Special Issue "Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin"

A special issue of Hydrology (ISSN 2306-5338).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021) | Viewed by 18820

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Michael Piasecki
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Civil Engineering Department, City College of New York, New York, NY 10031, USA
Interests: watershed hydrology; modeling of hydrologic processes; impact of de- and reforestation on the hydrologic health of watersheds, ,river;hydraulics; hydrology in the Caribbea, hydro-climate sensor networks
Dr. Eric Harmsen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agro-Engineering and BioSystems, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PO Box 9000 259 Ave. Alfonso Valdes Cobian, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00680 PUERTO RICO
Interests: measurement and modeling all components of the hydrologic cycle; remote sensing of water and energy balance in the Tropics; and agro-climatology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We appreciate the opportunity to propose a special issue on hydrologic research in the Caribbean Basin. This basin carries a great deal of significance as both a place for tourism and agrobusiness as well as being home to over 150 million people. Its composition is diverse as it is made up of a chain of islands stretching from the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico) eastwards to include the Leeward and Windward Islands, and then the Cancun peninsula, the countries making up Central American, and the countries in the northern region of South America (Columbia and Venezuela). Climate Change is posed to have a dramatic impact on the weather patterns for this region with anticipated changes that include longer periods of droughts, an overall decline of annual rainfall volumes, and an increased occurrence of extreme events such as tropical storms and hurricanes. There are also anthropogenic changes due to deforestation and agrobusiness, the latter requiring water from ground and surface water sources, as well as tourism development that put a strain on the freshwater resources. All of the above mechanisms have and continue to have a significant impact on the water resources in the region with potentially vast adverse impacts.

In this special issue we want to explore both the current state of hydrologic research in the region and the focus areas that emerge as the challenges are mounting for the countries in the region and their populations. As such, we would like to define the scope as encompassing as we can where we see WATER at the nexus of adjoining contextual areas. For example, Climate Change is a significant driver for changes in Caribbean weather patterns, which suggest that hydro climatology is one of the areas we seek to address. Another driver is agrobusiness which requires irrigation, especially in view of larger and longer lasting draughts. This has also a potentially devastating impact on subsistence farming because many of these farmers rely on rainfed irrigation. Also, since island nations are, by definition, surrounded by a sea of saltwater, saltwater intrusion into the coastal aquifers is becoming a pressing problem. This suggests the interest areas of both groundwater hydrology as aquifers provide a significant percentage of freshwater supplies, as well as irrigation hydrology. Anthropogenic impacts include deforestation on a broad scale as impoverished populations seek to cover their energy demands by cutting down trees for charcoal production. There is also the wide-scale lumber industry and the removal of indigenous plant diversity for the sake of mono-cultural agrobusiness plantations. This has a significant impact on the ecological health of the region as soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and plant cover and canopies are being dramatically altered or disappear altogether. We are therefore compelled to include the area of watershed scale hydrology in which changes to the processes can be observed as far as the storage volumes, residence times and flow paths of fresh water are concerned.

We remain open to other topical areas if the submission process should yield contributions that are of high quality and fit into the context of Caribbean Hydrology; key here is to try to be inclusive rather than to exclude individuals. We are looking forward to the creation and compilation of this special issue.

Dr. Michael Piasecki
Dr. Eric Harmsen
Guest Editors


Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Hydrology is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hydrology
  • climatology
  • irrigation
  • watershed
  • groundwater
  • agriculture
  • tourism
  • Caribbean
  • climate change
  • extreme weather
  • water resources and supply

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Other

Editorial
Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin
Hydrology 2022, 9(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology9020022 - 04 Feb 2022
Viewed by 634
Abstract
The idea for this Special Issue emerged from the recognition that the Caribbean Basin is fascinatingly diverse (26 countries border it), and a vast majority of its population are under threat from the intense pressures of climate change and human impacts [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

Article
Development of Predictive Models for Water Budget Simulations of Closed-Basin Lakes: Case Studies of Lakes Azuei and Enriquillo on the Island of Hispaniola
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040148 - 02 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 792
Abstract
The historical water level fluctuations of the two neighboring Caribbean lakes of Azuei (LA) and Enriquillo (LE) on Hispaniola have shown random periods of synchronous and asynchronous behaviors, with both lakes exhibiting independent dynamics despite being exposed to the same climatic forces and [...] Read more.
The historical water level fluctuations of the two neighboring Caribbean lakes of Azuei (LA) and Enriquillo (LE) on Hispaniola have shown random periods of synchronous and asynchronous behaviors, with both lakes exhibiting independent dynamics despite being exposed to the same climatic forces and being directly next to each other. This paper examines their systems’ main drivers and constraints, which are used to develop numerical models for these two lakes. The water balance approach was employed to conceptually model the lakes on an interannual scale and examine the assumptions of surface and subsurface processes. These assumptions were made based on field observations and prior studies. The developed models were optimized and calibrated for 1984 to 2017 and then validated for the period 1972 to 1984 based on the lakes’ observational volume change and volume time series. The models yielded “good” performance, with NSE averaged at 0.7 and RE averaged at 13% for volume change. The performance improved to “very good” for volume simulations, with NSE averaging higher than 0.9 and RE averaging at 1%. The uncertainty analysis showed a p-factor of 0.73 and an r-factor of 1.7 on average, supporting the reliability and precision of the results. Analyzing the time series of the lakes and quantifying the main elements of the water balance, each lake’s shrinkage and expansion phases were explored, and the drivers of such behavior were identified for each lake. The main drivers of LE’s system are North Atlantic cyclone activities and uncontrolled inter-basin water transfer, and direct rainfall and evaporation to/from its surface. For LA, its system is controlled mainly by groundwater fluxes in and out of it, despite possessing small values in its water budget. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Assessment of Precipitation Variability and Trends Based on Satellite Estimations for a Heterogeneous Colombian Region
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030128 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1618
Abstract
Adequate water resources management includes understanding patterns and spatiotemporal variability of precipitation, as this variable is determinant for ecosystems’ stability, food security, and most human activities. Based on satellite estimations validated through ground measurements from 59 meteorological stations, the objective of this study [...] Read more.
Adequate water resources management includes understanding patterns and spatiotemporal variability of precipitation, as this variable is determinant for ecosystems’ stability, food security, and most human activities. Based on satellite estimations validated through ground measurements from 59 meteorological stations, the objective of this study is to evaluate the long-term spatiotemporal variability and trends of the average monthly precipitation in the Magdalena Department, Colombia, for the 1981–2018 period. This heterogeneous region comprises many different ecoregions in its 23,188 km2 area. The analysis of spatial variability allowed for the determination of four different subregions based on the differences in the average values of precipitation and the degree of rainfall variability. The trend analysis indicates that the current rainfall patterns contradict previous estimates of a progressive decrease in annual averages due to climate change in the study region, as most of the department does not exhibit statistically significant trends, except for the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta area, where this study found reductions between 10 mm yr−1 and 30 mm yr−1. The findings of this study also suggest the existence of some links between precipitation patterns with regional phenomena of climate variability and solar activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Water and Energy Balance Model GOES-PRWEB: Development and Validation
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030113 - 03 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1074
Abstract
In 2009, the University of Alabama-Huntsville configured their GOES satellited-based solar radiation product to include Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands (USVI), Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, and Cuba. The half-hourly and daily integrated data are available at 1 km resolution for Puerto Rico [...] Read more.
In 2009, the University of Alabama-Huntsville configured their GOES satellited-based solar radiation product to include Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands (USVI), Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, and Cuba. The half-hourly and daily integrated data are available at 1 km resolution for Puerto Rico and the USVI and 2 km for Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Cuba. These data made it possible to implement estimates of satellite radiation-based evapotranspiration methods on all of the islands. The use of the solar radiation data in combination with estimates of other climate parameters facilitated the development of a water and energy balance algorithm for Puerto Rico. The purpose of this paper is to describe the theoretical background and technical approach for estimating the components of the daily water and energy balance. The operational water and energy balance model is the first of its kind in Puerto Rico. Model validation results are presented for reference and actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and streamflow. Mean errors for all analyses were less than 7%. The water and energy balance model results can benefit such diverse fields as agriculture, ecology, coastal water management, human health, renewable energy development, water resources, drought monitoring, and disaster and emergency management. This research represents a preliminary step in developing a suite of gridded hydro-climate products for the Caribbean Region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Quo Vadis Lakes Azuei and Enriquillo: A Future Outlook for Two of the Caribbean Basin’s Largest Lakes
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030107 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 725
Abstract
Lakes Azuei (LA) and Enriquillo (LE) on Hispaniola Island started expanding in 2005 and continued to do so until 2016. After inundating large swaths of arable land, submerging a small community, and threatening to swallow a significant trade route between the Dominican Republic [...] Read more.
Lakes Azuei (LA) and Enriquillo (LE) on Hispaniola Island started expanding in 2005 and continued to do so until 2016. After inundating large swaths of arable land, submerging a small community, and threatening to swallow a significant trade route between the Dominican Republic and Haiti; worries persisted at how far this seemingly unstoppable expansion would go. The paper outlines the approach to a look forward to answer this question vis-à-vis climate change scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It uses numerical representations of the two lakes, and it examines how the lakes might evolve, deploying three different forcing mechanisms: that of weather and drift due to climate change, that of extreme events, such as hurricanes, and that of anthropogenic impacts, such as unintended water transfers between adjacent watersheds. Runs are executed Monte Carlo style using 11 different forcing combinations, each with a thousand instances of results generated by varying the numerous parameters that define the numerical models. The results are necessarily not precise and vary significantly as the forecast horizon expands, creating expanding envelopes of outcomes. Although some outcomes suggest a continued rise of the lake levels, most scenarios yield a reduction and recession of the lake waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Flood Impacts on Critical Infrastructure in a Coastal Floodplain in Western Puerto Rico during Hurricane María
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030104 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1802
Abstract
Flooding during extreme weather events damages critical infrastructure, property, and threatens lives. Hurricane María devastated Puerto Rico (PR) on 20 September 2017. Sixty-four deaths were directly attributable to the flooding. This paper describes the development of a hydrologic model using the Gridded Surface [...] Read more.
Flooding during extreme weather events damages critical infrastructure, property, and threatens lives. Hurricane María devastated Puerto Rico (PR) on 20 September 2017. Sixty-four deaths were directly attributable to the flooding. This paper describes the development of a hydrologic model using the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA), capable of simulating flood depth and extent for the Añasco coastal flood plain in Western PR. The purpose of the study was to develop a numerical model to simulate flooding from extreme weather events and to evaluate the impacts on critical infrastructure and communities; Hurricane María is used as a case study. GSSHA was calibrated for Irma, a Category 3 hurricane, which struck the northeastern corner of the island on 7 September 2017, two weeks before Hurricane María. The upper Añasco watershed was calibrated using United States Geological Survey (USGS) stream discharge data. The model was validated using a storm of similar magnitude on 11–13 December 2007. Owing to the damage sustained by PR’s WSR-88D weather radar during Hurricane María, rainfall was estimated in this study using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model. Flooding in the coastal floodplain during Hurricane María was simulated using three methods: (1) Use of observed discharge hydrograph from the upper watershed as an inflow boundary condition for the coastal floodplain area, along with the WRF rainfall in the coastal flood plain; (2) Use of WRF rainfall to simulate runoff in the upper watershed and coastal flood plain; and (3) Similar to approach (2), except the use of bias-corrected WRF rainfall. Flooding results were compared with forty-two values of flood depth obtained during face-to-face interviews with residents of the affected communities. Impacts on critical infrastructure (water, electric, and public schools) were evaluated, assuming any structure exposed to 20 cm or more of flooding would sustain damage. Calibration equations were also used to improve flood depth estimates. Our model included the influence of storm surge, which we found to have a minimal effect on flood depths within the study area. Water infrastructure was more severely impacted by flooding than electrical infrastructure. From these findings, we conclude that the model developed in this study can be used with sufficient accuracy to identify infrastructure affected by future flooding events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Validation of Soil Survey Estimates of Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity in Major Soils of Puerto Rico
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030094 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 779
Abstract
Ranges or “classes” of probable saturated hydraulic conductivity values (Ksat) are listed for all soil series in USDA-NRCS Soil Survey reports. Listed values are not measured, but rather estimated from other soil properties using a pedotransfer function (PTF). To validate [...] Read more.
Ranges or “classes” of probable saturated hydraulic conductivity values (Ksat) are listed for all soil series in USDA-NRCS Soil Survey reports. Listed values are not measured, but rather estimated from other soil properties using a pedotransfer function (PTF). To validate the PTF, we compared estimated Ksat classes with measured values in various horizons of nine major soil series of Puerto Rico. For each horizon, a minimum of 9 and usually 16 Ksat measurements were made with Guelph permeameters near locations where soil pedons had been thoroughly described. In most horizons, Ksat was log-normally distributed. The ratios of Ksat values corresponding to one geometric standard deviation above and below the mean were usually less than 10, which is the ratio of upper and lower class boundaries in the Ksat classification system. For most horizons, measured Ksat values were distributed among the rated Ksat class and the next higher class, indicating that the PTF systematically underestimated the Ksat distributions, but by less than an order of magnitude. From the point of view of soil and water management decisions requiring conservative Ksat estimates, the PTF estimates appeared reasonably conservative without deviating from actual values so as to limit the usefulness of the estimates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Catalogue of Tropical Cyclone Induced Instantaneous Peak Flows Recorded in Puerto Rico and a Comparison with the World’s Maxima
Hydrology 2021, 8(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8020084 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2026
Abstract
Peak streamflow rates from the Insular Caribbean have received limited attention in worldwide catalogues in spite of their potential for exceptionality given many of the islands’ steep topographic relief and proneness to high rainfall rates associated with tropical cyclones. This study compiled 1922 [...] Read more.
Peak streamflow rates from the Insular Caribbean have received limited attention in worldwide catalogues in spite of their potential for exceptionality given many of the islands’ steep topographic relief and proneness to high rainfall rates associated with tropical cyclones. This study compiled 1922 area-normalized peak streamflow rates recorded during tropical cyclones in Puerto Rico from 1899 to 2020. The results show that the highest peak flow values recorded on the island were within the range of the world’s maxima for watersheds with drainage areas from 10 to 619 km2. Although higher tropical cyclone rainfall and streamflow rates were observed on average for the central–eastern half of Puerto Rico, the highest of all cyclone-related peaks occurred throughout the entire island and were caused by tropical depressions, tropical storms, or hurricanes. Improving our understanding of instantaneous peak flow rates in Puerto Rico and other islands of the Caribbean is locally important due to their significance in terms of flooding extent and its associated impacts, but also because these could serve as indicators of the implications of a changing climate on tropical cyclone intensity and the associated hydrologic response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Calcium and Potassium Nutrition Increases the Water Use Efficiency in Coffee: A Promising Strategy to Adapt to Climate Change
Hydrology 2021, 8(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8020075 - 01 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1215
Abstract
Coffee (Coffea spp.) represents one of the most important sources of income and goods for the agricultural sector in Central America, Colombia, and the Caribbean region. The sustainability of coffee production at the global and regional scale is under threat by climate [...] Read more.
Coffee (Coffea spp.) represents one of the most important sources of income and goods for the agricultural sector in Central America, Colombia, and the Caribbean region. The sustainability of coffee production at the global and regional scale is under threat by climate change, with a major risk of losing near to 50% of today’s suitable area for coffee by 2050. Rain-fed coffee production dominates in the region, and under increasing climate variability and climate change impacts, these production areas are under threat due to air temperature increase and changes in rainfall patterns and volumes. Identification, evaluation, and implementation of adaptation strategies for growers to cope with climate variability and change impacts are relevant and high priority. Incremental adaptation strategies, including proper soil and water management, contribute to improved water use efficiency (WUE) and should be the first line of action to adapt the coffee crop to the changing growing conditions. This research’s objective was to evaluate at field level over five years the influence of fertilization with calcium (Ca+2) and potassium (K+) on WUE in two coffee arabica varieties: cv. Castillo and cv. Caturra. Castillo has resistance against coffee leaf rust (CLR) (Hemileia vastatrix Verkeley and Brome), while Caturra is not CLR-resistant. WUE was influenced by yield changes during the years by climate variability due to El Niño–ENSO conditions and CLR incidence. Application of Ca+2 and K+ improved the WUE under such variable conditions. The highest WUE values were obtained with an application of 100 kg CaO ha−1 year−1 and between 180 to 230 kg K2O ha−1 year−1. The results indicate that adequate nutrition with Ca+2 and K+ can improve WUE in the long-term, even underwater deficit conditions and after the substantial incidence. Hence, an optimum application of Ca+2 and K+ in rain-fed coffee plantations can be regarded as an effective strategy to adapt to climate variability and climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Tropical Convection in the Caribbean and Surrounding Region during a Regional, Warming Sea-Surface Temperature Period, 1982–2020
Hydrology 2021, 8(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8020056 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2071
Abstract
Warming sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) have implications for the climate-sensitive Caribbean region, including potential impacts on precipitation. SSTs have been shown to influence deep convection and rainfall, thus understanding the impacts of warming SSTs is important for predicting regional hydrometeorological conditions. This study investigates [...] Read more.
Warming sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) have implications for the climate-sensitive Caribbean region, including potential impacts on precipitation. SSTs have been shown to influence deep convection and rainfall, thus understanding the impacts of warming SSTs is important for predicting regional hydrometeorological conditions. This study investigates the long-term annual and seasonal trends in convection using the Galvez-Davison Index (GDI) for tropical convection from 1982–2020. The GDI is used to describe the type and potential for precipitation events characterized by sub-indices that represent heat and moisture availability, cool/warm mid-levels at 500 hPa, and subsidence inversion, which drive the regional Late, Early, and Dry Rainfall Seasons, respectively. Results show that regional SSTs are warming annually and per season, while regionally averaged GDI values are decreasing annually and for the Dry Season. Spatial analyses show the GDI demonstrates higher, statistically significant correlations with precipitation across the region than with sea-surface temperatures, annually and per season. Moreover, the GDI climatology results show that regional convection exhibits a bimodal pattern resembling the characteristic bimodal precipitation pattern experienced in many parts of the Caribbean and surrounding region. However, the drivers of these conditions need further investigation as SSTs continue to rise while the region experiences a drying trend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Hydrological Mapping in the Luquillo Experimental Forest: New Local Datum Improves Watershed Ecological Knowledge
Hydrology 2021, 8(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8010054 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Streams and rivers of the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, have been the subject of extensive watershed and aquatic research since the 1980s. This research includes understanding stream export of nutrients and coarse particulate organic matter, physicochemical constituents, aquatic fauna populations and community [...] Read more.
Streams and rivers of the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, have been the subject of extensive watershed and aquatic research since the 1980s. This research includes understanding stream export of nutrients and coarse particulate organic matter, physicochemical constituents, aquatic fauna populations and community structure. However, many of the streams and watersheds studied do not appear in standard scale maps. We document recent collaborative and multi-institutional work to improve hydrological network information and identify knowledge gaps. The methods used to delimit and densify stream networks include establishment and incorporation of an updated new vertical datum for Puerto Rico, LIDAR derived elevation, and a combination of visual-manual and automated digitalization processes. The outcomes of this collaborative effort have resulted in improved watershed delineation, densification of hydrologic networks to reflect the scale of on-going studies, and the identification of constraining factors such as unmapped roadways, culverts, and other features of the built environment that interrupt water flow and alter runoff pathways. This work contributes to enhanced knowledge for watershed management, including attributes of riparian areas, effects of road and channel intersections and ridge to reef initiatives with broad application to other watersheds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Resolution-Dependent Perspectives on Caribbean Hydro-Climate Change
Hydrology 2020, 7(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7040093 - 28 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
Near-surface winds around the mountainous Caribbean islands contribute to orographic lifting and thermal diurnal rainfall that requires mesoscale analysis. Here, a new perspective is presented via high-resolution satellite and reanalysis products. Singular value decomposition is applied to 5 km cold-cloud duration satellite data [...] Read more.
Near-surface winds around the mountainous Caribbean islands contribute to orographic lifting and thermal diurnal rainfall that requires mesoscale analysis. Here, a new perspective is presented via high-resolution satellite and reanalysis products. Singular value decomposition is applied to 5 km cold-cloud duration satellite data to understand the leading mode of seasonal hydro-climate variability and its regional controls. The spatial loadings reflect wet islands in a dry marine climate, while temporal amplitude is modulated by the large-scale zonal circulation. When summer-time trade winds weaken, daytime confluence around Caribbean islands enlarges, gathering and lifting more moisture. In addition to the static geographic forcing, transient easterly waves impart the majority of marine rainfall between June and September. Higher resolution products capture the thermal orographic effect and reveal upward trends in island rainfall and soil moisture over the satellite era, while lower resolution products miss this effect. The climate of mountainous Caribbean islands is trending toward increased runoff and soil moisture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Technical Note
Evaluation of Debris Flows for Flood Plain Estimation in a Small Ungauged Tropical Watershed for Hurricane Otto
Hydrology 2021, 8(3), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8030122 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
The variability of climate, increase in population, and lack of territorial plans in Costa Rica have caused intense disasters with human and economic losses. In 2016, Hurricane Otto hit the country’s northern area, leaving substantial damages, including landslides, debris flows, and flooding. The [...] Read more.
The variability of climate, increase in population, and lack of territorial plans in Costa Rica have caused intense disasters with human and economic losses. In 2016, Hurricane Otto hit the country’s northern area, leaving substantial damages, including landslides, debris flows, and flooding. The present study evaluated different scenarios to estimate flooded areas for Newtonian (clean water), and non-Newtonian flows with volumetric sediment concentrations (Cv) of 0.3, 0.45, 0.55, and 0.65 using Hydro-Estimator (HE), rain gauge station, and the 100-year return period event. HEC–HMS modeled the rainfall products, and FLO-2D modeled the hydrographs and Cv combinations. The simulation results were evaluated with continuous statistics, contingency table, Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency, measure of fit (F), and mean absolute differences (E) in the floodplains. Flow depths, velocities, and hazard intensities were obtained in the floodplain. The debris flood was validated with field data and classified with a Cv of 0.45, presenting lower MAE and RMSE. Results indicated no significant differences in flood depths between hydrological scenarios with clean-water simulations with a difference of 8.38% in the peak flow. The flood plain generated with HE rainfall and clear-water condition presented similar results compared to the rain gauge input source. Additionally, hydraulic results with HE and Cv of 0.45 presented E and F values similar to the simulation of Cv of 0.3, demonstrating that the HE bias did not influence the determination of the floodplain depth and extent. A mean bias factor can be applied to a sub-daily temporal resolution to enhance HE rain rate quantifications and floodplain determination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop