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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
The Mw = 5.6 Kanallaki Earthquake of 21 March 2020 in West Epirus, Greece: Reverse Fault Model from InSAR Data and Seismotectonic Implications for Apulia-Eurasia Collision
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110454 - 11 Nov 2020
Abstract
We identify the source of the Mw = 5.6 earthquake that hit west-central Epirus on 21 March 2020 00:49:52 UTC. We use Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar interferograms tied to one permanent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) station (GARD). We model the source by [...] Read more.
We identify the source of the Mw = 5.6 earthquake that hit west-central Epirus on 21 March 2020 00:49:52 UTC. We use Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar interferograms tied to one permanent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) station (GARD). We model the source by inverting the INSAR displacement data. The inversion model suggests a shallow source on a low-angle fault (39°) dipping towards east with a centroid depth of 8.5 km. The seismic moment deduced from our model agrees with those of the published seismic moment tensors. This geometry is compatible with reverse-slip motion along the west-verging Margariti thrust fault that accommodates part of the convergence within the collision zone between Apulia and Eurasia. We also processed new GNSS data and estimate a total convergence rate between Apulia and Eurasia of 8.9 mm yr−1, of which the shortening of the crust between the Epirus coastal GNSS stations and station PAXO in the Ionian Sea (across the Ionian Thrust) is equivalent to ~50% of it or 4.6 mm yr−1. By back-slip modelling we found that a 60-km wide deformation zone takes up nearly most of the convergence between Apulia-Eurasia, trending N318°E. Its central axis runs along the southwest coast of Corfu, along the northeast coast of Paxoi, heading toward the northern extremity of the Lefkada island. The island of Paxoi appears kinematically as part of the Apulian plate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismotectonics, Active Deformation, and Structure of the Crust)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Chinyero Volcanic Landscape Trail (Canary Islands, Spain): A Geotourism Proposal to Identify Natural and Cultural Heritage in Volcanic Areas
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110453 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The Chinyero Special Nature Reserve is located on the NW rift zone of Tenerife, between 600 and 1500 m above sea level. This natural setting is distinguished by a significant concentration of monogenetic basaltic volcanoes that have erupted in recent and historical times, [...] Read more.
The Chinyero Special Nature Reserve is located on the NW rift zone of Tenerife, between 600 and 1500 m above sea level. This natural setting is distinguished by a significant concentration of monogenetic basaltic volcanoes that have erupted in recent and historical times, including Garachico (1706) and Chinyero (1909). The volcanic landscapes of this protected area are part of the Canary Island pine forest ecosystem and, therefore, also feature beautiful forests colonising the newly formed layers of volcanic materials. The aim of this paper is to design a geographical route through the landscape for geotourism purposes, based on a global and coherent interpretation of the original physiognomy of a landscape that has been decisively shaped by volcanic phenomena. This nature trail represents a proposal for a new tourism product as an alternative to the traditional “sun and beach” coastal tourism product. This paper comprises a first stage, dedicated to the geographical study of the landscape, and a second stage focused on designing a geotourism route, which will identify and characterise the elements of the natural and cultural heritage of the area and its unique landforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomorphology, Geoheritage, Geoparks and Geotourism in Volcanic Areas)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Detailed Geophysical Mapping and Hydrogeological Characterisation of the Subsurface for Optimal Placement of Infiltration-Based Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110446 - 08 Nov 2020
Abstract
The continuous growth of cities in combination with future climate changes present urban planners with significant challenges, as traditional urban sewer systems are typically designed for the present climate. An easy and economically feasible way to mitigate this is to introduce a Sustainable [...] Read more.
The continuous growth of cities in combination with future climate changes present urban planners with significant challenges, as traditional urban sewer systems are typically designed for the present climate. An easy and economically feasible way to mitigate this is to introduce a Sustainable Urban Drainage System (SUDS) in the urban area. However, the lack of knowledge about the geological and hydrogeological setting hampers the use of SUDS. In this study, 1315 ha of high-density electromagnetic (DUALEM-421S) data, detailed lithological soil descriptions of 614 boreholes, 153 infiltration tests and 250 in situ vane tests from 32 different sites in the Central Denmark Region were utilised to find quantitative and qualitative regional relationships between the resistivity and the lithology, the percolation rates and the undrained shear strength of cohesive soils at a depth of 1 meter below ground surface (m bgs). The qualitative tests enable a translation from resistivity to lithology as well as a translation from lithology to percolation rates with moderate to high certainty. The regional cut-off value separating sand-dominated deposits from clay-dominated deposits is found to be between 80 to 100 Ωm. The regional median percolation rates for sand and clay till is found to be 9.9 × 10−5 m/s and 2.6 × 10−5 m/s, respectively. The quantitative results derived from a simple linear regression analysis of resistivity and percolation rates and resistivity and undrained shear strength of cohesive soils are found to have a very weak relationship on a regional scale implying that in reality no meaningful relationships can be established. The regional qualitative results have been tested on a case study area. The case study illustrates that site-specific investigations are necessary when using geophysical mapping to directly estimate lithology, percolation rates and undrained shear strength of cohesive soils due to the differences in soil properties and the surrounding environment from site to site. This study further illustrates that geophysical mapping in combination with lithological descriptions, infiltration tests and groundwater levels yield the basis for the construction of detailed planning maps showing the most suitable locations for infiltration. These maps provide valuable information for city planners about which areas may preclude the establishment of infiltration-based SUDS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Geophysics)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Discovery of Ancient Volcanoes in the Okhotsk Sea (Russia): New Constraints on the Opening History of the Kurile Back Arc Basin
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110442 - 06 Nov 2020
Abstract
Here we present the first radiometric age and geochemical (major and trace element and isotope) data for samples from the Hydrographer Ridge, a back arc volcano of the Kurile Island Arc, and a newly discovered chain of volcanoes (“Sonne Volcanoes”) on the northwestern [...] Read more.
Here we present the first radiometric age and geochemical (major and trace element and isotope) data for samples from the Hydrographer Ridge, a back arc volcano of the Kurile Island Arc, and a newly discovered chain of volcanoes (“Sonne Volcanoes”) on the northwestern continental slope of the Kurile Basin on the opposite side of the arc. The 40Ar/39Ar age and geochemical data show that Hydrographer Ridge (3.2–3.3 Ma) and the “Sonne Volcanoes” (25.3–25.9 Ma) have very similar trace element and isotope characteristics to those of the Kurile Island Arc, indicating derivation from a common magma source. We conclude that the age of the “Sonne Volcanoes” marks the time of opening of the Kurile Basin, implying slow back arc spreading rates of 1.3–1.8 cm/y. Combined with published data from the Kurile fore arc, our data suggest that the processes of subduction, Kurile Basin opening and frontal arc extension occurred synchronously and that extension in the rear part and in the frontal part of the Kurile Island Arc must have been triggered by the same mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tectonics and Morphology of Back-Arc Basins)
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Foraminifer and Ostracod Occurrence in a Cool-Water Carbonate Factory of the Cape Adare (Ross Sea, Antarctica): A Key Lecture for the Climatic and Oceanographic Variations in the Last 30,000 Years
Geosciences 2020, 10(10), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10100413 - 15 Oct 2020
Abstract
Foraminifers and ostracods were studied in a gravity-core recovered near Cape Adare (Ross Sea, Antarctica) with the aim of identifying the climatic and oceanographic variations during the last 30 ka. The sedimentary sequence represents conditions of a cool-water carbonate factory, which evidences that [...] Read more.
Foraminifers and ostracods were studied in a gravity-core recovered near Cape Adare (Ross Sea, Antarctica) with the aim of identifying the climatic and oceanographic variations during the last 30 ka. The sedimentary sequence represents conditions of a cool-water carbonate factory, which evidences that during the Marine Isotope Stage 2 (MIS2) the area was ice-free and very productive. The overall preservation of delicate skeletal remains such as bryozoans and molluscs indicated moderate bottom currents. This carbonate factory was interrupted by some terrigenous levels, representing conditions of instability/retreat of the ice shelves southward. The younger levels were referred to the meltwater pulse (MWP)-1A and 1B events. The Holocene sequence comprised more terrigenous sediments, reflecting high bottom-currents similar to the present-day conditions. Very abundant and well preserved foraminifers and ostracods, representative of shelf-upper slope paleoenvironments, were recovered. Epistominella exigua, among the foraminifers, suggested the influence of the Circumpolar Deep Water during some periods of the late Quaternary. Heavy-test taxa, such as Cibicides refulgens, indicated strengthening bottom hydrodynamics. As for the ostracods, peaks in the presence of Australicythere devexa, Bairdoppilata simplex and Pseudocythere aff. caudata together with significant values of Polycope spp. allowed us to identify environments rich in nutrients with the influence of cold and deep water upwelling phenomena. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quaternary Sedimentary Successions)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Structural and Stratigraphic Setting of Campagna and Giffoni Tectonic Windows: New Insights on the Orogenic Evolution of the Southern Apennines (Italy)
Geosciences 2020, 10(10), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10100405 - 10 Oct 2020
Abstract
We present a structural study on the tectonic windows of Giffoni and Campagna, located in the western sector of the southern Apennines (Italy). We analyzed thrusts, folds, and related minor deformation structures. Here, a major in-sequence E-verging thrust fault juxtaposes Meso-Cenozoic successions of [...] Read more.
We present a structural study on the tectonic windows of Giffoni and Campagna, located in the western sector of the southern Apennines (Italy). We analyzed thrusts, folds, and related minor deformation structures. Here, a major in-sequence E-verging thrust fault juxtaposes Meso-Cenozoic successions of the Apennine Platform (Picentini Mts unit) and the Lagonegro-Molise Basin (Frigento unit). However, out-of-sequence thrusts duplicated the tectonic pile with the interposition of the upper Miocene wedge-top basin deposits of the Castelvetere Group. We reconstructed the orogenic evolution of these two tectonic windows, including five deformation phases. The first (D1) was related to the in-sequence thrusting with minor thrusts and folds, widespread both in the footwall and the hanging wall. A subsequent extension (D2) has formed normal faults crosscutting the D1 thrusts and folds. All structures were subsequently affected by two shortening stages (D3 and D4), which also deformed the upper Miocene wedge top basin deposits of the Castelvetere Group. We interpreted the D3–D4 structures as related to an out-of-sequence thrust system defined by a main frontal E-verging thrust and lateral ramps characterized by N and S vergences. Low-angle normal faults were formed in the hanging wall of the major thrusts. Out-of-sequence thrusts are observed in the whole southern Apennines, recording a crustal shortening event that occurred in the late Messinian–early Pliocene. Finally, we suggest that the two tectonic windows are the result of the formation of an E–W trending regional antiform, associated with a late S-verging back-thrust, that has been eroded and crosscut by normal faults (D5) in the Early Pleistocene. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Cemented on the Rock. A Pleistocene Outer Shelf Lithobiont Community from Sicily, Italy
Geosciences 2020, 10(9), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10090343 - 29 Aug 2020
Abstract
The lithobiont community encrusting an early Pleistocene palaeocliff cropping out north of Augusta (SE Sicily, Italy) was investigated based on field observations and laboratory inspection of two rocky samples. Bryozoans, serpulids, brachiopods and bivalves encrusted part of the exposed surfaces that were bored [...] Read more.
The lithobiont community encrusting an early Pleistocene palaeocliff cropping out north of Augusta (SE Sicily, Italy) was investigated based on field observations and laboratory inspection of two rocky samples. Bryozoans, serpulids, brachiopods and bivalves encrusted part of the exposed surfaces that were bored mostly by clionaid sponges. Bryozoans, with at least 25 species detected on the rocky samples, are the most diversified skeletonized lithobionts also accounting for the highest number of colonies/specimens and highest coverage. Brachiopods, with the only species Novocrania anomala and a few but large cemented valves, cover wide surfaces. Serpulids, with two species identified on the sampled rocks and further two on the outcrop, were intermediate. A multiphase colonization is present, including a final epilithobiont community locally formed on eroded surfaces exposing a network of pervasive borings. The co-occurrence of very sciaphilic species having circalittoral to bathyal distributions suggests that the studied community thrived on a rocky substratum located near or at the shelf break, probably belonging to the shelf break (or RL) biocoenosis, also in agreement with observations on the fossil content of neighboring marly sediments. The observed relationships among colonizers largely represent mere superimpositions, and real interactions are not enough to state species competitiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quaternary Sedimentary Successions)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Validating Structural Styles in the Flysch Basin Northern Rif (Morocco) by Means of Thermal Modeling
Geosciences 2020, 10(9), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10090325 - 19 Aug 2020
Abstract
Vitrinite reflectance and a micro-Raman spectroscopy parameters data set have been acquired on dispersed organic matter of the Maghrebian flysch basin and the Tangiers unit across a NE-SW section in the north-western Rif belt (North Morocco). Thermal maturity shows increasing values from the [...] Read more.
Vitrinite reflectance and a micro-Raman spectroscopy parameters data set have been acquired on dispersed organic matter of the Maghrebian flysch basin and the Tangiers unit across a NE-SW section in the north-western Rif belt (North Morocco). Thermal maturity shows increasing values from the hinterland to the external unit (from NE to SW). Paleo-thermal indicators show that the internal flysch basin (i.e., the Mauretanian unit) is less mature than the external one, (i.e., the Massylian unit), with Ro% and Ro eq. Raman values ranging from 0.64% to 1.02% (from early mature to late mature stages of hydrocarbon generation). 1D thermal modeling estimates the overburden now totally eroded ranging from 3.1 km to 6.0 km, and has been used as constraint to reconstruct the complete thrust wedge geometry in Miocene times. The reconstructed geometry accounts for high shortening (about 63%) due to the development of an antiformal stack in the frontal part of the wedge made up by the flysch succession. This stacking is interpreted as a consequence of the western translation of the Alboran Domain in the core of the Betic-Rif orogenic system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Temperature in Sedimentary Basins)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Sedimentation Patterns of Multiple Finnish Lakes Reveal the Main Environmental Stressors and the Role of Peat Extraction in Lake Sedimentation
Geosciences 2020, 10(8), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10080313 - 13 Aug 2020
Abstract
Human land-use activities, especially in the peatlands, are under consideration as the mitigation and lowering of CO2 emissions from land-use practices is needed to address climate change. In Finland, approximately one third of the land surface is covered by peatlands, and around [...] Read more.
Human land-use activities, especially in the peatlands, are under consideration as the mitigation and lowering of CO2 emissions from land-use practices is needed to address climate change. In Finland, approximately one third of the land surface is covered by peatlands, and around 50% of peatlands are ditched for forestry. Another 3% of peatlands are used for agriculture and approximately 1% for peat extraction. The effects of these different land-use practices, including changes in sediment depositional rates and sediment quality, need to be identified. This study analyzed 51 lakes that were subdivided into two groups: (1) a group of impacted lakes in which peat was recently extracted from the catchments and (2) a reference group consisting of lakes where peat had not been extracted from the basin, but in which other land-use activities had occurred. The overall aim of the study was to investigate if peat extraction caused excessive delivery and deposition of dry and organic matter in lakes that are located in their immediate downstream catchment areas. Differences in sediment accumulation were defined by comparing the overall sediment thickness and recent (post 1986) sedimentation levels to identify if there were differences in the sediment chemical composition or rate of organic matter deposition between groups and to identify possible land-use stressors that could explain the possible differences in sediment chemical assemblages or sedimentation rates. The results show moderate (cm scale) sedimentation rates in both impacted and reference lakes after 1986, while sediment chemical assemblages indicated the erosion and input of mineral soils to all of the studied lakes, rather than the input of organic materials. No statistically significant correlations were observed between selected environmental variables and the recent accumulation rates of carbon and dry matter. Moreover, significant changes in the stressors potentially affecting the chemical assemblages of pre- and post-disturbance sediments were not observed. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Late Miocene-Early Pliocene Out-of-Sequence Thrusting in the Southern Apennines (Italy)
Geosciences 2020, 10(8), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10080301 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
We present a structural study on late Miocene-early Pliocene out-of-sequence thrusts affecting the southern Apennine orogenic belt. The analyzed structures are exposed in the Campania region (southern Italy). Here, thrusts bound the N-NE side of the carbonate ridges that form the regional mountain [...] Read more.
We present a structural study on late Miocene-early Pliocene out-of-sequence thrusts affecting the southern Apennine orogenic belt. The analyzed structures are exposed in the Campania region (southern Italy). Here, thrusts bound the N-NE side of the carbonate ridges that form the regional mountain backbone. In several outcrops, the Mesozoic carbonates are superposed onto the unconformable wedge-top basin deposits of the upper Miocene Castelvetere Group, providing constraints to the age of the activity of this thrusting event. Moreover, a 4-km-long N-S oriented electrical resistivity tomography profile, carried out along the Caserta mountains, sheds light on the structure of this thrust system in an area where it is not exposed. Further information was carried out from a tunnel excavation that allowed us to study some secondary fault splays. The kinematic analysis of out-of-sequence major and minor structures hosted both in the hanging wall (Apennine Platform carbonates) and footwall (Castelvetere Group deposits and Lagonegro-Molise Basin units) indicates the occurrence of two superposed shortening directions, about E-W and N-S, respectively. We associated these compressive structures to an out-of-sequence thrusting event defined by frontal thrusts verging to the east and lateral ramp thrusts verging to the north and south. We related the out-of-sequence thrusting episode to the positive inversion of inherited normal faults located in the Paleozoic basement. These envelopments thrust upward to crosscut the allochthonous wedge, including, in the western zone of the chain, the upper Miocene wedge-top basin deposits. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Multi-Proxy Characterisation of the Storegga Tsunami and Its Impact on the Early Holocene Landscapes of the Southern North Sea
Geosciences 2020, 10(7), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10070270 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Doggerland was a landmass occupying an area currently covered by the North Sea until marine inundation took place during the mid-Holocene, ultimately separating the British landmass from the rest of Europe. The Storegga Event, which triggered a tsunami reflected in sediment deposits in [...] Read more.
Doggerland was a landmass occupying an area currently covered by the North Sea until marine inundation took place during the mid-Holocene, ultimately separating the British landmass from the rest of Europe. The Storegga Event, which triggered a tsunami reflected in sediment deposits in the northern North Sea, northeast coastlines of the British Isles and across the North Atlantic, was a major event during this transgressive phase. The spatial extent of the Storegga tsunami however remains unconfirmed as, to date, no direct evidence for the event has been recovered from the southern North Sea. We present evidence of a tsunami deposit in the southern North Sea at the head of a palaeo-river system that has been identified using seismic survey. The evidence, based on lithostratigraphy, geochemical signatures, macro and microfossils and sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA), supported by optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon dating, suggests that these deposits were a result of the tsunami. Seismic identification of this stratum and analysis of adjacent cores showed diminished traces of the tsunami which was largely removed by subsequent erosional processes. Our results confirm previous modelling of the impact of the tsunami within this area of the southern North Sea, and also indicate that these effects were temporary, localized, and mitigated by the dense woodland and topography of the area. We conclude that clear physical remnants of the wave in these areas are likely to be restricted to now buried, palaeo-inland basins and incised river valley systems. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
The Zagreb (Croatia) M5.5 Earthquake on 22 March 2020
Geosciences 2020, 10(7), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10070252 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
On 22 March 2020, Zagreb was struck by an M5.5 earthquake that had been expected for more than 100 years and revealed all the failures in the construction of residential buildings in the Croatian capital, especially those built in the first half of [...] Read more.
On 22 March 2020, Zagreb was struck by an M5.5 earthquake that had been expected for more than 100 years and revealed all the failures in the construction of residential buildings in the Croatian capital, especially those built in the first half of the 20th century. Because of that, extensive seismological, geological, geodetic and structural engineering surveys were conducted immediately after the main shock. This study provides descriptions of damage, specifying the building performances and their correlation with the local soil characteristics, i.e., seismic motion amplification. Co-seismic vertical ground displacement was estimated, and the most affected area is identified according to Sentinel-1 interferometric wide-swath data. Finally, preliminary 3D structural modeling of the earthquake sequence was performed, and two major faults were modeled using inverse distance weight (IDW) interpolation of the grouped hypocenters. The first-order assessment of seismic amplification (due to site conditions) in the Zagreb area for the M5.5 earthquake shows that ground motions of approximately 0.16–0.19 g were amplified at least twice. The observed co-seismic deformation (based on Sentinel-1A IW SLC images) implies an approximately 3 cm uplift of the epicentral area that covers approximately 20 km2. Based on the preliminary spatial and temporal analyses of the Zagreb 2020 earthquake sequence, the main shock and the first aftershocks evidently occurred in the subsurface of the Medvednica Mountains along a deep-seated southeast-dipping thrust fault, recognized as the primary (master) fault. The co-seismic rupture propagated along the thrust towards northwest during the first half-hour of the earthquake sequence, which can be clearly seen from the time-lapse visualization. The preliminary results strongly support one of the debated models of the active tectonic setting of the Medvednica Mountains and will contribute to a better assessment of the seismic hazard for the wider Zagreb area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geophysics)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Sea Level Trend and Fronts in the South Atlantic Ocean
Geosciences 2020, 10(6), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10060218 - 03 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The understanding of the physical drivers of sea level trend is crucial on global and regional scales. In particular, little is known about the sea level trend in the South Atlantic Ocean in comparison with other parts of the world. In this work, [...] Read more.
The understanding of the physical drivers of sea level trend is crucial on global and regional scales. In particular, little is known about the sea level trend in the South Atlantic Ocean in comparison with other parts of the world. In this work, we computed the South Atlantic mean sea level (SAMSL) trend from 25 years of satellite altimetry data, and we analyzed the contributions of steric height (thermosteric and halosteric components) and ocean mass changes for the period 2005–2016 when all the source data used (Argo, GRACE and satellite altimetry) overlap. The SAMSL trend is 2.65 ± 0.24 mm/yr and is mostly explained by ocean mass trend, which is 2.22 ± 0.21 mm/yr. However, between 50° S–33° S, the steric height component constitutes the main contribution in comparison with the ocean mass component. Within that latitudinal band, three regions with trend values higher than the SAMSL trend are observed when considering 25 years of satellite SLA. In the three regions, a southward displacement of the Subtropical, Subantarctic, and Polar Fronts is observed. The southward shift of the fronts is associated with the strengthening and polar shift of westerly winds and contributes to a clear thermosteric trend that translates to the SLA trend observed in those regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Observations of Sea Level and Ocean Circulation)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Ground Deformation and Seismic Fault Model of the M6.4 Durres (Albania) Nov. 26, 2019 Earthquake, Based on GNSS/INSAR Observations
Geosciences 2020, 10(6), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10060210 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
We identify the source of the Mw = 6.4 earthquake that rocked north-central Albania on November 26, 2019 02:54 UTC. We use synthetic aperture radar interferograms tied to the time series of coordinates of two permanent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations [...] Read more.
We identify the source of the Mw = 6.4 earthquake that rocked north-central Albania on November 26, 2019 02:54 UTC. We use synthetic aperture radar interferograms tied to the time series of coordinates of two permanent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations (DUR2 and TIR2). We model the source by inverting the displacement data. Assuming in our model a half-space elastic medium and uniform slip along a rectangular fault surface, we invert the 104 picked measurements on a couple of ascending and descending interferograms to calculate the parameters of the fault. All inversions made with different input parameters converge towards a stable and robust solution with root mean square (r.m.s.) residual of 5.4 mm, thus ~1/5 of a fringe. They reveal that the earthquake occurred deep in the crust on a low-angle fault (23°) dipping towards east with a centroid at 16.5 km depth. The best-fitting length and width of the fault are 22 and 13 km, and the reverse slip, 0.55 m. The seismic moment deduced from our model agrees with those of the published seismic moment tensors. This geometry is compatible with a blind thrust fault that may root on the main basal thrust, i.e., along the thrust front that separates Adria–Apulia from Eurasia. It is notable that there is a 123 ns yr−1 active shortening of the crust between the GNSS stations DUR2-TIR2 (equivalent to a shortening rate of 3.6 mm yr−1), and roughly in the east–west direction. Given this amount of strain the recurrence time of M6+ earthquakes along this fault should be of the order of 150 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismotectonics, Active Deformation, and Structure of the Crust)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Mainshock Anticipated by Intra-Sequence Ground Deformations: Insights from Multiscale Field and SAR Interferometric Measurements
Geosciences 2020, 10(5), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10050186 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence was characterized by two main events: 24 August, Mw 6, and 30 October, Mw 6.5. We carried out high-resolution field sampling and DInSAR analysis of the coseismic and intra-sequence ground deformations along the Mt Vettore-Mt Bove causative [...] Read more.
The 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence was characterized by two main events: 24 August, Mw 6, and 30 October, Mw 6.5. We carried out high-resolution field sampling and DInSAR analysis of the coseismic and intra-sequence ground deformations along the Mt Vettore-Mt Bove causative fault (VBF). We found that during the intra-sequence period (24 August–30 October), the ground experienced some deformations whose final patterns seemed to be retraced and amplified by the following mainshock. We interpreted that (i) immediately after the 24 August earthquake, the deformation observed in the southern VBF expanded northwards and westwards over a Length of Deforming Ground (LDG) ranging between 28.7 and 36.3 km, and (ii) it extended to the whole portion of the hanging wall that was later affected by mainshock coseismic deformation. Assuming the LDG to be an indicator for an expected (=coseismic) surface rupture length and using known scaling functions, we obtained 6.4 ≤ Mw ≤ 6.7 for a possible incoming earthquake, which is consistent with the mainshock magnitude. We suggest that the evolution of the ground deformations after a significant seismic event might provide insights on the occurrence of new earthquakes with magnitudes comparable to or larger than the former. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Sequence in Mediterranean Region)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
A Gas-Emission Crater in the Erkuta River Valley, Yamal Peninsula: Characteristics and Potential Formation Model
Geosciences 2020, 10(5), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10050170 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, and the abrupt degassing events that recently have formed large craters on the Russian Arctic Yamal and Gydan Peninsulas have caused major concern. Here we present field data on cover sediments and evolution of a gas-emission crater [...] Read more.
Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, and the abrupt degassing events that recently have formed large craters on the Russian Arctic Yamal and Gydan Peninsulas have caused major concern. Here we present field data on cover sediments and evolution of a gas-emission crater discovered in the Erkuta–Yakha River valley in the southern Yamal Peninsula in June 2017. The crater is located south of other similar craters discovered over the past decade in northern West Siberia. Data were collected during a field trip to the Erkuta crater in December 2017 which included field observations and sampling of permafrost soil and ground ice from the rim of the crater. All soil and ice samples were measured for contents of methane and its homologs (ethane and propane) and carbon dioxide. The contents of carbon dioxide in some samples are notably higher than methane. The strongly negative δ13С of methane from ground ice samples (−72‰) is typical of biogenic hydrocarbons. The ratio of methane to the total amount of its homologs indicate a component of gases that have migrated from a deeper, thermogenic source. Based on obtained results, a potential formation model for Erkuta gas-emission crater is proposed, which considers the combined effect of deep-seated (deep gas migration) and shallow (oxbow lake evolution and closed talik freezing) causes. This model includes several stages from geological prerequisites to the lake formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Emissions and Crater Formation in Arctic Permafrost)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Soil–Structure Interaction Assessment of the 23 November 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata Earthquake
Geosciences 2020, 10(4), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10040152 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
This paper aimed to present a systematic study of the effects caused by the strong earthquake that struck southern Italy on 23 November 1980 (Ms = 6.9) and affected the Campania and Basilicata regions. Two aspects are discussed here: The broadening of the [...] Read more.
This paper aimed to present a systematic study of the effects caused by the strong earthquake that struck southern Italy on 23 November 1980 (Ms = 6.9) and affected the Campania and Basilicata regions. Two aspects are discussed here: The broadening of the knowledge of the response site effects by considering several soil free-field conditions and the assessment of the role of the soil–structure interaction (SSI) on a representative benchmark structure. This research study, based on the state-of-the-art knowledge, may be applied to assess future seismic events and to propose new original code provisions. The numerical simulations were herein performed with the advanced platform OpenSees, which can consider non-linear models for both the structure and the soil. The results show the importance of considering the SSI in the seismic assessment of soil amplifications and its consequences on the structural performance. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
‘Silent’ Dome Emplacement into a Wet Volcano: Observations from an Effusive Eruption at White Island (Whakaari), New Zealand in Late 2012
Geosciences 2020, 10(4), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10040142 - 14 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The 2012–2016 White Island (Whakaari) eruption sequence encompassed six small explosive events that included one steam driven and five explosive phreato-magmatic eruptions. More enigmatic, a dome was observed at the back of the vent and crater lake in November 2012. Its emplacement date [...] Read more.
The 2012–2016 White Island (Whakaari) eruption sequence encompassed six small explosive events that included one steam driven and five explosive phreato-magmatic eruptions. More enigmatic, a dome was observed at the back of the vent and crater lake in November 2012. Its emplacement date could not be easily determined due to persistent steam from the evaporating crater lake and because of the very low levels of discrete volcanic earthquakes associated with its growth. During this period, seismicity also included persistent tremor with dominant frequencies in the 2–5 Hz range. Detailed assessment of the tremor reveals a very slow evolution of the spectral peaks from low to higher frequencies. These gliding spectral lines evolved over a three-month time period beginning in late September 2012 and persisting until early January 2013, when the tremor stabilised. As part of the dome emplacement episode, the crater lake progressively dried, leaving isolated pools which then promoted persistent mud/sulphur eruption activity starting in mid-January 2013. We interpret the emplacement of the dome as a non-explosive process where the hot, mostly degassed, magma intruded slowly through the hydrothermal system in late September 2012 and cooled in a relatively quiet state. The tremor evolution might reflect the slow contraction of subsurface resonant cavities, which increased the pitch of the peak resonant frequency through time. Alternatively, spectral evolution might reflect a ‘comb function’ due to clockwork beating of the slowly cooling dome, although direct evidence of clockwork beats is not seen in the waveform data. Finally, it might represent frothing of the hydrothermal system ahead of the slowly propagating magma. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Spatial Landslide Risk Assessment at Phuentsholing, Bhutan
Geosciences 2020, 10(4), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10040131 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
Landslides are one of the most destructive and most recurring natural calamities in the Himalayan region. Their occurrence leads to immense damage to infrastructure and loss of land, human lives, and livestock. One of the most affected regions is the Bhutan Himalayas, where [...] Read more.
Landslides are one of the most destructive and most recurring natural calamities in the Himalayan region. Their occurrence leads to immense damage to infrastructure and loss of land, human lives, and livestock. One of the most affected regions is the Bhutan Himalayas, where the majority of the landslides are rainfall-induced. The present study aims to determine the hazard and risk associated with rainfall-induced landslides for the Phuentsholing region located in the southwestern part of the Bhutan Himalayas. The work involves developing a landslide risk map using hazard and vulnerability maps utilizing landslide records from 2004 to 2014. The landslide hazard map was generated by determining spatial and temporal probabilities for the study region. The spatial probability was computed by analyzing the landslide contributing factors like geology, slope, elevation, rainfall, and vegetation based on comprehensive field study and expertise about the area. The contributing factors were divided into various classes and the percentage of landslide occurrence under each class was calculated to understand its contributing significance. Thereafter, a weighted linear combination approach was used in a GIS environment to develop the spatial probability map which was multiplied with temporal probabilities based on regional rainfall thresholds already determined for the region. Consequently, vulnerability assessment was conducted using key elements at risk (population, land use/land cover, proximity to road, proximity to stream) and the weights were provided based on expert judgment and comprehensive field study. Finally, risk was determined and the various regions in the study area were categorized as high, medium, and low risk. Such a study is necessary for low-economic countries like Bhutan which suffers from unavailability of extensive data and research. The study is conducted for a specific region but can be extended to other areas around the investigated area. The tool can serve as an indicator for the civil authorities to analyze the risk posed by landslides due to the rapid infrastructure development in the region. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Evaluating Rockfall Risk: Some Critical Aspects
Geosciences 2020, 10(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10030098 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 10
Abstract
Rockfalls evolve rapidly and unpredictably in mountain environments and can cause considerable losses to human societies, structures, economical activities, and also natural and historical heritage. Rockfall risk analyses are complex and multi-scale processes involving several disciplines and techniques. This complexity is due to [...] Read more.
Rockfalls evolve rapidly and unpredictably in mountain environments and can cause considerable losses to human societies, structures, economical activities, and also natural and historical heritage. Rockfall risk analyses are complex and multi-scale processes involving several disciplines and techniques. This complexity is due to the main features of rockfall phenomena, which are extremely variable over space and time. Today, a considerable number of methods exists for protecting land, as well as assessing and managing the risk level. These methodologies are often very different from each other, depending on the data required, the purposes of the analysis, and the reference scale adopted, i.e., the analysis level of detail. Nevertheless, several questions still remain open with reference to each phase of the hazard and risk process. This paper is devoted to a general overview of existing risk estimation methodologies and a critical analysis of some open questions with the aim of highlighting possible further research topics. A typical risk assessment framework is exemplified by analyzing a real case study. Each step of the process is treated at both the detailed and the large scale in order to highlight the main characteristics of each level of detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Strategies for Sustainable Mitigation of Landslide Risk)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
The Effects of Slope Initialization on the Numerical Model Predictions of the Slope-Vegetation-Atmosphere Interaction
Geosciences 2020, 10(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10020085 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Deep slope movements and, eventually, slope failure, have been often interpreted to be due to slope-vegetation-atmosphere interaction on slopes formed of clayey materials in the Italian Southern-Eastern Apennines, as reported in the literature. Such slopes are generally formed of flysch, within which clay [...] Read more.
Deep slope movements and, eventually, slope failure, have been often interpreted to be due to slope-vegetation-atmosphere interaction on slopes formed of clayey materials in the Italian Southern-Eastern Apennines, as reported in the literature. Such slopes are generally formed of flysch, within which clay is the main lithotype. Such clays are characterized by a disturbed meso-fabric, as an effect of the intense tectonics. The paper presents the results of coupled hydromechanical numerical analyses of the slope-vegetation-atmosphere interaction for a clay slope representative for the geomechanical scenario where such climate-induced deep slope movements have been repeatedly recorded. In the analyses, different model initialization procedures and parameter values were adopted. The comparison of the numerical results with the site data is aimed at assessing the effects of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere interaction taking place in the top strata of the slope, on the stress-strain conditions across the whole slope, and on the slope stability. The comparison between the numerical results of the analyses carried out entailing different initialization stages are intended to evaluate the influence of such a stage on the model predictions. It is found that only when the slope model initialization accounts for the slope loading history, developed over geological time, the numerical predictions get close to the site observations. In such case, the numerical results confirm that deep movements consequent to progressive failure may take place in clay slopes due to the slope-vegetation-atmosphere interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Strategies for Sustainable Mitigation of Landslide Risk)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Morphotectonic Kinematic Indicators along the Vigan-Aggao Fault: The Western Deformation Front of the Philippine Fault Zone in Northern Luzon, the Philippines
Geosciences 2020, 10(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10020083 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The Vigan-Aggao Fault is a 140-km-long complex active fault system consisting of multiple traces in the westernmost part of the Philippine Fault Zone (PFZ) in northern Luzon, the Philippines. In this paper, its traces, segmentation, and oblique left-lateral strike-slip motion are determined from [...] Read more.
The Vigan-Aggao Fault is a 140-km-long complex active fault system consisting of multiple traces in the westernmost part of the Philippine Fault Zone (PFZ) in northern Luzon, the Philippines. In this paper, its traces, segmentation, and oblique left-lateral strike-slip motion are determined from horizontal and vertical displacements measured from over a thousand piercing points pricked from displaced spurs and streams observed from Google Earth Pro satellite images. This work marks the first instance of the extensive use of Google Earth as a tool in mapping and determining the kinematics of active faults. Complete 3D image coverage of a major thoroughgoing active fault system is freely and easily accessible on the Google Earth Pro platform. It provides a great advantage to researchers collecting morphotectonic displacement data, especially where access to aerial photos covering the entire fault system is next to impossible. This tool has not been applied in the past due to apprehensions on the positional measurement accuracy (mainly of the vertical component). The new method outlined in this paper demonstrates the applicability of this tool in the detailed mapping of active fault traces through a neotectonic analysis of fault-zone features. From the sense of motion of the active faults in northern Luzon and of the major bounding faults in central Luzon, the nature of deformation in these regions can be inferred. An understanding of the kinematics is critical in appreciating the distribution and the preferred mode of accommodation of deformation by faulting in central and northern Luzon resulting from oblique convergence of the Sunda Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. The location, extent, segmentation patterns, and sense of motion of active faults are critical in coming up with reasonable estimates of the hazards involved and identifying areas prone to these hazards. The magnitude of earthquakes is also partly dependent on the type and nature of fault movement. With a proper evaluation of these parameters, earthquake hazards and their effects in different tectonic settings worldwide can be estimated more accurately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Hazards)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Distinguishing between Deep-Water Sediment Facies: Turbidites, Contourites and Hemipelagites
Geosciences 2020, 10(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10020068 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 12
Abstract
The distinction between turbidites, contourites and hemipelagites in modern and ancient deep-water systems has long been a matter of controversy. This is partly because the processes themselves show a degree of overlap as part of a continuum, so that the deposit characteristics also [...] Read more.
The distinction between turbidites, contourites and hemipelagites in modern and ancient deep-water systems has long been a matter of controversy. This is partly because the processes themselves show a degree of overlap as part of a continuum, so that the deposit characteristics also overlap. In addition, the three facies types commonly occur within interbedded sequences of continental margin deposits. The nature of these end-member processes and their physical parameters are becoming much better known and are summarised here briefly. Good progress has also been made over the past decade in recognising differences between end-member facies in terms of their sedimentary structures, facies sequences, ichnofacies, sediment textures, composition and microfabric. These characteristics are summarised here in terms of standard facies models and the variations from these models that are typically encountered in natural systems. Nevertheless, it must be acknowledged that clear distinction is not always possible on the basis of sedimentary characteristics alone, and that uncertainties should be highlighted in any interpretation. A three-scale approach to distinction for all deep-water facies types should be attempted wherever possible, including large-scale (oceanographic and tectonic setting), regional-scale (architecture and association) and small-scale (sediment facies) observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interacting Alongslope and Downslope Sedimentary Processes)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Constraints on Entrainment and Deposition Models in Avalanche Simulations from High-Resolution Radar Data
Geosciences 2020, 10(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10010009 - 25 Dec 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Depth-integrated simulations of snow avalanches have become a central part of risk analysis and mitigation. However, the common practice of applying different model parameters to mimic different avalanches is unsatisfying. In here, we analyse this issue in terms of two differently sized avalanches [...] Read more.
Depth-integrated simulations of snow avalanches have become a central part of risk analysis and mitigation. However, the common practice of applying different model parameters to mimic different avalanches is unsatisfying. In here, we analyse this issue in terms of two differently sized avalanches from the full-scale avalanche test-site Vallée de la Sionne, Switzerland. We perform depth-integrated simulations with the toolkit OpenFOAM, simulating both events with the same set of model parameters. Simulation results are validated with high-resolution position data from the GEODAR radar. Rather than conducting extensive post-processing to match radar data to the output of the simulations, we generate synthetic flow signatures inside the flow model. The synthetic radar data can be directly compared with the GEODAR measurements. The comparison reveals weaknesses of the model, generally at the tail and specifically by overestimating the runout of the smaller event. Both issues are addressed by explicitly considering deposition processes in the depth-integrated model. The new deposition model significantly improves the simulation of the small avalanche, making it starve in the steep middle part of the slope. Furthermore, the deposition model enables more accurate simulations of deposition patterns and volumes and the simulation of avalanche series that are influenced by previous deposits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Snow Avalanche Dynamics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Early Observations of the Interstellar Comet 2I/Borisov
Geosciences 2019, 9(12), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9120519 - 17 Dec 2019
Abstract
2I/Borisov is the second ever interstellar object (ISO). It is very different from the first ISO ’Oumuamua by showing cometary activities, and hence provides a unique opportunity to study comets that are formed around other stars. Here we present early imaging and spectroscopic [...] Read more.
2I/Borisov is the second ever interstellar object (ISO). It is very different from the first ISO ’Oumuamua by showing cometary activities, and hence provides a unique opportunity to study comets that are formed around other stars. Here we present early imaging and spectroscopic follow-ups to study its properties, which reveal an (up to) 5.9 km comet with an extended coma and a short tail. Our spectroscopic data do not reveal any emission lines between 4000–9000 Angstrom; nevertheless, we are able to put an upper limit on the flux of the C2 emission line, suggesting modest cometary activities at early epochs. These properties are similar to comets in the solar system, and suggest that 2I/Borisov—while from another star—is not too different from its solar siblings. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Improvement of an Operational Forecasting System for Extreme Tidal Events in Santos Estuary (Brazil)
Geosciences 2019, 9(12), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9120511 - 10 Dec 2019
Abstract
Forecasting estuarine circulation is a hot topic, especially in densely populated regions, like Santos (Brazil). This paper aims to improve a water-level forecasting system for the Santos estuary, particularly the physical forcing determining the residual tide, which in extreme cases increase the predicting [...] Read more.
Forecasting estuarine circulation is a hot topic, especially in densely populated regions, like Santos (Brazil). This paper aims to improve a water-level forecasting system for the Santos estuary, particularly the physical forcing determining the residual tide, which in extreme cases increase the predicting errors. The MOHID hydrodynamic model was implemented with a nested downscaling approach. All automatic procedures to provide a high-resolution real-time forecast system are managed by the AQUASAFE software. Water-level observation and prediction datasets (2016–2017) of five tide gauges in the Santos channel were analyzed, resulting in distinct model configurations, aiming to minimize forecasting inaccuracies. Current MOHID open boundary reference solutions were modified: the astronomical solution was updated from FES2012 to FES2014 whereas the meteorological component (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) global solution) time resolution was altered from daily to hourly data. Furthermore, the correlation between significant wave height with positive residual tide events was identified. The model validation presented a minimum Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 12.5 cm. Despite FES2014 solution improvements at the bay entrance, errors increase in inner stations were maintained, portraying the need for better bathymetric data. The use of a CMEMS hourly resolution decreased the meteorological tide errors. A linear regression method was developed to correct the residual tide through post-processing, under specific wave height conditions. Overall, the newest implementation increased the water-level forecast accuracy, particularly under extreme events. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
The New Seismotectonic Atlas of Greece (v1.0) and Its Implementation
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110447 - 08 Nov 2020
Abstract
Knowledge and visualization of the present-day relationship between earthquakes, active tectonics and crustal deformation is a key to understanding geodynamic processes, and is also essential for risk mitigation and the management of geo-reservoirs for energy and waste. The study of the complexity of [...] Read more.
Knowledge and visualization of the present-day relationship between earthquakes, active tectonics and crustal deformation is a key to understanding geodynamic processes, and is also essential for risk mitigation and the management of geo-reservoirs for energy and waste. The study of the complexity of the Greek tectonics has been the subject of intense efforts of our working group, employing multidisciplinary methodologies that include detailed geological mapping, geophysical and seismological data processing using innovative methods and geodetic data processing, involved in surveying at various scales. The data and results from these studies are merged with existing or updated datasets to compose the new Seismotectonic Atlas of Greece. The main objective of the Atlas is to harmonize and integrate the most recent seismological, geological, tectonic, geophysical and geodetic data in an interactive, online GIS environment. To demonstrate the wealth of information available in the end product, herein, we present thematic layers of important seismotectonic and geophysical content, which facilitates the comprehensive visualization and first order insight into seismic and other risks of the Greek territories. The future prospect of the Atlas is the incorporation of tools and algorithms for joint analysis and appraisal of these datasets, so as to enable rapid seismotectonic analysis and scenario-based seismic risk assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismotectonics, Active Deformation, and Structure of the Crust)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Previous, Current, and Future Trends in Research into Earthquake Precursors in Geofluids
Geosciences 2020, 10(5), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10050189 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Hazard reduction policies include seismic hazard maps based on probabilistic evaluations and the evaluation of geophysical parameters continuously recorded by instrumental networks. Over the past 25 centuries, a large amount of information about earthquake precursory phenomena has been recorded by scholars, scientific institutions, [...] Read more.
Hazard reduction policies include seismic hazard maps based on probabilistic evaluations and the evaluation of geophysical parameters continuously recorded by instrumental networks. Over the past 25 centuries, a large amount of information about earthquake precursory phenomena has been recorded by scholars, scientific institutions, and civil defense agencies. In particular, hydrogeologic measurements and geochemical analyses have been performed in geofluids in search of possible and reliable earthquake precursors. Controlled experimental areas have been set up to investigate physical and chemical mechanisms originating possible preseismic precursory signals. The main test sites for such research are located in China, Iceland, Japan, the Russian Federation, Taiwan, and the USA. The present state of the art about the most relevant scientific achievements has been described. Future research trends and possible development paths have been identified and allow for possible improvements in policies oriented to seismic hazard reduction by geofluid monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2020: A 10 Years Journey-Advances in Geosciences)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Review of Explosive Hydrovolcanism
Geosciences 2020, 10(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10020044 - 24 Jan 2020
Cited by 16
Abstract
Hydrovolcanism is a type of volcanism where magma and water interact either explosively or non-explosively. The less frequently used term, hydromagmatism, includes all the processes responsible for magma and water interaction in a magmatic system. Hydrovolcanism is commonly used as a synonym for [...] Read more.
Hydrovolcanism is a type of volcanism where magma and water interact either explosively or non-explosively. The less frequently used term, hydromagmatism, includes all the processes responsible for magma and water interaction in a magmatic system. Hydrovolcanism is commonly used as a synonym for phreatomagmatism. However, in recent years phreatomagmatism appears more in association with volcanic eruptions that occur in shallow subaqueous or terrestrial settings and commonly involves molten fuel-coolant interaction (MFCI) driven processes. Here a revised and reviewed classification scheme is suggested on the basis of the geo-environment in which the magma-water interaction takes place and the explosivity plus mode of energy transfer required to generate kinetic energy to produce pyroclasts. Over the past decade researchers have focused on the role hydrovolcanism/phreatomagmatism plays in the formation of maar craters, the evolution of diatremes and the signatures of magma—water interaction in the geological record. In the past five years, lithofacies-characterization is the most common approach to studying hydrovolcanism. By far mafic monogenetic volcanic fields generated the greatest number of research results. Significant knowledge gaps are identified, especially in developing tools to identify the textural signatures hydrovolcanism leave behind on eruptive products and exploring the role of hydrovolcanism in the growth of intermediate and silicic small volume volcanoes. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
A Review of the Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) from European Eocene Ambers
Geosciences 2020, 10(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10010016 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
All 142 known species of Curculionoidea in Eocene amber are documented, including one species of Nemonychidae, 16 species of Anthribidae, six species of Belidae, 10 species of Rhynchitidae, 13 species of Brentidae, 70 species of Curcuionidae, two species of Platypodidae, and 24 species [...] Read more.
All 142 known species of Curculionoidea in Eocene amber are documented, including one species of Nemonychidae, 16 species of Anthribidae, six species of Belidae, 10 species of Rhynchitidae, 13 species of Brentidae, 70 species of Curcuionidae, two species of Platypodidae, and 24 species of Scolytidae. Oise amber has eight species, Baltic amber has 118 species, and Rovno amber has 16 species. Nine new genera and 18 new species are described from Baltic amber. Four new synonyms are noted: Palaeometrioxena Legalov, 2012, syn. nov. is synonymous with Archimetrioxena Voss, 1953; Paleopissodes weigangae Ulke, 1947, syn. nov. is synonymous with Electrotribus theryi Hustache, 1942; Electrotribus erectosquamata Rheinheimer, 2007, syn. nov. is synonymous with Succinostyphlus mroczkowskii Kuska, 1996; Protonaupactus Zherikhin, 1971, syn. nov. is synonymous with Paonaupactus Voss, 1953. Keys for Eocene amber Curculionoidea are given. There are the first records of Aedemonini and Camarotini, and genera Limalophus and Cenocephalus in Baltic amber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolutionary History of the Coleoptera)
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