spot welding process with spooling process tapes) using the alloy combination of 6000 series aluminum alloy (Al 6K32) and 440 MPa grade steel (SGARC 440). The welding characteristics of the main process parameters in DeltaSpot welding were analyzed and the weldability of the combination of the aluminum alloy, Al 6K32, and 440 MPa grade steel was evaluated. In addition, the characteristics of the intermetallic compound layer between the 440 MPa grade steel and Al 6K32 sheets were identified via scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissimilar Metal Welding)
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Open AccessArticle
Arc-Assisted Laser Welding Brazing of Aluminum to Steel
Metals 2019, 9(4), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9040397 - 31 Mar 2019
Abstract
Using laser beam as main heat source, and trailing arc as an assisted role, aluminum alloy was joined to galvanized steel in a butt configuration. Under suitable welding parameters, a sound welding seam was obtained. The interface intermetallic compounds layer and wetting behavior [...] Read more.
Using laser beam as main heat source, and trailing arc as an assisted role, aluminum alloy was joined to galvanized steel in a butt configuration. Under suitable welding parameters, a sound welding seam was obtained. The interface intermetallic compounds layer and wetting behavior of weld joint were studied. The assisted arc can improve the wetting and spreading ability of weld pool duo to large temperature field. There are two different types of IMCs: near to the steel side one is Fe2Al5 with tooth-like shape and near to the weld seam side is the other one Fe4Al13 with flocculent-like shape. The highest tensile strength can reach 163 MPa when the fracture occurred at the weld seam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissimilar Metal Welding)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Effects in Dissimilar Magnetic Pulse Welding
Metals 2019, 9(3), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9030348 - 19 Mar 2019
Abstract
Magnetic pulse welding (MPW) is often categorized as a cold welding technology, whereas latest studies evidence melted and rapidly cooled regions within the joining interface. These phenomena already occur at very low impact velocities, when the heat input due to plastic deformation is [...] Read more.
Magnetic pulse welding (MPW) is often categorized as a cold welding technology, whereas latest studies evidence melted and rapidly cooled regions within the joining interface. These phenomena already occur at very low impact velocities, when the heat input due to plastic deformation is comparatively low and where jetting in the kind of a distinct material flow is not initiated. As another heat source, this study investigates the cloud of particles (CoP), which is ejected as a result of the high speed impact. MPW experiments with different collision conditions are carried out in vacuum to suppress the interaction with the surrounding air for an improved process monitoring. Long time exposures and flash measurements indicate a higher temperature in the joining gap for smaller collision angles. Furthermore, the CoP becomes a finely dispersed metal vapor because of the higher degree of compression and the increased temperature. These conditions are beneficial for the surface activation of both joining partners. A numerical temperature model based on the theory of liquid state bonding is developed and considers the heating due to the CoP as well as the enthalpy of fusion and crystallization, respectively. The time offset between the heat input and the contact is identified as an important factor for a successful weld formation. Low values are beneficial to ensure high surface temperatures at the time of contact, which corresponds to the experimental results at small collision angles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissimilar Metal Welding)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Low Silver AgCuZnSn Filler Metal for Cu/Steel Dissimilar Metal Joining
Metals 2019, 9(2), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9020198 - 08 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The microstructure and properties of a Cu/304 stainless steel dissimilar metal joint brazed with a low silver Ag16.5CuZnSn-xGa-yCe braze filler after aging treatment were investigated. The results indicated that the addition of Ce could reduce the intergranular penetration depth of the filler metal [...] Read more.
The microstructure and properties of a Cu/304 stainless steel dissimilar metal joint brazed with a low silver Ag16.5CuZnSn-xGa-yCe braze filler after aging treatment were investigated. The results indicated that the addition of Ce could reduce the intergranular penetration depth of the filler metal into the stainless steel during the aging process. The minimum penetration depth in the Ag16.5CuZnSn-0.15Ce brazed joint was decreased by 48.8% compared with the Ag16.5CuZnSn brazed joint. Moreover, the shear strength of the brazed joint decreased with aging time while the shear strength of the AgCuZnSn-xGa-yCe joint was still obviously higher than the Ag16.5CuZnSn joint after a 600 h aging treatment. The fracture type of the Ag16.5CuZnSn-xGa-yCe brazed joints before aging begins ductile and turns slightly brittle during the aging process. Compared to all the results, the Ag16.5CuZnSn-2Ga-0.15Ce brazed joints show the best performance and could satisfy the requirements for cost reduction and long-term use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissimilar Metal Welding)
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Open AccessArticle
Dissimilar Metals Laser Welding between DP1000 Steel and Aluminum Alloy 1050
Metals 2019, 9(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9010102 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The welding of dissimilar metals was carried out using a pulsed Nd: YAG laser to join DP1000 steel and an aluminum alloy 1050 H111. Two sheets of each metal, with 30 × 14 × 1 mm3, were lap welded, since butt [...] Read more.
The welding of dissimilar metals was carried out using a pulsed Nd: YAG laser to join DP1000 steel and an aluminum alloy 1050 H111. Two sheets of each metal, with 30 × 14 × 1 mm3, were lap welded, since butt welding proved to be nearly impossible due to the huge thermal conductivity differences and melting temperature differences of these materials. The aim of this research was to find the optimal laser welding parameters based on the mechanical and microstructure investigations. Thus, the welded samples were then subjected to tensile testing to evaluate the quality of the joining operation. The best set of welding parameters was replicated, and the welding joint obtained using these proper parameters was carefully analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Despite the predicted difficulties of welding two distinct metals, good quality welded joints were achieved. Additionally, some samples performed satisfactorily well in the mechanical tests, reaching tensile strengths close to the original 1050 aluminum alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissimilar Metal Welding)
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Open AccessArticle
Interfacial Characteristics of Dissimilar Ti6Al4V/AA6060 Lap Joint by Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Welding
Metals 2019, 9(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9010071 - 12 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper focuses on the interfacial characteristics of dissimilar Ti6Al4V/AA6060 lap joint produced by pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam welding. The process-sensitivity analysis of welding-induced interface joining quality was performed by using the orthogonal design method. Microstructural tests such as scanning electron microscopy and [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the interfacial characteristics of dissimilar Ti6Al4V/AA6060 lap joint produced by pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam welding. The process-sensitivity analysis of welding-induced interface joining quality was performed by using the orthogonal design method. Microstructural tests such as scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to observe the interfacial characteristics. The mechanism of interfacial crack initiation, which is an important indicator of joint property and performance, was assessed and analyzed. The preferred propagation paths of welding cracks along the interfaces of different intermetallic layers with high dislocation density were analyzed and discussed in-depth. The results indicate that discontinuous potential phases in the micro-crack tip would mitigate the mechanical resistance or performance of the welded joint, while the continuous intermetallic layer can lead to a sound jointing performance under pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissimilar Metal Welding)
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Open AccessArticle
Welding of Dissimilar Steel/Al Joints Using Dual-Beam Lasers with Side-by-Side Configuration
Metals 2018, 8(12), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8121017 - 04 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Welding of dissimilar steel/Al lapped joints of 1.5 mm in thickness was carried out by using dual-beam laser welding with side-by-side configuration. The effect of the major process parameters including the dual-beam power ratio of (Rs) and dual-beam distance (d [...] Read more.
Welding of dissimilar steel/Al lapped joints of 1.5 mm in thickness was carried out by using dual-beam laser welding with side-by-side configuration. The effect of the major process parameters including the dual-beam power ratio of (Rs) and dual-beam distance (d1) on the steel/Al joint characteristics was investigated concerning the weld shape, interface microstructures, tensile resistance and fracture behavior. The results show that dual-beam laser welding with side-by-side configuration produces soundly welded steel/Al lapped joints free of welding defects. The processing parameters of Rs and d1 have a great influence on the weld appearance, the weld penetration in the Al alloy side (P2) and the welding defects. Variation in the depth of the P2 and the locations at the Al/weld interface cause heterogeneous microstructures in the morphology and the thickness of the intermetallic compound (IMC) layers. In addition, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) phase mapping reveals that the IMC layer microstructures formed at the Al/weld interface include the needle-like θ-Fe4Al13 phases and compact lath η-Fe2Al5 layers. Some very fine θ-Fe4Al13 and η-Fe2Al5 phases generated along the weld grain boundaries of the steel/Al joints are also confirmed. Finally, there is a matching relationship between the P2 and the tensile resistance of steel/Al joints, and the maximum tensile resistance of 109.2 N/mm is obtained by the steel/Al joints produced at the Rs of 1.50 during dual-beam laser welding with side-by-side configuration. Two fracture path modes have taken place depending on the P2, and relatively high resistance has been achieved for the steel/Al joints with an optimum P2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissimilar Metal Welding)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Revolutionary Pitch on Interface Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Friction Stir Lap Welds of AA6082-T6 to Galvanized DP800
Metals 2018, 8(11), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8110925 - 09 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Friction stir lap welding of 1.5-mm thick 6082-T6 aluminum alloy to 2-mm thick galvanized DP800 steel (Zn-coated) was carried out. Optimal welding conditions were obtained aiming to defect-free joints with good mechanical properties. The interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the stir zone and [...] Read more.
Friction stir lap welding of 1.5-mm thick 6082-T6 aluminum alloy to 2-mm thick galvanized DP800 steel (Zn-coated) was carried out. Optimal welding conditions were obtained aiming to defect-free joints with good mechanical properties. The interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the stir zone and hook zone were characterized under different revolutionary pitches. With a revolutionary pitch of 1.0 mm/rev, maximum joint strength reached 71% of that of the aluminum alloy. In the meantime, the average thickness of IMC layer is less than 1 μm; Al3.2Fe in the Al-rich side and Al5Fe2 in the Fe-rich side at the interfaces of stir zone while Al6Fe and nanocrystalline close to Al3.2Fe at the interface of the hook zone. At a relatively lower revolutionary pitch (0.5 mm/rev), Zn was found with the aggregation of Si and Mn at the hook-zone interface, leading to the generation of Al-Fe-Si phase thus decreasing the thickness of the IMC layer. In the stir zone, the revolutionary pitch has a significant influence on the interfacial microstructures. The interfacial IMC layer at 1.0 mm/rev is simple and flat, but the one at 0.5 mm/rev becomes thicker and more complex. Stir zone aluminum under different revolutionary pitches is similar in microhardness and tensile behavior. The mechanical response of joints was modeled based on linear mixture law with an iso-strain assumption and neglection of the IMC layer. The modeling results are in good agreement with the experimental ones indicating the resultant interfaces act as good as the good boundaries between dissimilar Al/steel joints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissimilar Metal Welding)
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Open AccessArticle
Friction Stir Spot Welding-Brazing of Al and Hot-Dip Aluminized Ti Alloy with Zn Interlayer
Metals 2018, 8(11), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8110922 - 08 Nov 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of Al to Ti alloys has broad applications in the aerospace and automobile industries, while its narrow joining area limits the improvement of mechanical properties of the joint. In the current study, an Al-coating was prepared on Ti6Al4V [...] Read more.
Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of Al to Ti alloys has broad applications in the aerospace and automobile industries, while its narrow joining area limits the improvement of mechanical properties of the joint. In the current study, an Al-coating was prepared on Ti6Al4V alloy by hot-dipping prior to joining, then a Zn interlayer was used during friction stir joining of as-coated Ti alloy to the 2014-Al alloy in a lap configuration to introduce a brazing zone out of the stir zone to increase the joining area. The microstructure of the joint was investigated, and the joint strength was compared with the traditional FSSW joint to confirm the advantages of this new process. Because of the increase of the joining area, the maximum fracture load of such joint is 110% higher than that of the traditional FSSW joint under the same welding parameters. The fracture load of these joints depends on the joining width, including the width of solid-state bonding region in stir zone and brazing region out of stir zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissimilar Metal Welding)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Dissimilar Metal Welding of Inconel 625 and AISI 316L
Metals 2018, 8(10), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100797 - 04 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study investigated the microstructure of the dissimilar metal welding of Inconel 625 and AISI 316L using Continuous Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (CCGTAW) and Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (PCGTAW) processes with ERNiCr-3, TIG 316L and twisted (ERNiCr-3 and TIG 316L) [...] Read more.
This study investigated the microstructure of the dissimilar metal welding of Inconel 625 and AISI 316L using Continuous Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (CCGTAW) and Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (PCGTAW) processes with ERNiCr-3, TIG 316L and twisted (ERNiCr-3 and TIG 316L) fillers. Microstructure examinations were carried out using an optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)/Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDAX). The results of the study showed the existence of a partially melted zone (PMZ) on the AISI 316L side. Weld zone (WZ) analysis showed the existence of a multi-directional grain growth on the 316L side in all specimens, although less growth was found on the Inconel 625 side. Grain growth almost disappeared using PCGTAW with twisted fillers. SEM/EDAX investigations indicated that secondary deleterious secondary phases were tiny and white in five experiments. However, a meager amount of precipitates occurred in PCGTA welding with twisted fillers. Moreover, these were particularly innocent precipitates, represented by black dots in images, whereas other tiny white secondary phases are known to be brittle. As a result, PCGTA welding with twisted fillers exhibited the best metallurgical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissimilar Metal Welding)
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Open AccessArticle
Ageing Effects on Room-Temperature Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of Quenched and Tempered T92/TP316H Dissimilar Welded Joints with Ni-Based Weld Metal
Metals 2018, 8(10), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8100791 - 03 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The present work is focused on the investigation of isothermal ageing effects on room-temperature tensile properties and the failure of quenched and tempered martensitic/austenitic weldments between T92 and TP316H heat-resistant steels. The dissimilar weldments were produced by gas tungsten arc welding technique using [...] Read more.
The present work is focused on the investigation of isothermal ageing effects on room-temperature tensile properties and the failure of quenched and tempered martensitic/austenitic weldments between T92 and TP316H heat-resistant steels. The dissimilar weldments were produced by gas tungsten arc welding technique using a Ni-based Thermanit Nicro 82 filler metal. The welded joints were subjected to unconventional post-welding heat treatment consisting of the welds solutionizing (1060 °C/30 min), followed by their water quenching and final stabilization tempering (760 °C/60 min). The treatment was completed by spontaneous air cooling within a tempering furnace. The welds in their initial quenched and tempered condition were subsequently aged at 620 °C for up to 2500 h. Apart from room-temperature tensile tests performed for all the welds material states, additional cross-weld hardness measurements were carried out on longitudinal sections of broken tensile specimens. The applied thermal exposure resulted in recognizable deterioration of plastic properties, whereas their effects on strength properties were rather small. The welds tensile straining and fracture evolution exhibited competitive behavior between the austenitic TP316H region and Ni-based weld metal. The observed failure locations showed significant hardness peaks due to intensive, necking-related strain hardening effects occurred during the tensile tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissimilar Metal Welding)
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Open AccessArticle
Dissimilar Friction Stir Butt Welding of Aluminum and Copper with Cross-Section Adjustment for Current-Carrying Components
Metals 2018, 8(9), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8090661 - 24 Aug 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Manufacturing dissimilar joints of aluminum and copper is a challenging task. However, friction stir welding (FSW) was found to be a suitable technique to produce aluminum–copper joints. Due to different electrical conductivities between aluminum and copper, an adjustment of the cross-section is required [...] Read more.
Manufacturing dissimilar joints of aluminum and copper is a challenging task. However, friction stir welding (FSW) was found to be a suitable technique to produce aluminum–copper joints. Due to different electrical conductivities between aluminum and copper, an adjustment of the cross-section is required to realize electrical conductors free of resistive losses. Taking this into account, this paper presents initial results on the mechanical and electrical properties of friction stir butt welded aluminum and copper blanks having thicknesses of 4.7 mm and 3 mm, respectively. Three different approaches were investigated with the aim to produce sound welds with properties similar to those of the used base materials. Friction stir welding has been conducted at a welding speed of 450 mm/min. Subsequently, the welded specimens were subjected to metallographic analysis, tensile testing, and measurements of the electrical conductivity. The ultimate tensile force of the best joints was about 10 kN, which corresponds to joint efficiencies of approximately 72% of the aluminum base material. The analysis of electrical joint properties led to very promising results, so that the potential of FSW of Al–Cu butt joints with sheets having different thicknesses could be confirmed by the investigations carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissimilar Metal Welding)
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Open AccessArticle
Weld Seam Geometry and Electrical Resistance of Laser-Welded, Aluminum-Copper Dissimilar Joints Produced with Spatial Beam Oscillation
Metals 2018, 8(7), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8070510 - 03 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Spatial beam oscillation during laser beam welding of aluminum to copper was investigated. The beam was spatially oscillated perpendicular to the direction of feed in a sinusoidal mode. The influence of the oscillation amplitude and frequency on the weld seam geometry and the [...] Read more.
Spatial beam oscillation during laser beam welding of aluminum to copper was investigated. The beam was spatially oscillated perpendicular to the direction of feed in a sinusoidal mode. The influence of the oscillation amplitude and frequency on the weld seam geometry and the implications on the electrical resistance of the joints was investigated. It was found that spatial beam oscillation allows to set the welding depth and seam width virtually independent of each other. Furthermore, low welding depths into the lower copper sheet in combination with high ratios of seam width at the interface of the two sheets to welding depth into the lower copper sheet result in low electrical resistances of the welds. Low electrical resistances were found to correlate with high mechanical strengths of the welds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissimilar Metal Welding)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimizing the Local Strength Mismatch of a Dissimilar Metal Welded Joint in a Nuclear Power Plant
Metals 2018, 8(7), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8070494 - 28 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Local strength mismatch is one of the important factors which affects the fracture behavior of a dissimilar metal welded joint (DMWJ). The question to consider is how to improve the fracture resistance of the DMWJ effectively by optimizing the local strength mismatch. In [...] Read more.
Local strength mismatch is one of the important factors which affects the fracture behavior of a dissimilar metal welded joint (DMWJ). The question to consider is how to improve the fracture resistance of the DMWJ effectively by optimizing the local strength mismatch. In this paper, a DMWJ in a nuclear power plant was selected, the J-resistance (J–R) curve and crack growth path of the DMWJ under different strength mismatches of heat affect zone (HAZ), fusion zone (FZ), and near interface zone (NIZ) were systemically studied. And then, the optimal design of the local strength mismatch was investigated. The results show that decreasing the strength of HAZ and NIZ and increasing the strength of FZ will increase the fracture resistance of a DMWJ. Increasing the strength of FZ increases the JR curve obviously. When the Ms(HAZ):Ms(FZ):Ms(NIZ) = 1.12:1.4:1.26 and Ms(HAZ):Ms(FZ):Ms(NIZ) = 1:1.4:1, the DMWJs have the highest J–R curves. Considering that the two J–R curves are similar, it is suggested that the fracture resistance of the DMWJ can be improved only by increasing the strength of the FZ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissimilar Metal Welding)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure and Mechanical Characterization of a Dissimilar Friction-Stir-Welded CuCrZr/CuNiCrSi Butt Joint
Metals 2018, 8(5), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050325 - 08 May 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Dissimilar CuNiCrSi and CuCrZr butt joints were successfully frictionstirwelded at constant welding speed of 150 mm/min and rotational speed of 1400 rpm with the CuCrZr alloy or the CuNiCrSi alloy located on the advancing side (AS). The microstructure and mechanical properties of joints [...] Read more.
Dissimilar CuNiCrSi and CuCrZr butt joints were successfully frictionstirwelded at constant welding speed of 150 mm/min and rotational speed of 1400 rpm with the CuCrZr alloy or the CuNiCrSi alloy located on the advancing side (AS). The microstructure and mechanical properties of joints were investigated. When the CuCrZr alloy was located on the AS, the area of retreating material in the nugget zone was a little bigger. The Cr solute-rich particles were found in the nugget zone on CuCrZr side (CuCrZr-NZ) while a larger density of solute-rich particles identified as the concentration of Cr and Si element was found in the nugget zone on CuNiCrSi side (CuNiCrSi-NZ). The Cr precipitates and δ-Ni2Si precipitates were found in the base metal on CuNiCrSi side (CuNiCrSi-BM) but only Cr precipitates can be observed in the base metal on CuCrZr side (CuCrZr-BM). Precipitates were totally dissolved into Cu matrix in both CuCrZr-NZ and CuNiCrSi-NZ, which led to a sharp decrease in both micro-hardness and tensile strength from BM to NZ. When the CuNiCrSi was located on the AS, the tensile testing results showed the fracture occurred at the CuCrZr-NZ, while the fracture was found at the mixed zone of CuNiCrSi-NZ and CuCrZr-NZ for the other case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissimilar Metal Welding)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Aluminum Alloy Combinations: State-of-the-Art
Metals 2019, 9(3), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9030270 - 26 Feb 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Friction stir welding (FSW) has enjoyed great success in joining aluminum alloys. As lightweight structures are designed in higher numbers, it is only natural that FSW is being explored to join dissimilar aluminum alloys. The use of different aluminum alloy combinations in applications [...] Read more.
Friction stir welding (FSW) has enjoyed great success in joining aluminum alloys. As lightweight structures are designed in higher numbers, it is only natural that FSW is being explored to join dissimilar aluminum alloys. The use of different aluminum alloy combinations in applications offers the combined benefit of cost and performance in the same component. This review focuses on the application of FSW in dissimilar aluminum alloy combinations in order to disseminate research this topic. The review details published works on FSWed dissimilar aluminum alloys. The detailed summary of literature lists welding parameters for the different aluminum alloy combinations. Furthermore, auxiliary welding parameters such as positioning of the alloy, tool rotation speed, welding speed and tool geometry are discussed. Microstructural features together with joint mechanical properties, like hardness and tensile strength measurements, are presented. At the end, new directions for the joining of dissimilar aluminum alloy combinations should guide further research to extend as well as to improve the process, which is expected to raise further interest on the topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissimilar Metal Welding)
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