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Open AccessArticle

Innovative and Conventional Valorizations of Grape Seeds from Winery By-Products as Sustainable Source of Lipophilic Antioxidants

1
Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Blvd. cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
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Institute of Food Technology, University of Novi Sad, Blvd. cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
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Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
4
Section of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Perugia, Via San Costanzo 1, 06126 Perugia, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070568
Received: 25 May 2020 / Revised: 22 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 1 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Potential of Dietary Antioxidants)
The aim of this study was to valorize the oil recovery from red and white grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) that remains as by-product after the winemaking process. Oils were extracted by modern techniques, ultrasound assisted (UAE), microwave assisted (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and compared to the Soxhlet extraction (SE). Firstly, SFE was optimized at different operating conditions: pressure (250–350 bar), temperature (40–60 °C), CO2 flow rate (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 kg h−1), and particle size (315–800 µm and >800 µm). The highest extraction yields were achieved by SFE at the optimal conditions: 350 bar, 60 °C, 0.4 kg h−1. Afterwards, SFE was compared to SE, UAE and MAE with respect to oil extraction yields, and analyzed for fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity. Considering the general classification of fatty acids, it was found that samples had high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, regardless of extraction technology. Tocopherol content was significantly influenced by all extraction methods, whereas UAE and MAE resulted in extracts richer with lipophilic antioxidants. In conclusion, modern extractions that are suited for industrial applications had better performance as compared to SE, as judging by the oil yield and quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: grape seed oil fatty acid; novel extraction; tocopherol; antioxidant activity; supercritical fluid; microwave assisted; ultrasound assisted; Soxhlet grape seed oil fatty acid; novel extraction; tocopherol; antioxidant activity; supercritical fluid; microwave assisted; ultrasound assisted; Soxhlet
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dimić, I.; Teslić, N.; Putnik, P.; Bursać Kovačević, D.; Zeković, Z.; Šojić, B.; Mrkonjić, Ž.; Čolović, D.; Montesano, D.; Pavlić, B. Innovative and Conventional Valorizations of Grape Seeds from Winery By-Products as Sustainable Source of Lipophilic Antioxidants. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 568.

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