# Analysis and Evaluation of Fiber Orientation Reconstruction Methods

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*Journal of Composites Science*in 2019)

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Fiber Orientation

## 3. Icosphere

$(\begin{array}{ccccc}-1& & t& & 0\end{array})$ | $(\begin{array}{ccccc}0& & -1& & t\end{array})$ | $(\begin{array}{ccccc}t& & 0& & -1\end{array})$ |

$(\begin{array}{ccccc}1& & t& & 0\end{array})$ | $(\begin{array}{ccccc}0& & 1& & t\end{array})$ | $(\begin{array}{ccccc}t& & 0& & 1\end{array})$ |

$(\begin{array}{ccccc}-1& & -t& & 0\end{array})$ | $(\begin{array}{ccccc}0& & -1& & -t\end{array})$ | $(\begin{array}{ccccc}-t& & 0& & -1\end{array})$ |

$(\begin{array}{ccccc}1& & -t& & 0\end{array})$ | $(\begin{array}{ccccc}0& & 1& & -t\end{array})$ | $(\begin{array}{ccccc}-t& & 0& & 1\end{array})$ |

## 4. Reconstruction Methods

#### 4.1. Spherical Harmonics

#### 4.2. Method of Maximum Entropy

## 5. Evaluation

#### 5.1. Tests Scenarios

#### 5.2. Evaluation Criteria

#### 5.3. Numerical Results for Bingham Distributions

#### 5.4. Numerical Results for Measured Data

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Two different orientation density functions (ODFs) (left: unidirectional with two maximas, right: planar isotropy) with the same fiber orientation tensor to illustrate the ambiguity of the reconstruction.

**Figure 3.**Evolution of icosphere with refinement level 0, 1, and 5. The color represents the relative area of the triangles.

**Figure 4.**Top: Initial ODF and data of first test case. Bottom: Reconstruction of test case with the different reconstruction methods.

**Figure 5.**Top: Initial ODF and data of second test case. Bottom: Reconstruction of test case with the different reconstruction methods.

**Figure 6.**Top: Initial ODF and data of third test case. Bottom: Reconstruction of test case with the different reconstruction methods.

**Figure 7.**Top: Initial ODF and data of fourth test case. Bottom: Reconstruction of test case with the different reconstruction methods.

**Figure 8.**Initial ODF and data of fifth test case. Bottom: Reconstruction of test case with the different reconstruction methods.

**Figure 9.**Color plot of the Kullback–Leibner distance in dependency of covariance (SH2, SH4, SH6, and SH8).

**Figure 10.**Color plot of the Kullback–Leibner distance in dependency of covariance (SH4HY, SH6HY, SH6HYHY, and ME).

**Figure 12.**Measured and reconstructed ODFs from [7].

**Figure 13.**Measured and reconstructed ODFs from [43].

**Figure 14.**Measured and reconstructed ODFs from [44].

Regime | Volume Fraction: ${\mathit{v}}_{\mathit{F}}$ |
---|---|

Dilute | ${v}_{f}<\frac{1}{{a}_{r}^{2}}$ |

Semi-Dilute | $\frac{1}{{a}_{r}^{2}}<{v}_{F}<\frac{1}{{a}_{r}}$ |

Concentrated | $\frac{1}{{a}_{r}}>{v}_{F}$ |

Closure Name | Reference |
---|---|

Linear | [6,7] |

Quadratic | [7,8,9] |

Hybrid | [7,10] |

Exact | [11] |

Fast Exact (FEC) | [11,12] |

Bingham | [13] |

Orthotropic | [10,14] |

Natural | [15] |

Neural Network (NNET) | [16] |

Neural Network Orthotropic (NNORT) | [17] |

Quad R | [18] |

Hinch and Leal W1 (isotropic) | [19] |

Hinch and Leal S2 (strong flow) | [19] |

Hinch and Leal HL1 | [18] |

Hinch and Leal HL2 | [18] |

Hinch and Leal HL1Q | [18] |

Invariant Based optimal fitting (IOBF) | [20] |

Method | Abbreviation | $\widehat{\mathit{\psi}}$ | ${\mathit{a}}_{\mathbf{2}}$ | ${\mathit{a}}_{\mathbf{4}}$ | ${\mathit{a}}_{\mathbf{6}}$ | ${\mathit{a}}_{\mathbf{8}}$ |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Method of Maximum Entropy | ME | $f\left({a}_{2}\right)$ | $f\left(\psi \right)$ | |||

Spherical Harmonics (2nd order) | SH2 | $f\left({a}_{2}\right)$ | $f\left(\psi \right)$ | |||

Spherical Harmonics (4th order) | SH4 | $f\left({a}_{2},\text{}{a}_{4}\right)$ | $f\left(\psi \right)$ | $f\left(\psi \right)$ | ||

Spherical Harmonics (6th order) | SH6 | $f\left({a}_{2},\text{}{a}_{4},\text{}{a}_{6}\right)$ | $f\left(\psi \right)$ | $f\left(\psi \right)$ | $f\left(\psi \right)$ | |

Spherical Harmonics (8th order) | SH8 | $f\left({a}_{2},\text{}{a}_{4},{a}_{6},{a}_{8}\right)$ | $f\left(\psi \right)$ | $f\left(\psi \right)$ | $f\left(\psi \right)$ | $f\left(\psi \right)$ |

Spherical Harmonics (4th order, with hybrid closure) | SH4HY | $f\left({a}_{2},\text{}{\widehat{a}}_{4}\right)$ | $f\left(\psi \right)$ | ${\widehat{a}}_{4}=f\left({a}_{2}\right)$ Hybrid Closure | ||

Spherical Harmonics (6th order, with hybrid closure) | SH6HY | $f\left({a}_{2},\text{}{a}_{4},\text{}{\widehat{a}}_{6}\right)$ | $f\left(\psi \right)$ | $f\left(\psi \right)$ | ${\widehat{a}}_{6}=f\left({a}_{2},{\widehat{a}}_{4}\right)$ Hybrid Closure | |

Spherical Harmonics (6th order, with hybrid closure for 4th and 6th order tensor) | SH6HYHY | $f\left({a}_{2},\text{}{\widehat{a}}_{4},\text{}{\widehat{a}}_{6}\right)$ | $f\left(\psi \right)$ | ${\widehat{a}}_{4}=f\left({a}_{2}\right)$ Hybrid Closure | ${\widehat{a}}_{6}=f\left({a}_{2},{\widehat{a}}_{4}\right)$ Hybrid Closure |

**Table 5.**Comparison of ODFs (with ${\mathsf{\psi}}_{0}$) for the illustration of evaluation criteria.

${\mathit{\psi}}_{\mathbf{0}}$ (Reference) | ${\mathit{\psi}}_{\mathbf{1}}$ | ${\mathit{\psi}}_{\mathbf{2}}$ | ${\mathit{\psi}}_{\mathbf{3}}$ | ${\mathit{\psi}}_{\mathbf{4}}$ |
---|---|---|---|---|

$D=0.0$ | $D=0.0$ | $D=0.346$ | $D=2.767$ | $D=4.461$ |

$E=0.0$ | $E=0.159$ | $E=0.079$ | $E=0.081$ | $E=0.112$ |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Breuer, K.; Stommel, M.; Korte, W.
Analysis and Evaluation of Fiber Orientation Reconstruction Methods. *J. Compos. Sci.* **2019**, *3*, 67.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3030067

**AMA Style**

Breuer K, Stommel M, Korte W.
Analysis and Evaluation of Fiber Orientation Reconstruction Methods. *Journal of Composites Science*. 2019; 3(3):67.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3030067

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Breuer, Kevin, Markus Stommel, and Wolfgang Korte.
2019. "Analysis and Evaluation of Fiber Orientation Reconstruction Methods" *Journal of Composites Science* 3, no. 3: 67.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3030067