E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 2nd International Electronic Conference on Water Science"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Resources Management and Governance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Maria Filomena Camões

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculdade de Ciências de Lisboa Universidade de Lisboa C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +352 21 7500008
Interests: electroanalytical and environmental chemistry: ionic solutions, pH and acidity; potentiometric analysis; ion chromatography; seawater, coastal waters and low ionic strength aqueous solutions; air-water interfaces and exchanges; metrology in analytical chemistry
Guest Editor
Dr. Kevin B. Strychar

Climate Change Studies of Aquatic & Marine Ecosystems, Annis Water Resources Institute,Grand Valley State University,131 Lake Michigan Center,740 W. Shorelind Dr., Muskegon, MI 49441-1678, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: climate change; aquatic and marine ecology; flow cytometry; aquaculture and environmental impacts; invasive species; benthic ecology
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Maurizio Barbieri

Department of Earth Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro, 5 - 00185 Roma, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: geochemical tracers in hydrological studies; interactions between water and the geological and chemical environment; quantitative understanding of chemically based processes in hydrogeochemical environments and complementary physical and biological processes and conditions; kinetics and equilibria of geochemical reactions; the movement of isotopes and soil chemistry; freshwater-seawater interactions in coastal aquifers; basic and applied research on speciation and transformation of trace metals and metalloids during biogeochemical processes in both natural and anthropogenic environments; radiogenic and stable isotope geochemistry
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Enedir Ghisi

Laboratory of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario, Trindade, Florianópolis - SC, 88040-900, Brazil
E-Mail
Phone: +55 48 3721 2115
Fax: +55 48 37215191
Interests: water consumption in buildings; water efficiency; rainwater use in buildings; sustainability
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sunny Jiang

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2175, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: water quality; environmental engineering; water microbiology; risk assessment; desalination biofouling; membrane process; harmful algal bloom
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Püttmann

J.W. Goethe University, Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Altenhöferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 0049-69-79840225
Interests: analysis of biodegradation of hydrocarbons in groundwater (natural attenuation); development of analytical methods for "emerging contaminants" ; chlorinated organophosphates (flame retardants), gemini-tensides (TMDD) and pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Richard C. Smardon

Department of Environmental Studies, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry , State University of New York, 211B Marshall Hall, 1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NYU 13210, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 315-470-6576
Interests: international wetland policy and management; coastal zone management; community sustainability; green infrastructure development; landscape planning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue comprises selected papers from the Proceedings of the 2nd International Electronic Conference on Water Science (ECWS2), 16–30 November, 2017, on sciforum.net, an online platform for hosting scholarly e-conferences and discussion groups.

After the first electronic conference in water sciences (ECWS1) offered a wide range of topics, mostly related to the quality of water and the public supply of safe drinking water obtained from various resources, we found it appropriate to expand the scope of the conference to water that may have been exposed to various contaminations and may be intended for multiple uses. During this past year, our attention has been called to a variety of original case studies in which aquatic systems played central roles. New experimental and model approaches are largely contributing to improve our knowledge and capacity to supply answers to problems inherent to progress and development. This makes us look forward to stimulating scientific exchange and discussion.

Selected papers that attracted the most interest on the web, or that provided a particularly innovative contribution, have been gathered for publication. These papers have been subjected to peer review and are published with the aim of rapid and wide dissemination of research results, developments and applications. We hope this Conference Series will continue to grow in the acceptance and recognition by potential participants, contributors, experts who want to disseminate their latest findings, and readers who seek for information on relevant water science topics.

Prof. Dr. Maria Filomena Camões
Prof. Dr.  Kevin B. Strychar
Prof. Dr. Maurizio Barbieri
Prof. Dr. Enedir Ghisi
Prof. Dr. Sunny Jiang
Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Püttmann
Prof. Dr. Richard Smardon
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-7
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Determination of Micropollutants in Water Samples from Swimming Pool Systems
Water 2018, 10(8), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081083
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 22 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
PDF Full-text (2113 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study investigated the occurrence of selected micropollutants, including emerging contaminants from a group of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in water samples from swimming pool systems. The study area was selected based on the lack of available information regarding suspected
[...] Read more.
The present study investigated the occurrence of selected micropollutants, including emerging contaminants from a group of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in water samples from swimming pool systems. The study area was selected based on the lack of available information regarding suspected contamination of swimming pool water by PPCPs. The variety and concentration of chemical compounds in these aquatic systems can be quite diversified, presenting a challenge in terms of both purification and quality control. Determination of PPCPs requires very sensitive analytical methods that make it possible to confirm the presence of tested compounds in a complex organic extract. In this field, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) can be used. With this system, selected ion monitoring can be performed, which reduces the detection limits of the investigated analyte. This paper aims to present an analytical method and strategy that can be adapted to obtain information on the composition of water in swimming pool systems. The sample preparation methodology, including Solid Phase Extraction, has been developed for the trace determination of two pharmaceuticals—caffeine, carbamazepine—and one sunscreen constituent—benzophenone-3—in swimming pool water samples. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Countermeasure Analysis on Promoting Drinking Water Safety in Shanshan County, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China
Water 2018, 10(8), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081022
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
PDF Full-text (3336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, China has paid an increasing amount of attention to improving urban and rural drinking water safety, an important aspect of building a healthy and stable society. This study analyzed countermeasures to promote drinking water safety in Turpan City of Shanshan
[...] Read more.
In recent years, China has paid an increasing amount of attention to improving urban and rural drinking water safety, an important aspect of building a healthy and stable society. This study analyzed countermeasures to promote drinking water safety in Turpan City of Shanshan County, in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region. First, we considered the current state of drinking water safety in Shanshan, including issues such as pollution, outdated water treatment technologies, leakage in the water supply pipe network, insufficient emergency management capability in urban areas, and low water supply guarantee rates in rural areas due to poor construction standards. Second, the quantity of guaranteed water resources was estimated; on this basis, an ideal distribution of regional water plants and water supply network needs for the optimal allocation of water resources is suggested. Third, a water purification program was developed to solve untreated water quality problems, including centralized and decentralized water quality treatments alongside intelligent water flow control processes. Water resource conservation and risk control measures are also proposed in order to promote the security of drinking water; equipment updates, and the establishment of an intelligent water management platform are also suggested. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Decomposition of Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Advanced Oxidation Processes
Water 2018, 10(7), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070955
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper compares the removal degrees of selected contaminants of emerging concern in water solutions during advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as H2O2, O3, UV, UV/TiO2, UV/H2O2, and UV/O3.
[...] Read more.
This paper compares the removal degrees of selected contaminants of emerging concern in water solutions during advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as H2O2, O3, UV, UV/TiO2, UV/H2O2, and UV/O3. The tested micropollutants belong to the following groups: pharmaceuticals, dyes, UV filters, hormones, pesticides, and food additives. The highest removal rate of pharmaceutical compounds was observed during the UV/TiO2 process. The decomposition of hormones in this process exceeded 96% and the concentration of the UV filter dioxybenzone was reduced by 75%. The pesticide triallat and the food additive butylated hydroxytoluene were most effectively oxidized by the UV process and their removal degrees exceeded 90%. The lowest removal degree in all examined processes was observed in the case of caffeine. Toxicological analysis conducted in post-processed water samples indicated the generation of several oxidation by-products with a high toxic potential. The presence of those compounds was confirmed by the GC-MS analysis. The performance of the UV/O3 process leads to the increase of the toxicity of post-processed water solutions, especially solutions containing degradation by-products of carbamazepine, diclofenac sodium salt, acridine, trialatte, triclosan, and β-estradiol were characterized by high toxicity. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Filtering Capability of Porous Asphalt Pavements
Water 2018, 10(2), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020206
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The objective of this study is to assess the filtering capability of porous asphalt pavement models and the quality of rainwater filtered by such models. Three slabs of porous asphalt mixtures and two models composed of porous layers that resulted in porous pavement
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to assess the filtering capability of porous asphalt pavement models and the quality of rainwater filtered by such models. Three slabs of porous asphalt mixtures and two models composed of porous layers that resulted in porous pavement structures were produced. Data were collected in two phases: using rainwater directly from the sky and then using stormwater runoff collected from a street. Parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, phosphorus, nitrite, aluminium, chromium, copper, zinc, and iron were measured. For both rainwater and stormwater runoff quality analyses, there was an increase in the concentration of the following parameters: phosphorus, iron, aluminium, zinc, nitrite, chromium, copper, and pH; there was no significant variation in the concentration of dissolved oxygen; and there was a decrease in ammonia in one of the models. However, the concentrations of only phosphorus and aluminium exceeded the limits established by the Brazilian National Environmental Council and National Water Agency for the use of non-potable water. The models were capable of filtering rainwater and stormwater runoff, and reducing the concentration of ammonia. It can be concluded that it is possible to collect stormwater runoff from porous asphalt surfaces and porous asphalt pavements. Porous asphalt pavements are able to filter out certain pollutants from stormwater runoff and rainwater, and were shown to be an alternative to supply rainwater for non-potable uses and to recharge the water table. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Empirical Characterization of Particle Size Distribution Spatial Dynamics for Helminth Eggs Detection in Waste Stabilization Ponds (WSP)
Water 2018, 10(2), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020138
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
PDF Full-text (1895 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study assesses seasonal particle size distribution (PSD) dynamics inside a waste stabilization ponds (WSP) (Buguruni, Tanzania) to understand settling dynamics of wastewater particles with an interest in helminth eggs. Results indicate that particles coming into the pond are mainly supracolloidal and settleables
[...] Read more.
This study assesses seasonal particle size distribution (PSD) dynamics inside a waste stabilization ponds (WSP) (Buguruni, Tanzania) to understand settling dynamics of wastewater particles with an interest in helminth eggs. Results indicate that particles coming into the pond are mainly supracolloidal and settleables with 52.9% and 45.6%, respectively, in dry season and 48.9% and 49.9%, respectively, in wet season. Inflow PSD is a unimodal distribution that splits into settling and suspended PSDs, with an indication of particle breakage, as shown by the increased volume of smaller particles and hence the appearance of a bimodal distribution for the suspended particles. Up to 61.5% and 45.2% of particles that fall within the size range of helminths eggs are suspended during dry and wet seasons, respectively, with the potential to be carried in the effluent and to cause contamination. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Identification of Phytoplankton Blooms under the Index of Inherent Optical Properties (IOP Index) in Optically Complex Waters
Water 2018, 10(2), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020129
Received: 23 December 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2654 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phytoplankton blooms are sporadic events in time and are isolated in space. This complex phenomenon is produced by a variety of both natural and anthropogenic causes. Early detection of this phenomenon, as well as the classification of a water body under conditions of
[...] Read more.
Phytoplankton blooms are sporadic events in time and are isolated in space. This complex phenomenon is produced by a variety of both natural and anthropogenic causes. Early detection of this phenomenon, as well as the classification of a water body under conditions of bloom or non-bloom, remains an unresolved problem. This research proposes the use of Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) in optically complex waters to detect the bloom or non-bloom state of the phytoplankton community. An IOP index is calculated from the absorption coefficients of the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), the phytoplankton ( phy ) and the detritus (d), using the wavelength (λ) 443 nm. The effectiveness of this index is tested in five bloom events in different places and with different characteristics from Mexican seas: 1. Dzilam (Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean), a diatom bloom (Rhizosolenia hebetata); 2. Holbox (Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean), a mixed bloom of dinoflagellates (Scrippsiella sp.) and diatoms (Chaetoceros sp.); 3. Campeche Bay in the Gulf of Mexico (Atlantic Ocean), a bloom of dinoflagellates (Karenia brevis); 4. Upper Gulf of California (UGC) (Pacific Ocean), a diatom bloom (Coscinodiscus and Pseudo-nitzschia) and 5. Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada (Pacific Ocean), a dinoflagellate bloom (Lingulodinium polyedrum). The diversity of sites show that the IOP index is a suitable method to determine the phytoplankton bloom conditions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Rainwater Harvesting in Buildings in Brazil: A Literature Review
Water 2018, 10(4), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040471
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2960 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents a literature review on rainwater usage in buildings in Brazil. It focuses on economic, environmental and social impacts. The legislation related to rainwater harvesting—including the cities that have made such a practice mandatory—was also assessed. The literature review was based
[...] Read more.
This article presents a literature review on rainwater usage in buildings in Brazil. It focuses on economic, environmental and social impacts. The legislation related to rainwater harvesting—including the cities that have made such a practice mandatory—was also assessed. The literature review was based on a search strategy that uses protocols to find and select studies about the main subject, i.e., rainwater harvesting in buildings. The protocols were defined as the site to be investigated (buildings), the intervention (rainwater harvesting), and the expected result (influence on the potable water consumption). Despite the variation of water availability in the country, it was concluded that there is a high potential for potable water savings when using rainwater in buildings in Brazil. Finally, it was observed the need for financial investments in experimental research and innovation technologies in order to improve rainwater management. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top