Special Issue "2020: A 10 Years Journey-Advances in Geosciences"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Maurizio Barbieri
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Earth Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro, 5 - 00185 Roma, Italy
Interests: geochemical tracers in hydrological studies; interactions between water and the geological and chemical environment; quantitative understanding of chemically based processes in hydrogeochemical environments and complementary physical and biological processes and conditions; kinetics and equilibria of geochemical reactions; the movement of isotopes and soil chemistry; freshwater–seawater interactions in coastal aquifers; basic and applied research on speciation and transformation of trace metals and metalloids during biogeochemical processes in both natural and anthropogenic environments; radiogenic and stable isotope geochemistry
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Luciano Telesca
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, National Research Council, C.da S.Loja, 85050 Tito (PZ). Italy
Interests: geophysical time series analysis; statistical methods for the investigation of geophysical processes; fractals and multifractals in earth sciences; geophysical point processes; Seismic time series; Hydrological time series; satellite time series analysis
Prof. Dr. Stephen Macko
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
Interests: fossil materials; ocean cycling of nitrogen; abiotic synthesis; stable isotope analysis; denitrification; nitrification; nitrogen pollution; oceanic dead zones
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Paul Schwab
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA
Interests: environmental chemistry; water quality; remediation of contaminated soils and sediments; reclamation of highly disturbed lands; restoration and revegetation of waste sites; soil mineralogy; phytoremediation; geochemical modeling; equilibria and rates of biogechemical reactions; redox reactions in soil and aquatic environments; environmental fate of nanoparticles

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Geosciences was first issued in 2011, the Volume 10 would be released in 2020. To mark this anniversary, a Special Issue edited by the editor in chief and all section editors is inviting all editorial board members as well as prominent scientists in the field for contributions. This Special Issue is dedicated to the publication and discussion of research articles, letters, reviews, and communications on all aspects of the Earth and Planetary Sciences and technologies that provide insights into and address challenges in the Earth system. This comprises the solid earth, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the biosphere, as well as related topics in the planetary and space sciences. In addition, it will provide an advanced forum for contributions on Earth history, natural hazards, geology-related environmental problems, and geoethics that reflect the wide scope and societal, educational, cultural, and, in general, human implications of the cross-cutting nature of these issues.

We therefore very much look forward to your valued contributions to make this Special Issue a unique resource for future researchers from the exciting field of geosciences.

Prof. Dr. Jesus Martinez-Frias
Prof. Dr. Maurizio Barbieri
Dr. Deodato Tapete
Dr. Luciano Telesca
Prof. Dr. Stephen Macko
Prof. Dr. Paul Schwab
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • natural hazards
  • structural geology
  • Crystallography and Mineralogy
  • energy and mineral deposits (science, exploration and economic issues)
  • endogenous and exogenous Petrology and Geochemistry
  • meteorites and planetary geology
  • Geodynamics
  • Geographic Information Science
  • Hydrology and Hydrogeology
  • Stratigraphy and Sedimentology
  • Geological Engineering
  • geological proxies for climate change
  • Paleontology
  • biogeomarkers and their significance for Astrogeology and Astrobiology
  • Geoethics
  • geoheritage, geotourism and geoparks
  • Medical and Forensic Geology
  • geological collections and Museology
  • education and capacity building in geosciences
  • international partnership in geosciences
  • future Earth

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Temporal Variability of Sediments, Dissolved Solids and Dissolved Organic Matter Fluxes in the Congo River at Brazzaville/Kinshasa
Geosciences 2020, 10(9), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10090341 - 28 Aug 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
For three decades, the solid and dissolved fluxes of the Congo River have been regularly monitored on a monthly basis, despite 12 years of deficiencies (1994–2005). Two programs successively carried out these follow-ups: PEGI/GBF (1987–1993) and SO HYBAM (2006–2017), upstream and downstream, respectively, [...] Read more.
For three decades, the solid and dissolved fluxes of the Congo River have been regularly monitored on a monthly basis, despite 12 years of deficiencies (1994–2005). Two programs successively carried out these follow-ups: PEGI/GBF (1987–1993) and SO HYBAM (2006–2017), upstream and downstream, respectively, of the Malebo Pool near Brazzaville, the main hydrometric station of the Congo River. The objective of this study is to examine the temporal dynamic of TSS, TDS and DOC, to explore how these descriptors change over time. Comparison with the two time programs will shed more light on how these descriptors are related to discharge. Afterward, we then find a relationship between total TSS in the water column and that measured in surface for eventual estimation of TSS by remote sensing. In the last decade, compared to the PEGI/GBF period, the discharge of the Congo River was mainly marked by a 4% increase, leading to a significant change on TDS and DOC behaviors. The TSS was quite stable (from 8.2 and 9.3 t km−2 yr−1) due to the low physical erosion well known in this region. The TDS concentrations decreased slightly, by a simple dilution effect. However, the mineral dissolved fluxes (from 11.6 and 10.1 t km-2 yr-1) due to the chemical weathering and atmospheric inputs still predominate over the solid fluxes. Therefore, there was no radical change in the monthly geochemical regime of Congo River Basin (CRB) during these last 30 years. Contrariwise, the DOC concentration marking the biogeochemical processes significantly increased, from 9.0+/−3.0 mg L−1 to 12.7+/−5.0 mg L−1, due to more flooding events in the central part of the CRB. The change for the DOC fluxes is more relevant, with an increase of 45% between the two studied periods, from 11.1 × 106 to 16.2 × 106 t yr−1. This highlights the continuous and actual importance of the “Cuvette Centrale” in the heart of the CRB for dissolved organic matter transport by the Congo River. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2020: A 10 Years Journey-Advances in Geosciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Climate Changes on the State of Water Resources in Poland and Their Usage
Geosciences 2020, 10(8), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10080312 - 13 Aug 2020
Abstract
The study aims to estimate the amount of available renewable water resources in Poland in the years 1999–2018 and the extent of their use by various sectors of the national economy at the national and regional levels. In the study period, the selected [...] Read more.
The study aims to estimate the amount of available renewable water resources in Poland in the years 1999–2018 and the extent of their use by various sectors of the national economy at the national and regional levels. In the study period, the selected meteorological elements were found to have changed, resulting in a decrease in the flows of the two largest rivers in Poland: the Vistula and the Oder. The outflow of the Vistula and Odra basins determines the size of Poland’s water resources. Poland is classified as a country of low water resources, as evidenced by the per capita amount of surface water, which in the years 1999–2018 was 1566 m3/capita. Water consumption to meet the needs of the economy and the population was stable, and averaged 283 m3/capita in this period. The analysis of water consumption by region showed that the areas with the lowest annual precipitation consume significant amounts of water for economic purposes, which may limit or destabilise socio-economic development in the region in future. Based on the difference between the amount of precipitation and water losses in the form of evaporation and water abstraction for economic purposes, maps were drawn up showing the deficit of surface water in a dry year. During periods of surface water scarcity, groundwater uptake increases. An area particularly exposed to water scarcity is central Poland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2020: A 10 Years Journey-Advances in Geosciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Seismic Coda-Waves Imaging Based on Sensitivity Kernels Calculated Using an Heuristic Approach
Geosciences 2020, 10(8), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10080304 - 08 Aug 2020
Abstract
In this paper we review and discuss the seismic method based on the analysis of seismic coda waves used in the last 10 years by the present authors and/or their co-workers, to produce separate images of intrinsic- and scattering attenuation in zones of [...] Read more.
In this paper we review and discuss the seismic method based on the analysis of seismic coda waves used in the last 10 years by the present authors and/or their co-workers, to produce separate images of intrinsic- and scattering attenuation in zones of peculiar geological interest (mainly volcanoes). Such separate attenuation images are considered by the scientific community as complementary to those from ordinary velocity-tomography and useful to improve the geological interpretation in volcanoes and in tectonically active zones. In this review we only list but do not discuss the most significative papers showing the images obtained, as we are focused to review the method and not the interpretation of data analysis. For sake of completeness, we anyway show also a new analysis applied to data from Stromboli volcano. We thus first introduce the physical model describing the seismogram Energy Envelope (derived from the solution of the Energy Transport integral Equation) and discuss its asymptotic approximations (Diffusion- and Single-scattering model). Then, we describe a numerical method to heuristically calculate the Sensitivity Kernels for the propagation of the scattered waves in the assumption of isotropic scattering. We attribute to these Sensitivity Kernels the physical meaning of probability that for a single source-receiver couple the measured attenuation parameters can be associated with the space coordinates. Based on this definition, the attenuation image can be obtained mapping the estimated attenuation parameters onto the zone under study weighting with the Sensitivity Kernels. We further discuss how to estimate the uncertainties associated with the results and report the list of the papers describing the (separated) scattering- and intrinsic-attenuation structures investigated using this approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2020: A 10 Years Journey-Advances in Geosciences)
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Open AccessArticle
The Medicine Hat Block and the Early Paleoproterozoic Assembly of Western Laurentia
Geosciences 2020, 10(7), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10070271 - 15 Jul 2020
Abstract
The accretion of the Wyoming, Hearne, and Superior Provinces to form the Archean core of western Laurentia occurred rapidly in the Paleoproterozoic. Missing from Hoffman’s (1988) original rapid aggregation model was the Medicine Hat block (MHB). The MHB is a structurally distinct, complex [...] Read more.
The accretion of the Wyoming, Hearne, and Superior Provinces to form the Archean core of western Laurentia occurred rapidly in the Paleoproterozoic. Missing from Hoffman’s (1988) original rapid aggregation model was the Medicine Hat block (MHB). The MHB is a structurally distinct, complex block of Precambrian crystalline crust located between the Archean Wyoming Craton and the Archean Hearne Province and overlain by an extensive Phanerozoic cover. It is distinguished on the basis of geophysical evidence and limited geochemical data from crustal xenoliths and drill core. New U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf data from zircons reveal protolith crystallization ages from 2.50 to 3.28 Ga, magmatism/metamorphism at 1.76 to 1.81 Ga, and εHfT values from −23.3 to 8.5 in the Archean and Proterozoic rocks of the MHB. These data suggest that the MHB played a pivotal role in the complex assembly of western Laurentia in the Paleoproterozoic as a conjugate or extension to the Montana Metasedimentary Terrane (MMT) of the northwestern Wyoming Province. This MMT–MHB connection likely existed in the Mesoarchean, but it was broken sometime during the earliest Paleoproterozoic with the formation and closure of a small ocean basin. Closure of the ocean led to formation of the Little Belt arc along the southern margin of the MHB beginning at approximately 1.9 Ga. The MHB and MMT re-joined at this time as they amalgamated into the supercontinent Laurentia during the Great Falls orogeny (1.7–1.9 Ga), which formed the Great Falls tectonic zone (GFTZ). The GFTZ developed in the same timeframe as the better-known Trans-Hudson orogen to the east that marks the merger of the Wyoming, Hearne, and Superior Provinces, which along with the MHB, formed the Archean core of western Laurentia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2020: A 10 Years Journey-Advances in Geosciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Sand Ridges on Rocky Coastal Platforms as Markers of Tsunami Impact: A Multi-Disciplinary Analysis along the Ionian Coast of Southern Apulia (Italy)
Geosciences 2020, 10(6), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10060204 - 27 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Along the Ionian coast of Southern Apulia, a sand ridge has been detected at the inner border of a wide, low-elevated rocky platform. A multi-disciplinary analysis was carried out to define the main geomorphological and sedimentological features of this dune-like coastal deposit, to [...] Read more.
Along the Ionian coast of Southern Apulia, a sand ridge has been detected at the inner border of a wide, low-elevated rocky platform. A multi-disciplinary analysis was carried out to define the main geomorphological and sedimentological features of this dune-like coastal deposit, to clarify its nature as well as to obtain chronological constraints for its development. The geomorphological survey reveals that the sand ridge is about 40–60 m wide, reaching a maximum elevation of 3.9 m above m.s.l., whereas its thickness can be estimated between 1.0 and 2.8 m. The sand ridge is in some places associated with large-size boulders. Grain size analysis shows that it is made up of poorly sorted coarse-medium sands with a gravelly fraction, without significant sedimentary structures, as confirmed by Ground Penetrating Radar survey. The micro and macro-faunal assemblage sampled in the sand ridge can be related to shallow-water environments with Posidonia oceanica meadows occurring offshore. The development of the studied sand ridge can be ascribed to a tsunami event able to mix up very coarse bioclastic sands placed at submerged platforms, storm beach deposits covering the low-elevated coastal platform in patches, and possibly older tsunami deposits. Accelerator Mass Spectometry radiocarbon age determinations on mollusc shells sampled from the sand ridge span from 929–1168 AD to 1707–1950 AD and cluster around the 18th–19th centuries, suggesting a possible association with a recent tsunami event. Data reported in the Euro-Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue would indicate as the most likely event that one of the 25th April 1836, produced by a strong earthquake with its epicenter near Rossano village, on the Ionian coast of the Calabria region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2020: A 10 Years Journey-Advances in Geosciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Recent Advances in Geomathematics in Croatia: Examples from Subsurface Geological Mapping and Biostatistics
Geosciences 2020, 10(5), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10050188 - 15 May 2020
Abstract
Geomathematics is extremely important in geosciences, particularly in the geology. The key for any geomathematical analysis is the definition of a typical model to be applied for further prognosis, either through deterministic or stochastic approaches. The selection of the appropriate procedure is presented [...] Read more.
Geomathematics is extremely important in geosciences, particularly in the geology. The key for any geomathematical analysis is the definition of a typical model to be applied for further prognosis, either through deterministic or stochastic approaches. The selection of the appropriate procedure is presented in this paper. Two different geomathematical subfield datasets were used in subsurface geological mapping and palaeontology and different biostatistics applications, representing important geomathematical subfields in the Croatian geology. The different subsurface interpolation methods tested, validated and recommended for application were used to obtain the best possible outcome in reservoir modelling, in the cases with small datasets. Cross-validation may be chosen as the main selection criteria, applied to the Croatian part of the Pannonian Basin System (CPBS). Recent advances in biostatistics applied in palaeontology and case studies from Croatia are also presented, where biometric studies are of significant importance in fossil biota. Data, methods and problems in geosciences are vast subjects, and address a wide spectrum of fundamental science. Because geology includes subsurface and surface geology, and very different datasets regarding variable and number of data, we have chosen here two representative case study groups with original samples from Northern Croatia. Subsurface mapping has been presented on limited petrophysical datasets from the Northern Croatian, Miocene, hydrocarbon reservoirs. Biostatistics have been presented on very different samples, allowing us to achieve paleoenvironmental reconstructions of the size of relevant fossils, such as dinosaurs or other species and their paleoenvironments. All examples highlight examples of the valuable application of geomathematical tools in geology. The results, cautiously validated and correlated with other, non-numerical (indicator, categorical) geological knowledge, are of enormous assistance in creating better geological models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2020: A 10 Years Journey-Advances in Geosciences)
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Open AccessArticle
The Three-Segment Control and Measurement of Reliable Monitoring of the Deformation of the Rock Mass Surface and Engineering Structures on the Międzyodrze Islands in Szczecin, NW Poland
Geosciences 2020, 10(5), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10050179 - 13 May 2020
Abstract
The research area is located in north-western Poland. It is the city of Szczecin with a particular emphasis on the Międzyodrze islands. The area of the EcoGenerator Waste Disposal Plant is part of the research area. The analysis of the geological structure of [...] Read more.
The research area is located in north-western Poland. It is the city of Szczecin with a particular emphasis on the Międzyodrze islands. The area of the EcoGenerator Waste Disposal Plant is part of the research area. The analysis of the geological structure of the subsurface layer of Earth’s crust within Szczecin, was carried out with particular emphasis on the EcoGenerator Waste Disposal Plant. The analysis of height changes of the benchmarks, was based on archival materials measured in two campaigns. A detailed recognition of the geological structure in connection with the analysis of changes in the height of the benchmarks was important. This enabled stable benchmarks to be located in several areas of Szczecin. They formed the basis for reliable monitoring of surface deformations of organic and existing sediments within the EkoGenerator Plant. The application of an appropriate three segment control and measurement system. In the area around the EcoGenerator Plant, vertical movements of the area were observed using the InSAR Small Baseline Subset Method. An InSAR analysis is only used here for very broad identification of the moving area. The radar data came from Sentinel 1 A and 1 B satellites. A total of 129 images from 15.11.2014 to 28.07.2019 were used.The results of the analyses conducted, form the basis for discussion and act as a summary of the considerations in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2020: A 10 Years Journey-Advances in Geosciences)
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Open AccessArticle
The Altotiberina Low-Angle Normal Fault (Italy) Can Fail in Moderate-Magnitude Earthquakes as a Result of Stress Transfer from Stable Creeping Fault Area
Geosciences 2020, 10(4), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10040144 - 16 Apr 2020
Abstract
Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that the Altotiberina low-angle (dip angle of 15–20°) normal fault is active in the Umbria–Marche sector of the Northern Apennine thrust belt (Italy). The fault plane is 70 km long and 40 km wide, larger and [...] Read more.
Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that the Altotiberina low-angle (dip angle of 15–20 ° ) normal fault is active in the Umbria–Marche sector of the Northern Apennine thrust belt (Italy). The fault plane is 70 km long and 40 km wide, larger and hence potentially more destructive than the faults that generated the last major earthquakes in Italy. However, the seismic potential associated with the Altotiberina fault is strongly debated. In fact, the mechanical behavior of this fault is complex, characterized by locked fault patches with a potentially seismic behavior surrounded by aseismic creeping areas. No historical moderate (5 ≤ Mw ≤ 5.9) nor strong (6 ≤ Mw ≤ 6.9)-magnitude earthquakes are unambiguously associated with the Altotiberina fault; however, microseismicity is scattered below 5 km within the fault zone. Here we provide mechanical evidence for the potential activation of the Altotiberina fault in moderate-magnitude earthquakes due to stress transfer from creeping fault areas to locked fault patches. The tectonic extension in the Umbria–Marche crustal sector of the Northern Apennines is simulated by a geomechanical numerical model that includes slip events along the Altotiberina and its main seismic antithetic fault, the Gubbio fault. The seismic cycles on the fault planes are simulated by assuming rate-and-state friction. The spatial variation of the frictional parameters is obtained by combining the interseismic coupling degree of the Altotiberina fault with friction laboratory measurements on samples from the Zuccale low- angle normal fault located in the Elba island (Italy), considered an older exhumed analogue of Altotiberina fault. This work contributes a better estimate of the seismic potential associated with the Altotiberina fault and, more generally, to low-angle normal faults with mixed-mode slip behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2020: A 10 Years Journey-Advances in Geosciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Mineralogical and Chemical Investigations of the Amguid Crater (Algeria): Is there Evidence on an Impact Origin?
Geosciences 2020, 10(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10030107 - 18 Mar 2020
Abstract
Mineralogical and chemical investigations were carried out on intra-craterial bedrocks (Lower Devonian sandstone) and regolithic residual soil deposits present around the Amguid structure, to discuss the hypothesis of its formation through a relatively recent (about 0.1 Ma) impact event. Observations with an optical [...] Read more.
Mineralogical and chemical investigations were carried out on intra-craterial bedrocks (Lower Devonian sandstone) and regolithic residual soil deposits present around the Amguid structure, to discuss the hypothesis of its formation through a relatively recent (about 0.1 Ma) impact event. Observations with an optical microscope on intra-craterial rocks do not unequivocally confirm the presence of impact correlated microscopic planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz crystals. Field observations, and optical and instrumental analysis (Raman spectroscopy) on rocks and soils (including different granulometric fractions) do not provide any incontrovertible pieces of evidence of high energy impact effects or products of impact (e.g., high pressure—temperature phases, partially or totally melted materials, etc.) either in target rocks or in soils. A series of selected main and trace elements (Al, Fe, Mg, Ni, Co and Cu) were analysed on rocks and soils to evaluate the presence in these materials of extraterrestrial sources. Comparative chemical data on rocks and soils suggest that these last are significantly enriched in Fe-poor Mg-rich materials, and in Co, Ni and Cu, in the order. A large number of EDAX-SEM analyses on separated soil magnetic particles indicate an abnormally high presence of Al-free Mg-rich sub-spherical or drop-like silicate particles, showing very similar bulk chemistries compatible with forsterite olivine. Some particles were found associated with a Ni-rich iron metal phase, and this association suggests a specific extraterrestrial origin for them. Electron microscope analysis made on a large number of soil magnetic particles indicates that 98% of them are terrestrial phases (almandine garnet, tourmaline and Fe-oxides, in abundance order), whereas, only a few grains are of questionable origin. One of the Mg-rich silicate particles was found to be a forsterite (Mg = 0.86) Mn-rich (MnO: 0.23%) Cr-free olivine, almost surely of extraterrestrial sources. Electron microprobe analysis of three soil particles allowed identification of uncommon Cr-rich (Cr2O3 about 8%) spinels, poorly compatible with an origin from terrestrial sources, and in particular from local source rocks. We propose a specific extraterrestrial origin for sub-spherical olivine particles characterised by quite similar magnesian character. Excluding any derivation of these particles from interplanetary dust, two other possible extraterrestrial sources should be considered for them, i.e., either normal micrometeorite fluxes or strongly un-equilibrated, or the Vigarano type Carbonaceous (CV) chondrite meteorite material. In this case, further studies will confirm an impact origin for Amguid, as such magnesian olivine components found in soils might represent the only remnants of a vaporised projectile of ordinary non-equilibrated meteoritic composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2020: A 10 Years Journey-Advances in Geosciences)
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Open AccessArticle
A Machine Learning-Based Approach for Wildfire Susceptibility Mapping. The Case Study of the Liguria Region in Italy
Geosciences 2020, 10(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10030105 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Wildfire susceptibility maps display the spatial probability of an area to burn in the future, based solely on the intrinsic local proprieties of a site. Current studies in this field often rely on statistical models, often improved by expert knowledge for data retrieving [...] Read more.
Wildfire susceptibility maps display the spatial probability of an area to burn in the future, based solely on the intrinsic local proprieties of a site. Current studies in this field often rely on statistical models, often improved by expert knowledge for data retrieving and processing. In the last few years, machine learning algorithms have proven to be successful in this domain, thanks to their capability of learning from data through the modeling of hidden relationships. In the present study, authors introduce an approach based on random forests, allowing elaborating a wildfire susceptibility map for the Liguria region in Italy. This region is highly affected by wildfires due to the dense and heterogeneous vegetation, with more than 70% of its surface covered by forests, and due to the favorable climatic conditions. Susceptibility was assessed by considering the dataset of the mapped fire perimeters, spanning a 21-year period (1997–2017) and different geo-environmental predisposing factors (i.e., land cover, vegetation type, road network, altitude, and derivatives). One main objective was to compare different models in order to evaluate the effect of: (i) including or excluding the neighboring vegetation type as additional predisposing factors and (ii) using an increasing number of folds in the spatial-cross validation procedure. Susceptibility maps for the two fire seasons were finally elaborated and validated. Results highlighted the capacity of the proposed approach to identify areas that could be affected by wildfires in the near future, as well as its goodness in assessing the efficiency of fire-fighting activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2020: A 10 Years Journey-Advances in Geosciences)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Fossil History of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) from the Paleogene
Geosciences 2020, 10(9), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10090358 - 06 Sep 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Currently, some 564 species of Curculionoidea from nine families (Nemonychidae—4, Anthribidae—33, Ithyceridae—3, Belidae—9, Rhynchitidae—41, Attelabidae—3, Brentidae—47, Curculionidae—384, Platypodidae—2, Scolytidae—37) are known from the Paleogene. Twenty-seven species are found in the Paleocene, 442 in the Eocene and 94 in the Oligocene. The greatest diversity [...] Read more.
Currently, some 564 species of Curculionoidea from nine families (Nemonychidae—4, Anthribidae—33, Ithyceridae—3, Belidae—9, Rhynchitidae—41, Attelabidae—3, Brentidae—47, Curculionidae—384, Platypodidae—2, Scolytidae—37) are known from the Paleogene. Twenty-seven species are found in the Paleocene, 442 in the Eocene and 94 in the Oligocene. The greatest diversity of Curculionoidea is described from the Eocene of Europe and North America. The richest faunas are known from Eocene localities, Florissant (177 species), Baltic amber (124 species) and Green River formation (75 species). The family Curculionidae dominates in all Paleogene localities. Weevil species associated with herbaceous vegetation are present in most localities since the middle Paleocene. A list of Curculionoidea species and their distribution by location is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2020: A 10 Years Journey-Advances in Geosciences)
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Open AccessReview
Unique Geology and Climbing: A Literature Review
Geosciences 2020, 10(7), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10070259 - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
Geological and geomorphological heritage (geoheritage) is often found in mountain domains that also provide resources for climbing, mountaineering, bouldering, and canyoning. The relevant research has grown in the 2010s, and its main findings need systematization. The present paper reviews the available scientific articles [...] Read more.
Geological and geomorphological heritage (geoheritage) is often found in mountain domains that also provide resources for climbing, mountaineering, bouldering, and canyoning. The relevant research has grown in the 2010s, and its main findings need systematization. The present paper reviews the available scientific articles dealing with geoheritage and climbing activities. The number of sources remains limited, and the majority of them focus on Europe. However, these sources are rather diverse thematically. A total of 11 principal topics are delineated, and these are attributed to geoconservation, geoeducation, the tourism industry, and tourism opportunities. Several methodologies for assessment of geoheritage and climbing sites are proposed. These provide important insights, but focus on particular issues and can be applied in particular situations. Critical consideration of the available literature permits the identification of several research gaps that should be addressed by future research. The analysis of the sources implies several dimensions for sustainability judgments. Finally, the importance of the world’s highest peaks for the understanding of geoheritage and climbing activities is underappreciated by the reviewed works, and this deficiency should be addressed by future investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2020: A 10 Years Journey-Advances in Geosciences)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Previous, Current, and Future Trends in Research into Earthquake Precursors in Geofluids
Geosciences 2020, 10(5), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10050189 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Hazard reduction policies include seismic hazard maps based on probabilistic evaluations and the evaluation of geophysical parameters continuously recorded by instrumental networks. Over the past 25 centuries, a large amount of information about earthquake precursory phenomena has been recorded by scholars, scientific institutions, [...] Read more.
Hazard reduction policies include seismic hazard maps based on probabilistic evaluations and the evaluation of geophysical parameters continuously recorded by instrumental networks. Over the past 25 centuries, a large amount of information about earthquake precursory phenomena has been recorded by scholars, scientific institutions, and civil defense agencies. In particular, hydrogeologic measurements and geochemical analyses have been performed in geofluids in search of possible and reliable earthquake precursors. Controlled experimental areas have been set up to investigate physical and chemical mechanisms originating possible preseismic precursory signals. The main test sites for such research are located in China, Iceland, Japan, the Russian Federation, Taiwan, and the USA. The present state of the art about the most relevant scientific achievements has been described. Future research trends and possible development paths have been identified and allow for possible improvements in policies oriented to seismic hazard reduction by geofluid monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2020: A 10 Years Journey-Advances in Geosciences)
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Open AccessReview
Bradoriids (Arthropoda) and the Cambrian Diversification
Geosciences 2020, 10(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10040119 - 27 Mar 2020
Abstract
Bradoriids, among the earliest arthropods to appear in the fossil record, are extinct, ostracod-like bivalved forms that ranged from the early Cambrian to the Middle Ordovician. Bradoriids are notable for having appeared in the Cambrian fossil record before the earliest trilobites, and considering [...] Read more.
Bradoriids, among the earliest arthropods to appear in the fossil record, are extinct, ostracod-like bivalved forms that ranged from the early Cambrian to the Middle Ordovician. Bradoriids are notable for having appeared in the Cambrian fossil record before the earliest trilobites, and considering their rapid ascent to high genus-level diversity, provide key data for our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of the Cambrian Explosion. This paper presents a broad review of bradoriid paleobiology. It is hypothesized here that an allele of Antennapedia determines whether bradoriid shields are preplete, amplete, or postplete. The preplete configuration of the shields of Cambroarchilocus tigris gen. nov. sp. nov. suggests that shield rowing motion may have propelled the animal backwards. Arcuate scars attributed here to a microdurophagous predator (Arcuoichnus pierci nov. ichnogen. nov. ichnosp.) occur on the paratype of Cambroarchilocus tigris gen. nov. sp. nov. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2020: A 10 Years Journey-Advances in Geosciences)
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