Special Issue "Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Mario Allegra
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Interests: phytochemicals; betalains; oxidative stress; inflammation; cancer; eryptosis; nutrition; redox signaling
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inflammation is an adaptive response triggered by noxious stimuli and conditions such as infection and tissue injury. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are now acknowledged to play a key role in maintaining normal cellular and tissue physiology but they may start signalling pathways involved in the development of a wide range of inflammation-based degenerative pathologies.

In line with this, numerous phytochemicals with peculiar reducing properties have been recently shown to modulate the inflammatory response effectively. First considered ‘health-promoting’ by virtue of their radical-scavenging activity and/or direct antioxidant effects on cellular biomolecules, such compounds are now believed to be able to interfere with cell signal transduction by intercepting reactive species at the level of critical signalling pathways. In addition, the interaction of these molecules with signalling enzymes, receptors and transcription factors has emerged recently.

Contributions are invited from investigators worldwide in the form of reviews or original research articles on the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms exerted by plant extracts in vitro and in vivo.

Prof. Mario Allegra
Guest Editor

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Inflammation
  • Oxidative stress
  • Plant extracts
  • Phytochemicals
  • Antioxidants

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Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract
Antioxidants 2019, 8(11), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8110549 - 14 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Inflammation is an adaptive response triggered by noxious stimuli and conditions such as infection and tissue injury [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
Phenolic Composition of Hydrophilic Extract of Manna from Sicilian Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl and its Reducing, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Vitro
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100494 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Manna, a very singular vegetable product derived from the spontaneous solidification of the sap of some Fraxinus species, has long been known for its mild laxative and emollient properties. In this work, a hydro-alcoholic extract of manna (HME) from Sicilian Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl [...] Read more.
Manna, a very singular vegetable product derived from the spontaneous solidification of the sap of some Fraxinus species, has long been known for its mild laxative and emollient properties. In this work, a hydro-alcoholic extract of manna (HME) from Sicilian Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl was investigated using HPLC-DAD to find phenol components and using chemical and biological in vitro assays to determine its reducing, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity. We identified elenolic acid, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, catechin, fraxetin, verbascoside, gallic acid, procyanidin-B1, and luteolin 3,7 glucoside, in order of abundance. Measurements of total antioxidant activity by Folin-Ciocalteu reaction and ferric reducing ability (FRAP), as well as of scavenger activity towards ABTS•+, DPPH•, and perferryl-myoglobin radicals, showed that the phytocomplex effectively reduced oxidants with different standard potentials. When compared with vitamin E, HME also behaved as an efficient chain-breaking antioxidant against lipoperoxyl radicals from methyl linoleate. In cellular models for oxidative stress, HME counteracted membrane lipid oxidation of human erythrocytes stimulated by tert-butyl hydroperoxide and prevented the generation of reactive oxygen species, as well as the GSH decay in IL-1β–activated intestinal normal-like cells. Moreover, in this in vitro intestinal bowel disease model, HME reduced the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8. These findings may suggest that manna acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory natural product in humans, beyond its well-known effects against constipation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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Open AccessArticle
Glycerolic Licorice Extracts as Active Cosmeceutical Ingredients: Extraction Optimization, Chemical Characterization, and Biological Activity
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100445 - 01 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
A green ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method using glycerol/water mixtures for extraction of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) bioactive constituents was developed in this study. The response surface method, according to the Box-Behnken design, was employed to optimize the extraction parameters: glycerol concentration (X [...] Read more.
A green ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method using glycerol/water mixtures for extraction of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) bioactive constituents was developed in this study. The response surface method, according to the Box-Behnken design, was employed to optimize the extraction parameters: glycerol concentration (X1), temperature (X2), and the amount of herbal drug used in the production (X3). The responses were content of total phenols (TP), TP extraction efficiency (TPy) and the content of licorice characteristic constituents, glabridin (Gla) and isoliquiritigenin (Iso). Response surface analysis predicted the optimal extraction conditions for maximized amounts of TP, Tpy, Gla, and Iso. The extracts were prepared using the calculated conditions. The analysis of the selected constituents confirmed the validity of the model. Furthermore, biological activity of the extracts was tested. The results demonstrate that UAE using glycerol is a fast and efficient method for preparation of extracts with excellent radical scavenging, Fe2+ chelating and antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the observed notable tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activity of the extracts, as well as their anti-inflammatory activity, indicate the anti-aging properties of the investigated extracts. The fact that the extracts were prepared using the safe, cosmetically active solvent, glycerol, makes them suitable for direct use in specialized cosmeceutical formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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Open AccessArticle
Polyphenol Composition of Extracts of the Fruits of Laserpitium Krapffii Crantz and Their Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity
Antioxidants 2019, 8(9), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8090363 - 01 Sep 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
During inflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in large amounts, causing oxidative stress. Several studies confirm that plant extracts rich in phenolic compounds may inhibit ROS production. For that reason, the aim of this work is the qualitative and quantitative analysis of [...] Read more.
During inflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in large amounts, causing oxidative stress. Several studies confirm that plant extracts rich in phenolic compounds may inhibit ROS production. For that reason, the aim of this work is the qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the etheric (LAEN) and methanolic (LAM) extracts of the fruits of Laserpitium krapffii Crantz, as well as their antioxidative and cytotoxic properties. Liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-ESI-MS/MS) enabled the identification of 12 phenolic acids and nine flavonoids. Both tested extracts scavenged ROS in a concentration-dependent manner. Stronger activity was observed for the methanolic extract. The cytotoxic effect of both extracts in increasing concentrations on five types of cancer cell lines was also investigated. The cytotoxicity was estimated using trypan blue vital staining. It was found that the analyzed extracts induced the apoptosis of the cells of all the tested cell lines. In conclusion, our results present that the fruits of L. krapffii can be a source of valuable compounds with protective effects against oxidative damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Arthritic and Anti-Nociceptive Activities of Nigella sativa Oil in a Rat Model of Arthritis
Antioxidants 2019, 8(9), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8090342 - 25 Aug 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
This study investigated the preventive efficacy of the crude oil extracted from Nigella sativa seeds in a rat model of arthritis induced by using complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA). Nigella sativa oil at 1.82 mL/kg or 0.91 mL/kg (corresponding to 1596 and 798 mg/kg, [...] Read more.
This study investigated the preventive efficacy of the crude oil extracted from Nigella sativa seeds in a rat model of arthritis induced by using complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA). Nigella sativa oil at 1.82 mL/kg or 0.91 mL/kg (corresponding to 1596 and 798 mg/kg, respectively) was orally administered for 25 days from the day of immunization. One immunized group was treated orally with indomethacin (3 mg/kg) as a reference drug. Body weight growth rate, paw swelling, arthritis score, mechanical allodynia, locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were observed, and the levels of Interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein, albumin and total cholesterol in plasma were measured on days 15 and 25. Nigella sativa oil showed anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and anti-nociceptive activities that were significant as compared to untreated arthritic rats but less than indomethacin. These results indicated that Nigella sativa oil significantly attenuated adjuvant-arthritis in rats and the higher dose (1.82 mL/kg) prevented the development of arthritis with an inhibition of 56%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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Open AccessArticle
Chemistry and Pharmacology of the Kazakh Crataegus Almaatensis Pojark: An Asian Herbal Medicine
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080300 - 10 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Crataegus almaatensis, an endemic ornamental plant in Kazakhstan is used in popular medicine due to its cardiotonic properties. The most studied species of the same genus are commonly found in Europe, which shows the importance of having the Kazakh species validated via [...] Read more.
Crataegus almaatensis, an endemic ornamental plant in Kazakhstan is used in popular medicine due to its cardiotonic properties. The most studied species of the same genus are commonly found in Europe, which shows the importance of having the Kazakh species validated via its chemical and pharmacological studies. High-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) operated under optimized conditions enabled an isolation of the three main compounds from the aqueous phase of the leaves ethanol extract, further identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside (quercitrin) (4.02% of the crude extract-CECa); quercetin 3-O-β-galactoside (hyperoside) (1.82% of CECa); kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (afzelin) (0.94% of CECa). The CECa, the aqueous phase of the crude extract (APCa) together with the isolates were evaluated for their vascular (vascular reactivity in human internal mammary artery-HIMA), anti-nociceptive (formalin-induced liking response and hot plate) and anti-inflammatory (subcutaneous air-pouch model-SAP) activities. CECa at the concentrations of 0.014 and 0.14 mg/mL significantly increased the maximum contractility response of HIMA to noradrenaline. The APCa CR curve (0.007–0.7 mg/mL) showed an intrinsic relaxation effect of the HIMA. APCa at the dose of 100 mg/kg i.p. significantly decreased the total leukocyte count and the IL-1β release in the SAP wash. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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Open AccessArticle
Screening of Ten Tomato Varieties Processing Waste for Bioactive Components and Their Related Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080292 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 13
Abstract
Global tomato production is currently around 180 million tons, of which more than a quarter undergoes processing. The removed peels, seeds, and vascular tissues usually end up in landfills, creating environmental pollution. In order to highlight the alternative use of these vegetal wastes, [...] Read more.
Global tomato production is currently around 180 million tons, of which more than a quarter undergoes processing. The removed peels, seeds, and vascular tissues usually end up in landfills, creating environmental pollution. In order to highlight the alternative use of these vegetal wastes, our study investigated 10 tomato varieties in terms of carotenoids content, phenolic composition, and their related antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Tomato peels extracts were screened by high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC/DAD) for qualitative and quantitative analyses. The extracts were tested against six bacterial strains to determine their antimicrobial effect; the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was applied to estimate their antioxidant capacity. Total carotenoids content was significantly higher in Ţărănești roz, a local variety (5.31 ± 0.12 mg/100 g DW), while Mirsini, a commercial hybrid, presented significantly higher total phenolic content (155 ± 2 mg/100 g DW) compared to the mean value of all analyzed samples. The methanolic extracts of tomato peels presented acceptable antimicrobial activity against Staphilococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and the mean antioxidant activity was 201 ± 44 µmol Trolox/100 g DW tomato peels. Considering that tomato peels have lycopene, β-carotene, lutein, and different phenolic compounds in their composition, tomato industrial by-products could represent a source of natural bioactive molecules with applicability in nutraceuticals and food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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Open AccessArticle
Regulation of Inflammatory Response and the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by a Functional Cooked Ham Reformulated with Natural Antioxidants in a Macrophage Immunity Model
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080286 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Nowadays, more consumers demand healthier products. A way to offer such products is to functionalize them using health-promoting bioactive compounds. Meat and meat products are high in essential nutrients; however, their excessive consumption implies a high intake of other substances that, at levels [...] Read more.
Nowadays, more consumers demand healthier products. A way to offer such products is to functionalize them using health-promoting bioactive compounds. Meat and meat products are high in essential nutrients; however, their excessive consumption implies a high intake of other substances that, at levels above recommended uptake limits, have been linked to certain non-communicable chronic diseases. An effective way to reduce this danger is to reformulate meat products. In this study, natural botanical extracts rich in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds were used to improve the health properties of a cooked ham with an optimal nutritional profile (i.e., low in fat and salt). The RAW 264.7 mouse cell line was used as an inflammatory model and was stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide to evaluate changes in inflammatory biomarkers such as tumour necrosis factor alpha, the interleukins (ILs) IL-1β and IL-6, nitric oxide and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results showed that the use of natural extracts in optimized cooked ham significantly downregulated inflammatory markers and reduced the levels of intracellular ROS. Thus, the present study proposed a new functional cooked ham with potential health properties via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant in vitro activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidative, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anticancer Effects of Purified Flavonol Glycosides and Aglycones in Green Tea
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080278 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
(1) Background: Extensive research has focused on flavan-3-ols, but information about the bioactivities of green tea flavonols is limited. (2) Methods: In this study, we investigated the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects of flavonol glycosides and aglycones from green tea using in vitro [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Extensive research has focused on flavan-3-ols, but information about the bioactivities of green tea flavonols is limited. (2) Methods: In this study, we investigated the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects of flavonol glycosides and aglycones from green tea using in vitro cell models. The fractions rich in flavonol glycoside (FLG) and flavonol aglycone (FLA) were obtained from green tea extract after treatment with tannase and cellulase, respectively. (3) Results: FLG and FLA contained 16 and 13 derivatives, respectively, including apigenin, kaempferol, myricetin, and quercetin, determined by mass spectrometry. FLA exhibited higher radical-scavenging activity than that of FLG. FLG and FLA attenuated the levels of intracellular oxidative stress in neuron-like PC-12 cells. The treatment of RAW 264.7 murine macrophages with FLG and FLA significantly reduced the mRNA expression of inflammation-related genes in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, FLG and FLA treatments decreased the viability of the colon adenoma cell line DLD-1 and breast cancer cell line E0771. Moreover, the treatment with FLG or FLA combined with paclitaxel had synergistic anticancer effects on the DLD-1 cell line. (4) Conclusions: Flavonols from green tea exerted beneficial effects on health and may be superior to flavan-3-ols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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Open AccessArticle
The Health-Benefits and Phytochemical Profile of Salvia apiana and Salvia farinacea var. Victoria Blue Decoctions
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080241 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Salvia apiana and Salvia farinacea var. Victoria Blue decoctions were screened for diverse bioactivities, including the ability to counteract oxidative and inflammatory events, as well as to act as cytotoxic and antimicrobial agents. Both extracts showed good activities and that of S. apiana [...] Read more.
Salvia apiana and Salvia farinacea var. Victoria Blue decoctions were screened for diverse bioactivities, including the ability to counteract oxidative and inflammatory events, as well as to act as cytotoxic and antimicrobial agents. Both extracts showed good activities and that of S. apiana origin was particularly effective regarding the ability to prevent lipid peroxidation and to prevent nitric oxide (NO●) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line (EC50 = 50 μg/mL). Moreover, it displayed high cytotoxic capacity against hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, cervical carcinoma HeLa, and breast carcinoma cells MCF-7, but comparatively low effects in porcine liver primary cells, which highlights its selectivity (GI50 = 41–60 μg/mL vs. 362 μg/mL, respectively). Further, it exhibited inhibitory and lethal potential against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is possible that the bioactive properties of the two Salvia extracts are associated to their phenolic components and, in the particular case of S. apiana, to its richness in phenolic terpenes, namely in rosmanol, hydroxycarnosic acid and a derivative of sageone, which were found in the extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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Open AccessArticle
Variation in Phenolic Compounds Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Plant Organs from Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. at Different Growth Stages
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070237 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
The study investigated the accumulation of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of extracts of various parts of R. crispus and R. obtusifolius, collected at the flowering stage and the fruiting stage. Half of the collected plants were divided into root, stem, [...] Read more.
The study investigated the accumulation of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of extracts of various parts of R. crispus and R. obtusifolius, collected at the flowering stage and the fruiting stage. Half of the collected plants were divided into root, stem, leaves, and reproductive organs (inflorescence). The other half was used to study the vertical distribution of biologically active components and antioxidants throughout the plant. The samples were analyzed for total catechins content, total proanthocyanidins content, total phenolic content, and total antioxidant activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’azinobis(3)ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays). All analyses were performed in four replicates. In general, a similar trend was observed in the distribution of phenolic compounds in the studied species. The maximum content of these secondary metabolites was noted in the reproductive organs, both in the flowering and fruiting period. Stems were characterized by a minimum content of the studied classes of substances. The antioxidant activity of the sorrels studied parts can be arranged in the following order: the generative part (flowers, seeds) > leaves > root > stem (for flowering and fruiting stages). It was found that parts of the root closer to the stem differed in higher activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Flavanones from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice) Leaf Phytocomplexes: Identification of Licoflavanone as a Modulator of NF-kB/MAPK Pathway
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060186 - 20 Jun 2019
Cited by 23
Abstract
Inflammation represents an adaptive response generated by injuries or harmful stimuli. Natural remedies represent an interesting alternative to traditional therapies, involving several biochemical pathways. Besides, the valorization of agrochemical wastes nowadays seems to be a feasible way to reduce the health spending and [...] Read more.
Inflammation represents an adaptive response generated by injuries or harmful stimuli. Natural remedies represent an interesting alternative to traditional therapies, involving several biochemical pathways. Besides, the valorization of agrochemical wastes nowadays seems to be a feasible way to reduce the health spending and improve the accessibility at bioactive natural compounds. In this context, the chemical composition of three Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice) leaf extracts, obtained through maceration or ultrasound-assisted method (fresh and dried leaves) was investigated. A guided fractionation obtained three main components: pinocembrin, glabranin and licoflavanone. All the extracts showed similar antioxidant properties, evaluated by 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) Diammonium Salt (ABTS) assay, while, among the isolated compounds, licoflavanone exhibited the best antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts and the purified compounds was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Extract C and licoflavanone showed a good anti-inflammatory activity without affecting cell viability, as they decreased nitrite levels even when used at 12.5 μg/mL (p < 0.005) and 50 μM concentration (p < 0.001), respectively. Interestingly, licoflavanone markedly decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase 2/inducible nitric oxide synthase (COX-2/iNOS) expression levels (p < 0.001). A modulation of nuclear factor kappa B/mitogen-activated protein kinases (NF-kB/MAPK) pathway underlay such behavior, highlighting the potential of this natural compound as a new scaffold in anti-inflammatory drug research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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Open AccessArticle
Carpinus turczaninowii Extract May Alleviate High Glucose-Induced Arterial Damage and Inflammation
Antioxidants 2019, 8(6), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8060172 - 11 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress triggers severe vascular damage and induces an inflammatory vascular state, and is, therefore, one of the main causes of atherosclerosis. Recently, interest in the natural compound Carpinus turczaninowii has increased because of its reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated [...] Read more.
Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress triggers severe vascular damage and induces an inflammatory vascular state, and is, therefore, one of the main causes of atherosclerosis. Recently, interest in the natural compound Carpinus turczaninowii has increased because of its reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated whether a C. turczaninowii extract was capable of attenuating high glucose-induced inflammation and arterial damage using human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (hASMCs). mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory response [interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)], endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress [CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP)], and adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-protein activated kinase α2 (AMPK α2)], and DNA damage [phosphorylated H2.AX (p-H2.AX)] were measured in hASMCs treated with the C. turczaninowii extracts (1 and 10 μg/mL) after being stimulated by high glucose (25 mM) or not. The C. turczaninowii extract attenuated the increased mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and CHOP in hASMCs under high glucose conditions. The expression levels of p-H2.AX and AMPK α2 induced by high glucose were also significantly decreased in response to treatment with the C. turczaninowii extract. In addition, 15 types of phenolic compounds including quercetin, myricitrin, and ellagic acid, which exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, were identified in the C. turczaninowii extract through ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight (UPLC-Q-TOF) mass spectrometry. In conclusion, C. turczaninowii may alleviate high glucose-induced inflammation and arterial damage in hASMCs, and may have potential in the treatment of hyperglycemia-induced atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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Open AccessArticle
Liver Injury Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Mice Is Prevented by the Antioxidant Capacity of Anji White Tea Polyphenols
Antioxidants 2019, 8(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8030064 - 14 Mar 2019
Cited by 16
Abstract
Anji white tea is a unique variety of green tea that is rich in polyphenols. In this study, the effect of Anji white tea polyphenols (AJWTP) on the prevention of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury through its antioxidant properties was studied. [...] Read more.
Anji white tea is a unique variety of green tea that is rich in polyphenols. In this study, the effect of Anji white tea polyphenols (AJWTP) on the prevention of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury through its antioxidant properties was studied. Biochemical and molecular biology methods were used to analyze the serum and liver tissue of mice. The antioxidant capacity and liver injury preventive effect of AJWTP were determined, and the mechanism was elaborated. The results showed that AJWTP decreased the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol (TC) in mice with liver injury, it increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the serum and liver tissue of mice with liver injury, and it also decreased the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA). Further quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results showed that AJWTP upregulated the mRNA expression of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, catalase (CAT), and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cell inhibitor alpha (IκB-α) and downregulated the expression of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the liver tissue of mice with liver injury. Therefore, AJWTP produces sufficient antioxidant action to prevent liver injury, and the effect increases with the increase in AJWTP concentration. The effect of 200 mg/kg AJWTP was similar to that of the same concentration of the drug (silymarin) used for the treatment of liver injury. This indicates excellent potential for the development and utilization of AJWTP because it is an active substance with excellent antioxidant effects and can prevent liver injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Nigella sativa Oil in Human Pre-Adipocytes
Antioxidants 2019, 8(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8020051 - 25 Feb 2019
Cited by 22
Abstract
The oil obtained from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. (N. sativa), also known as black cumin, is frequently used in the Mediterranean area for its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the [...] Read more.
The oil obtained from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. (N. sativa), also known as black cumin, is frequently used in the Mediterranean area for its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the oil extracted from seeds of a N. sativa cultivar produced in the Marche region of Italy, and to determine if the thymoquinone content, antioxidant properties, and biological activity would decay during storage. Cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory properties of N. sativa oil were tested in an in vitro model of low-grade inflammation in Simpson–Golabi–Behmel syndrome human pre-adipocytes. The fresh extracted oil (FEO) contained 33% more thymoquinone than stored extracted oil (SEO), demonstrating that storage affects its overall quality. In addition, the thymoquinone content in the N. sativa oil from the Marche region cultivar was higher compared with other N. sativa oils produced in the Middle East and in other Mediterranean regions. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., Interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6) were differently modulated by fresh and stored extracts from N. sativa oils: FEO, containing more thymoquinone reduced IL-6 levels significantly, while SEO inhibited IL-1beta and had a higher antioxidant activity. Total antioxidant activity, reported as µM of Trolox, was 11.273 ± 0.935 and 6.103 ± 0.446 for SEO and FEO (p = 1.255 × 10−7), respectively, while mean values of 9.895 ± 0.817 (SEO) and 4.727 ± 0.324 (FEO) were obtained with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) assay (p = 2.891 × 10−14). In conclusion, the oil capacity to counteract proinflammatory cytokine production does not strictly depend on the thymoquinone content, but also on other antioxidant components of the oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Mastiha: A Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070208 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Nowadays both scientists and consumers have an increasing interest for natural products as preventing and healing factors without side effects. Mastiha, is a natural product of the Mediterranean basin with several health benefits as investigated the last decades. The present review summarises the [...] Read more.
Nowadays both scientists and consumers have an increasing interest for natural products as preventing and healing factors without side effects. Mastiha, is a natural product of the Mediterranean basin with several health benefits as investigated the last decades. The present review summarises the research evidence from preclinical and clinical studies regarding the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Mastiha. MEDLINE, COHRANE and search terms “Mastiha”, “Mastic gum”, “Chios mastic” and “Pistacia lentiscus” were used. We limited our search by selecting only articles written in English literature, published between 2003 and 2019 that were experimental studies on Mastiha resinous exudate (review articles and individual case reports were excluded). Additional searches were performed using “oxidative stress” and “inflammation”. A total of 19 studies met our criteria and were included in this review. Currently, there are more preclinical than clinical data available. Taken all together, the antioxidant potential of Mastiha is most probably owed to the inhibition of protein kinase, while its anti-inflammatory capacity may be the result of the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Further clinical studies in large populations are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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