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Open AccessArticle

Chemistry and Pharmacology of the Kazakh Crataegus Almaatensis Pojark: An Asian Herbal Medicine

Laboratory of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical care, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences & Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 D02 PN40, Ireland
School of Pharmacy, JSC National Medical University, 050000 Almaty, Kazakhstan
Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
CIBB Center for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
Department of Pharmacognosy with Medicinal Plants Unit, Medical University of Lublin, 1 Chodzki str., 20-093 Lublin, Poland
Laboratório da Dor e Inflamação, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sabrina S. Soares and Elmira Bekbolatova contributed equally to this paper.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 300;
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 1 August 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 10 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
PDF [4003 KB, uploaded 10 August 2019]


Crataegus almaatensis, an endemic ornamental plant in Kazakhstan is used in popular medicine due to its cardiotonic properties. The most studied species of the same genus are commonly found in Europe, which shows the importance of having the Kazakh species validated via its chemical and pharmacological studies. High-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) operated under optimized conditions enabled an isolation of the three main compounds from the aqueous phase of the leaves ethanol extract, further identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside (quercitrin) (4.02% of the crude extract-CECa); quercetin 3-O-β-galactoside (hyperoside) (1.82% of CECa); kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (afzelin) (0.94% of CECa). The CECa, the aqueous phase of the crude extract (APCa) together with the isolates were evaluated for their vascular (vascular reactivity in human internal mammary artery-HIMA), anti-nociceptive (formalin-induced liking response and hot plate) and anti-inflammatory (subcutaneous air-pouch model-SAP) activities. CECa at the concentrations of 0.014 and 0.14 mg/mL significantly increased the maximum contractility response of HIMA to noradrenaline. The APCa CR curve (0.007–0.7 mg/mL) showed an intrinsic relaxation effect of the HIMA. APCa at the dose of 100 mg/kg i.p. significantly decreased the total leukocyte count and the IL-1β release in the SAP wash. View Full-Text
Keywords: Crataegus almaatensis Pojark; Kazakhstan; HSCCC; Flavonoids; vascular activity; anti-inflammatory activity Crataegus almaatensis Pojark; Kazakhstan; HSCCC; Flavonoids; vascular activity; anti-inflammatory activity

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Soares, S.S.; Bekbolatova, E.; Cotrim, M.D.; Sakipova, Z.; Ibragimova, L.; Kukula-Koch, W.; Giorno, T.B.S.; Fernandes, P.D.; Fonseca, D.A.; Boylan, F. Chemistry and Pharmacology of the Kazakh Crataegus Almaatensis Pojark: An Asian Herbal Medicine. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 300.

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