Special Issue "Poultry Nutrition"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Poultry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Vincenzo Tufarelli
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of DETO, Section of Veterinary Science and Animal Production, University of Bari Aldo Moro, s.p. Casamassima Km 3, 70010 Valenzano, Bari, Italy
Interests: animal nutrition; poultry nutrition; feed science; feed technology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this Special Issue is to publish high-quality papers concerning poultry nutrition and the interrelations between nutrition, metabolism, microbiota and the health of poultry. Therefore, I invite submissions of recent findings, as original research or reviews, on poultry nutrition including, but not limited to, the following areas: the effect of feeding on poultry meat end egg quality; nutrient requirements of poultry; the use of functional feed additives to improve gut health and immune status; microbiota; nutraceuticals; soybean meal replacers as alternative sources of protein for poultry; the effects of feeding poultry on environmental impacts; the use of feed/food by-products in poultry diet; and feed technology.

Dr. Vincenzo Tufarelli
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • poultry nutrition
  • broiler
  • laying hen
  • quail
  • duck
  • turkey
  • feed additives
  • by-products
  • nutraceuticals

Published Papers (53 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Inclusion of Different Doses of Persicaria odorata Leaf Meal (POLM) in Broiler Chicken Feed on Biochemical and Haematological Blood Indicators and Liver Histomorphological Changes
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071209 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 749
Abstract
This research was conducted to estimate the effects of Persicaria odorata leaf meal (POLM) on haematological indices, serum biochemical attributes, and internal organs parameters, including histomorphological features of the liver, in broiler chickens. A total of 120 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb-500) were [...] Read more.
This research was conducted to estimate the effects of Persicaria odorata leaf meal (POLM) on haematological indices, serum biochemical attributes, and internal organs parameters, including histomorphological features of the liver, in broiler chickens. A total of 120 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb-500) were randomly allocated into four experimental groups. The dietary treatments were basal diet (BD), which served as the control (C), along with BD + 2 g/kg POLM (Po2), BD + 4 g/kg POLM (Po4), BD + 8 g/kg POLM (Po8), which were the supplemented groups. The body weight gain (BWG) showed a linear increase and feed conversion ratio (FCR) showed a linear decrease with increasing POLM dosage at day 42 (p ˂ 0.05) and for the overall growth performance period (p ˂ 0.01). On day 21 and day 42, the values of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), haemoglobin (Hb), and packed cell volume (PCV) showed linear increases (p ˂0.05) as the dosage of POLM increased in the diet. On day 21, dietary supplementation of POLM linearly decreased (p ˂ 0.05) the serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), and serum levels of urea and creatinine. On the other hand, serum levels of total protein (TP), albumin, and globulin showed a linear increase (p ˂ 0.05) as the POLM dosage increased. On day 42, the serum activity of AST and ALT and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, and creatinine showed linear decreases (p ˂ 0.05) with increased levels of POLM in the diet. However, POLM supplementation linearly increased (p ˂ 0.05) the serum levels of TP and globulin. Dietary inclusion of POLM did not influence the organ parameters and showed no adverse effects on the liver histomorphology. In conclusion, supplementation of POLM increased the growth performance, improving haematological indices and serum biochemistry profiles of broiler chickens without any deleterious effects on the liver histomorphology. The results of the present study provide evidence that POLM can be safely used at a dose rate of 8 g/kg of feed as an alternative to conventional antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Bilberry and Walnut Leaves Powder on the Digestive Performances and Health of Tetra SL Laying Hens
Animals 2020, 10(5), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050823 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 612
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of dietary inclusion of two additives at the final concentration of 0.5% bilberry (E1) and 1% walnut (E2) leaves powder in the basal diet on digestive health of hens. A total number of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of dietary inclusion of two additives at the final concentration of 0.5% bilberry (E1) and 1% walnut (E2) leaves powder in the basal diet on digestive health of hens. A total number of 90 Tetra SL hens were divided into two experimental groups (E1 and E2) and one control group (C) consisting of 30 hens each. After four weeks, 10 hens of each group were sacrificed and tissue samples and intestinal content were taken from the duodenum, jejunum, and cecum in order to perform histological, enzymatic, and microbiota analyses. In groups E1 and E2, the histological analysis showed a significant increase of villus height, resulting probably in increased absorption of nutrients in duodenum and jejunum. A decrease in the specific activity of alpha-amylase and trypsin in E1 and E2 for both duodenum and jejunum compared to the control one was also recorded. In addition, the maltase and invertase specific activity in duodenum increased, a tendency that was kept for maltase but not for invertase in jejunum. The cecal microbiota of E1 and E2 individuals was characterized by an increase of Firmicutes and Lactobacilli and a decrease of Enterobacteriaceae. In conclusion, our results indicate that bilberry and walnut leaves additives in feed may improve the health status of the poultry gastrointestinal tract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Associations Between IGF1, IGFBP2 and TGFß3 Genes Polymorphisms and Growth Performance of Broiler Chicken Lines
Animals 2020, 10(5), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050800 - 05 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
Marker-assisted selection based on fast and accurate molecular analysis of individual genes is considered an acceptable tool in the speed-up of the genetic improvement of production performance in chickens. The objective of this study was to detect the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in [...] Read more.
Marker-assisted selection based on fast and accurate molecular analysis of individual genes is considered an acceptable tool in the speed-up of the genetic improvement of production performance in chickens. The objective of this study was to detect the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IGF1, IGFBP2 and TGFß3 genes, and to investigate their associations with growth performance (body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG) at 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age) and carcass traits in broilers. Performance (carcass) data (weight before slaughter; weights of the trunk, giblets, abdominal fat, breast muscle and thigh muscle; slaughter value and slaughter percentage), as well as blood samples for DNA extraction and SNP analysis, were obtained from 97 chickens belonging to two different lines (Hubbard F15 and Cobb E) equally divided between the two sexes. The genotypes were detected using polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods with specific primers and restrictase for each gene. The statistical analysis discovered significant associations (p < 0.05) between the TGFβ3 SNP and the following parameters: BW at 21, 28 and 35 days, trunk weight and slaughter value. Association analysis of BWs (at 21, 28 and 35 days) and SNPs was always significant for codominant, dominant and overdominant genetic models, showing a possible path for genomic selection in these chicken lines. Slaughter value was significant for codominant, recessive and overdominant patterns, whereas other carcass traits were not influenced by SNPs. Based on the results of this study, we suggested that the TGFβ3 gene could be used as a candidate gene marker for chicken growth traits in the Hubbard F15 and Cobb E population selection programs, whereas for carcass traits further investigation is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Green Tea and Pomegranate Extract Administered During Critical Moments of the Production Cycle Improves Blood Antiradical Activity and Alters Cecal Microbial Ecology of Broiler Chickens
Animals 2020, 10(5), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050785 - 30 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1001
Abstract
Phytobiotics are usually tested in feed and throughout the production cycle. However, it could be beneficial to evaluate their effects when administered only during critical moments, such as changes in feeding phases. The aim of the trial was to investigate the effect of [...] Read more.
Phytobiotics are usually tested in feed and throughout the production cycle. However, it could be beneficial to evaluate their effects when administered only during critical moments, such as changes in feeding phases. The aim of the trial was to investigate the effect of a commercial plant extract (PE; IQV-10-P01, InQpharm Animal Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) on growth performance, blood antiradical activity and cecal microbiome when administered in drinking water to broiler chickens during the post-hatching phase and at each change of diet. In the experiment, 480 1-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to two groups in a 50-day trial. Broilers received drinking water (C) or drinking water plus PE (T) at a rate of 2 mL/L on days 0 to 4, 10–11 and 20–21. PE did not affect performance and water intake, while total antiradical activity was improved (p < 0.05). A greater abundance of lactic acid bacteria (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05) was found in the T group and the result was confirmed at a lower taxonomic level with higher Lactobacillaceae abundance (FDR < 0.05). Our findings suggest that PE administration during critical moments of the production cycle of broiler chickens may exert beneficial effects at a systemic level and on gut microbial ecology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Biological Curcumin Nanoparticles on Growth and Carcass Traits, Antioxidant Status, Immunity and Caecal Microbiota of Japanese Quails
Animals 2020, 10(5), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050754 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1222
Abstract
This study was planned to evaluate the impact of different nano-curcumin levels on the growth rate, carcass, blood chemistry and caecal microbes of growing quail. A total of 270 Japanese quails at one-week-old were distributed to six equal groups; each group consisted of [...] Read more.
This study was planned to evaluate the impact of different nano-curcumin levels on the growth rate, carcass, blood chemistry and caecal microbes of growing quail. A total of 270 Japanese quails at one-week-old were distributed to six equal groups; each group consisted of 45 unsexed birds with five replications (nine quails each). The 1st group was fed a basal diet, whereas the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th groups were fed diets containing nano-curcumin (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 g/kg diet, respectively). Nano-curcumin levels significantly increased (p ≤ 0.0001) body weight at 3 weeks and 5 weeks of age. Body weight gain during 1–3, 3–5 and 1–5 weeks of age was significantly increased (p < 0.0001) in groups treated with nano-curcumin levels (except at 0.3 g/kg; 1–3 weeks) compared to control. During 1 to 5 weeks, feed intake was decreased (p < 0.0001) in birds receiving nano-curcumin (0.1, 0.3 and 0.4 g/kg) diets. The best values of feed conversion ratio were recorded for the 0.4 g nano-curcumin-treated group. Carcass traits were not affected Nano-curcumin levels. The inclusion of nano-curcumin (0.2, 0.3 or 0.5 g/kg) significantly increased serum TP (p = 0.0004), albumin (p = 0.0078) and globulin (p < 0.0001). Quails fed with nano-curcumin (0.2 g/kg) exhibited the highest SOD and GSH activities, serum IgG and IgM concentrations and complement values compared to control. The addition of any level of nano-curcumin in the quail diet also significantly improved the lipid profile. In conclusion, supplemental nano-curcumin had beneficial impacts on growth, lipid profile, blood constituents, antioxidant indices, and immunity of growing quail, as well as increasing counts of lactic acid bacteria and reducing pathogenic bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Olive Cake Meal and Bacillus licheniformis Impacted the Growth Performance, Muscle Fatty Acid Content, and Health Status of Broiler Chickens
Animals 2020, 10(4), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040695 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 878
Abstract
Olive cake meal (OCM) is characterized by its high nutritional value and is used as an alternative source of protein and fats in poultry diets. However, due to the high percentage of fiber in OCM, beneficial bacteria cells are used to improve the [...] Read more.
Olive cake meal (OCM) is characterized by its high nutritional value and is used as an alternative source of protein and fats in poultry diets. However, due to the high percentage of fiber in OCM, beneficial bacteria cells are used to improve the digestion rates. Therefore, the influence of OCM and Bacillus licheniformis (BL) on the growth, nutrient utilization, blood chemistry, and muscle fatty acid profile of broilers was exclusively examined in this study. Three hundred and sixty birds were randomly divided into six experimental groups (6 replicates/10 birds each): Control, OCM (2%), OCM (4%), BL, OCM (2%)/BL, and OCM (4%)/BL groups. Although feed intake was not meaningfully influenced by dietary treatments, weight gain was enhanced and feed conversion ratio was reduced (p < 0.05). The abdominal fat was lowered in broilers fed OCM (2%), OCM (4%), OCM (2%)/BL, and OCM (4%)/BL diets without a difference to those fed BL only (p < 0.05). Interestingly, blood total protein, albumin, Newcastle disease (ND) titer, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were significantly increased, while total cholesterol was decreased by the mixture of OCM and BL (p < 0.05). Muscle oleic and linoleic acids, as well as vitamin E, increased significantly in broilers fed both OCM (4%) and BL, while linolenic acid increased in all groups except those fed BL and control diets (p < 0.05). Liver malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased by feeding BL or both OCM at 2% or 4% and BL (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the inclusion of BL to OCM diets resulted in improved fat utilization and, accordingly, enhanced growth, nutrient utilization, and antioxidative response in broilers. Based on the obtained results, it is recommended to use BL to improve the nutritional value of OCM and to increase the feed utilization of OCM by broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Ameliorative Effects of Antibiotic-, Probiotic- and Phytobiotic-Supplemented Diets on the Performance, Intestinal Health, Carcass Traits, and Meat Quality of Clostridium perfringens-Infected Broilers
Animals 2020, 10(4), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040669 - 12 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1036
Abstract
The poultry industry needs efficient antibiotic alternatives to prevent necrotic enteritis (NE) infections. Here, we evaluate the effects of probiotic and/or prebiotic dietary supplementation on performance, meat quality and carcass traits, using only an NE coinfection model, in broiler chickens. Three hundred and [...] Read more.
The poultry industry needs efficient antibiotic alternatives to prevent necrotic enteritis (NE) infections. Here, we evaluate the effects of probiotic and/or prebiotic dietary supplementation on performance, meat quality and carcass traits, using only an NE coinfection model, in broiler chickens. Three hundred and twenty-four healthy Ross 308 broiler chicks are allocated into six groups. Taking a 35 d feeding trial, the chicks are fed a basal diet with 0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 0.12, 0.5 + 0.12, and 0.2 g Kg−1 for the control (T1), Avilamycin (Maxus; T2), live probiotic (CloStat (Bacillus subtilis);T3), natural phytobiotic compounds (Sangrovit Extra (sanguinarine and protopine); T4), CloStat + Sangrovit Extra (T5), and spore probiotic strain (Gallipro Tect (Bacillus subtilis spores); T6) treatments, respectively. Occurring at 15 days-old, chicks are inoculated with Clostridium perfringens. The obtained results reveal that all feed additives improve the performance, feed efficiency, and survival rate, and reduces the intestinal lesions score compared with the control group. The T6 followed by T3 groups show a significant (p < 0.05) increase in some carcass traits, such as dressing, spleen, and thymus percentages compared with other treatments. Also, T5 and T6 have significantly recorded the lowest temperature and pHu values and the highest hardness and chewiness texture values compared to the other treated groups. To conclude, probiotics combined with prebiotic supplementation improves the growth, meat quality, carcass characterization and survival rate of NE-infected broiler chickens by modulating gut health conditions and decreasing lesion scores. Moreover, it could be useful as an ameliorated NE disease alternative to antibiotics in C. perfringens coinfected poultry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Modelling Methionine Requirements of Fast- and Slow-Growing Chinese Yellow-Feathered Chickens during the Starter Phase
Animals 2020, 10(3), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030443 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 711
Abstract
Two experiments were carried out to investigate the dietary methionine requirement for fast and slow-growing Chinese yellow-feathered breeds during the starter phase, based on growth variables and regression models. In Experiment 1, a total of 2880 one-day-old Lingnan chicks (fast growing breed) were [...] Read more.
Two experiments were carried out to investigate the dietary methionine requirement for fast and slow-growing Chinese yellow-feathered breeds during the starter phase, based on growth variables and regression models. In Experiment 1, a total of 2880 one-day-old Lingnan chicks (fast growing breed) were used to test the methionine requirement from 1 to 21 days of age for males and females separately. Of each gender, 1440 birds were allocated into 6 dietary methionine levels (0.28%, 0.32%, 0.37%, 0.43%, 0.50% and 0.63%), each with 6 pen replicates of 40 chicks. Experiment 2 had the same design with Guangxi chicks (slow growing breed) from 1 to 30 d of age. Results indicated that significant nonlinear or quadratic responses to increasing dietary methionine levels were observed in body weight, daily gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of both breeds. In summary, the quadratic polynomial regression showed that the optimal methionine requirements for maximal growth performance of Lingnan chickens were 0.52–0.58% in males, 0.51% in females, and 0.53% in mixed genders. The corresponding values for Guangxi breed were 0.53% in males by quadratic polynomial regression and 0.43% in females, and 0.48% to 0.49% in mixed sexes by exponential asymptotic models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
A Mixture of Exogenous Emulsifiers Increased the Acceptance of Broilers to Low Energy Diets: Growth Performance, Blood Chemistry, and Fatty Acids Traits
Animals 2020, 10(3), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030437 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
To investigate the influence of emulsifiers on broilers fed low-energy diets, the birds were distributed into three sets—the control was fed the basal diet, the second group was fed diets 50 kcal/kg less than control, and the third group was fed diets 50 [...] Read more.
To investigate the influence of emulsifiers on broilers fed low-energy diets, the birds were distributed into three sets—the control was fed the basal diet, the second group was fed diets 50 kcal/kg less than control, and the third group was fed diets 50 kcal/kg less than control and supplemented with 500 g/ton of emulsifiers. The used mixture of exogenous emulsifiers contains phosphatidyl choline, lysophosphatidyl choline, and polyethylene glycol ricinoleate. Although the feed intake was not meaningfully affected by dietary low-energy level with emulsifier inclusion (P = 0.42), the weight gain and FCR were clearly enhanced (P = 0.005 and P = 0.044, respectively). Protein and lipids utilization were decreased by reducing energy level, but they were increased by emulsifier supplementation (P = 0.022 and P = 0.011, respectively). Liver thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) and muscle palmitic acid concentrations were decreased by reducing the energy level and emulsifier’s supplementation (P = 0.014 and P = 0.042, respectively). However, muscle total lipids and α-tocopherol, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid were not affected by dietary treatments (P > 0.05). Interestingly, the plasma total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total protein, and globulin were decreased in the low-energy group without emulsifier but they were increased by emulsifier supplementation (P = 0.008, P = 0.005, P = 0.037, and P = 0.005, respectively). It could be concluded that the mixture of emulsifier supplementation to low-energy diets enhanced fat utilization and resulted in positive effects on the growth performance, nutrient utilization, lipid peroxidation, and modified plasma lipid profiles in broilers. Getting such benefits in broilers is a necessity to reduce the feed cost and consequently the price of the product, which will lead to improved welfare of mankind. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Multienzymes Dose Supplemented Continuously or Intermittently in Drinking Water on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Blood Constituents of Broiler Chickens
Animals 2020, 10(3), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030375 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 544
Abstract
The aim of this work was to study the continuous or intermittent impact of a multienzyme supplement on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood metabolites of broilers, and to evaluate production index of dietary supplementation. A total of 315 unsexed day-old Arbor Acres [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to study the continuous or intermittent impact of a multienzyme supplement on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood metabolites of broilers, and to evaluate production index of dietary supplementation. A total of 315 unsexed day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly distributed to seven treatments groups, keeping initial body weights similar, in 35-floor pens (replicates) of nine chicks per replicate (pen) and five experimental units per treatment. All experimental groups were fed the same basal diet and administered seven multienzyme treatments: the 1st group (control) did not receive any enzyme supplementation; the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th groups were administered multienzymes at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/L drinking water, respectively. Each enzyme supplemented-group was divided into two subgroups, with additives being applied either continuously (24 h/day) or intermittently (12 h/day) from 1 to 35 days old. Regardless of administration method, multienzyme supplements at 1.0 mL/L water along with a corn-soybean meal diet increased the body weight gain (BWG) by 7.8% compared to 0.5 mL/L water during days 1–21 of age. In addition, 1.5 mL/L water significantly improved BWG by 5.1% of broilers compared to 0.5 mL/L water during days 1–35 of age. Enzyme supplementation at 1.5 mL/L water significantly enhanced feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 4.3% during days 1–21 of age, and FCR by 5.2% and European production index (EPI) by 10.4% during days 1–35 of age compared to the group on 0.5 mL/L water. For the whole period, there were improvements of beneficial consideration in BWG (4.0%), FCR (4.0%), and European production index (8.2%) due to continuous multienzyme supplementation at 0.5 mL/L water compared to the same dose added intermittently. A similar trend was observed due to intermittent multienzymes at 1 mL/L drinking water that resulted in increased BWG by (6.4%) and improved FCR by (6.7%) and EPI by (12.7%). Intermittent administration significantly increased feed intake of broilers during 22–35 days of age compared to continuous supplementation. Multienzymes at different doses did not significantly affect the digestibility of nutrients, blood serum biochemical constituent, inner body organs, and markers of functions of liver and renal organs. In conclusion, the highest BWG and the best FCR and EPI for the whole period were from broilers given continuous 1 and 1.5 mL/L drinking water or intermittent multienzyme supplementation at 1.5 mL/L drinking water. Furthermore, intermittent supplementation of enzymes at 1 mL/L drinking water and continuous supplementation at 0.5 mL/L drinking water can be investigated in further experiments as a tool to improve broiler growth performance and economic traits and to decrease the cost of enzyme application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Detoxification Impacts of Ascorbic Acid and Clay on Laying Japanese Quail Fed Diets Polluted by Various Levels of Cadmium
Animals 2020, 10(3), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030372 - 25 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 663
Abstract
A total number of 360 laying Japanese quail (8 weeks of age) were randomly divided into 12 groups. Birds in all groups had nearly the same average initial body weight. A factorial arrangement (4 × 3) was performed including four levels of dietary [...] Read more.
A total number of 360 laying Japanese quail (8 weeks of age) were randomly divided into 12 groups. Birds in all groups had nearly the same average initial body weight. A factorial arrangement (4 × 3) was performed including four levels of dietary cadmium (Cd) as cadmium chloride (0, 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg diet) and three levels of feed additives (without, 300 mg/kg ascorbic acid and 1.50% natural clay). Results revealed that Cd contaminated feed caused significant (p < 0.01) retardation in body weight, lower egg number and egg mass and worse feed conversion. On the other hand, the addition of ascorbic acid or natural clay to quail diets caused a significant (p < 0.01) improvement in all studied traits. With respect to the interaction among Cd and the experimental additives, results showed that within each Cd level, ascorbic acid or clay supplementation recorded the highest body weight, egg number, egg weight and mass in addition to improved feed conversion. Cadmium levels decreased (p < 0.05) blood total protein, albumen and A/G ratio. Both 300 mg ascorbic acid and 1.50% clay increased (p < 0.05) blood total protein and albumen compared to non-supplemented groups. It could be concluded that the consumption of polluted diets Cd causes deleterious effects on the productive performance of laying Japanese quail. The addition of ascorbic acid or natural clay to the diets causes beneficial effects on productive performance traits, improves egg quality criteria and diminishes the toxic effects of Cd. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessCommunication
Green Tea Powder Decreased Egg Weight Through Increased Liver Lipoprotein Lipase and Decreased Plasma Total Cholesterol in an Indigenous Chicken Breed
Animals 2020, 10(3), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030370 - 25 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 646
Abstract
Whether or not green tea promotes egg production is unclear. Huainan partridge chickens at 20 weeks of age were divided into two groups, with one group fed a basal diet (control) and one fed a basal diet plus 10 g/kg green tea powder [...] Read more.
Whether or not green tea promotes egg production is unclear. Huainan partridge chickens at 20 weeks of age were divided into two groups, with one group fed a basal diet (control) and one fed a basal diet plus 10 g/kg green tea powder (GTP) for 12 weeks. Egg production (EP) and feed intake (FI) were recorded daily. Plasma lipid parameters, and apolipoprotein-B (Apo-B), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression were determined every four weeks. Egg production and FI showed no significant difference between the two groups (p > 0.05). Egg weight was 47.58 g in the control group, which was higher than that of the GTP group, and the feed-to-egg ratio (FCR) was 4.62 in the control group, which was lower than that of the GTP group after 12 weeks feeding. Compared with the control group, plasma orexin A (p < 0.05), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein A (Apo A), and very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) (p < 0.01, respectively) were increased. Plasma glucose (Glu), free fatty acid (FFA), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.01, respectively), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) (p < 0.05) were decreased in the GTP group after 8 weeks feeding. The LPL expression in the liver was increased in the GTP group after 8 to 12 weeks feeding when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Chickens fed GTP did not affect EP, but decreased egg weight, which might be because of lower plasma lipid concentration, increased plasma Orexin A, and liver LPL expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Housing System and Rosemary and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Layers Performance, Egg Quality, Haematological Traits, Blood Chemistry, Immunity, and Antioxidant
Animals 2020, 10(2), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10020245 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
Housing system and nutrition are non-genetic factors that can improve the well-being of animals to obtain higher quality products. A better understanding of how different housing systems and essential oils can influence the performance of layers is very important at the research and [...] Read more.
Housing system and nutrition are non-genetic factors that can improve the well-being of animals to obtain higher quality products. A better understanding of how different housing systems and essential oils can influence the performance of layers is very important at the research and commercial levels. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a housing system and dietary supplementation of rosemary and cinnamon essential oils on layers’ performance and egg quality. A factorial arrangement (2 × 3) was performed include two housing systems (floor and cage) and three different types of essential oils (0, 300 mg/kg diet of rosemary and 300 mg/kg diet of cinnamon essential oils) to study their effects on the productive performance, egg quality, immunity, oxidative stress and haematology of ISA brown laying hens during the production stages (from 28 to 76 weeks of age). Birds were randomly divided into two groups each comprising of 1500 birds; the first group was moved from the litter to reared laying cages while the second group was floor reared. Each group was randomly divided into three groups, the first was considered as a control group, the second treated with rosemary essential oil, and the third with cinnamon essential oil. The differences in egg production and weight, egg quality, feed intake and conversion, blood picture and chemistry, immunity, and antioxidant parameters between the different housing systems (floor and cage) were not significant at (p < 0.05 or 0.01). On the other hand, the egg production and weight, Haugh unit, feed intake and conversion, blood cholesterol, Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), urea, Ca, P, immunity, and antioxidant parameters were significantly (p < 0.05 or 0.01) better in rosemary and cinnamon groups than in the control group. Furthermore, the results of dietary supplementation with rosemary and cinnamon were very close. Regarding egg production and weight, there were no significant differences due to the interactions. The differences in egg mass among the interactions were also not significant except at 68–76 weeks, where the cage × cinnamon group was the highest. Under the floor rearing system, birds that were fed a diet supplemented with or without essential oils (EOs) consumed more feed than those raised under the cage system. Regarding feed conversion rate (FCR), the differences among the interactions were not significant except at 44–52, 52–60 and 68–76 weeks, where the cage × cinnamon group was the lowest. Excluding glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (p < 0.001), all immunity and antioxidant indices were not statistically different as a consequence of the interaction among EOs and housing systems. Additionally, the highest levels of phosphorus were observed for layers fed diets enriched with cinnamon oil with the cage or floor system. In conclusion, the data suggested that supplementation of rosemary and cinnamon essential oils in laying hen diet showed significantly positive effects on hen performance and egg production. Cholesterol, liver and kidney functions, immunity, and antioxidant parameters improved with rosemary and cinnamon supplementation when compared to the control. Additionally, the different housing systems did not result in any positive or negative impact on these traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Feed Additives as Alternatives to In-feed Antimicrobials on Production Performance and Intestinal Clostridium perfringens Counts in Broiler Chickens
Animals 2020, 10(2), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10020240 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1409
Abstract
Numerous non-antibiotic feed additives (alternatives to antibiotics, ATAs) have been marketed, but few have been evaluated under uniform testing conditions modelling commercial flocks. We compared 24 ATA treatments and the ionophorous coccidiostat narasin against a diet without any feed additives. Feed conversion ratio [...] Read more.
Numerous non-antibiotic feed additives (alternatives to antibiotics, ATAs) have been marketed, but few have been evaluated under uniform testing conditions modelling commercial flocks. We compared 24 ATA treatments and the ionophorous coccidiostat narasin against a diet without any feed additives. Feed conversion ratio and body weight gain were registered from day 0 to 28 in Ross 308 chickens housed on litter floor. The chickens were challenged with Eimeria spp., and cecal Clostridium perfringens (CP) counts were investigated. Active components from all ATA classes had a positive impact on intestinal health or production performance. Whereas narasin had a strong CP-reducing effect in combination with performance-promoting impact, only two ATA treatments achieved significantly beneficial effects on CP counts as well as feed conversion during the time span following Eimeria challenge. Active components present in these two treatments include a Bacillus subtilis probiotic strain, short- and medium-chain fatty acids and Saccharomyces cerevisiae components. Different ATA classes had beneficial impact during distinct rearing phases and on specific performance targets, suggesting that optimizing combinations and use of active components can make ATAs even more useful tools in broiler rearing without the use of in-feed antimicrobials. Further studies of promising ATAs and ATA combinations are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Betaine Improves Intestinal Barrier Function and Ameliorates the Impact of Heat Stress in Multiple Vital Organs as Measured by Evans Blue Dye in Broiler Chickens
Animals 2020, 10(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010038 - 23 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1107
Abstract
In a 2 × 2 factorial design, 60 male Ross-308 broilers were fed either a control or 1 g/kg betaine diet and housed under thermoneutral (TN) or heat stress (HS) conditions. Broilers were acclimated to diets for 1 week under TN (25 °C), [...] Read more.
In a 2 × 2 factorial design, 60 male Ross-308 broilers were fed either a control or 1 g/kg betaine diet and housed under thermoneutral (TN) or heat stress (HS) conditions. Broilers were acclimated to diets for 1 week under TN (25 °C), then either kept at TN or HS, where the temperature increased 8 h/day at 33 °C and 16 h/day at 25 °C for up to 10 days. Respiration rate (RR) was measured at four time points, and on each of 1, 2, 3, 7 and 10 days of HS, 12 broilers were injected with 0.5 mg/kg of Evans Blue Dye (EBD) solution to quantify regional changes in tissue damage. Betaine was quantified in tissues, and ileal damage was assessed via morphometry and transepithelial resistance (TER). Heat stress elevated RR (p < 0.001) and resulted in reduced villous height (p = 0.009) and TER (p < 0.001), while dietary betaine lowered RR during HS (p < 0.001), increased betaine distribution into tissues, and improved ileal villous height (p < 0.001) and TER (p = 0.006). Heat stress increased EBD in the muscle and kidney of chickens fed the control diet but not in those receiving betaine. Overall, these data indicate that supplemented betaine is distributed to vital organs and the gastrointestinal tract, where it is associated with improved tolerance of HS. Furthermore, EBD markers help reveal the effects of HS on organs dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Growth Performance of Broilers as Influenced by Different Levels and Sources of Methionine Plus Cysteine
Animals 2019, 9(12), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121056 - 01 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1097
Abstract
The objective of this work was to evaluate the utilization of methionine from DL-methionine (DL-Met) and L-methionine (L-Met) with different levels of dietary methionine plus cystine (Met + Cyst) in broilers. The experimental diets were formulated by using three levels of Met + [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to evaluate the utilization of methionine from DL-methionine (DL-Met) and L-methionine (L-Met) with different levels of dietary methionine plus cystine (Met + Cyst) in broilers. The experimental diets were formulated by using three levels of Met + Cyst, i.e., 74%, 77% and 80% of digestible lysine. Met + Cyst was provided either from DL-Met or L-Met. A total of 450 day-old broilers were divided into six groups (five replicates of 15 birds each) in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement under completely randomized design. Weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was determined. At the end of the experiment (35 days), two birds from each replicate were slaughtered to determine carcass characteristics and serum homocysteine. Results indicate that the combined effect of L-Met and DL-Met significantly affected (p < 0.05) the WG in the starter period and FI in the finisher period. Neither source nor level of methionine influenced (p > 0.05) the FI, WG and FCR of broilers during the starter, finisher or overall phase of growth. The interaction between sources and levels of methionine did not influence (p > 0.05) the feed intake, weight gain and FCR during the overall phase of growth. Source of methionine had no (p > 0.05) effect on carcass characteristics. Methionine levels had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on carcass weight, chest weight and thigh weight. The interaction between sources and levels of methionine had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on the liver weight. The sources of methionine had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the liver and heart weight, while methionine levels significantly influenced (p < 0.05) the liver and gizzard weight. Finally, it was concluded that if DL-Met and L-Met are included in feed at a standard level, they are equally effective as a source of methionine for broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Different Methionine Sources on Performance and Slaughter Characteristics of Broilers
Animals 2019, 9(11), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110984 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
Sustainably produced poultry meat with consideration of animal health poses a challenge for broiler production. Low protein diets with high amounts of synthetic amino acids (AAs) like methionine (Met) are the consequence. In a five-week feeding trial, 360 broilers (Ross 308) assigned to [...] Read more.
Sustainably produced poultry meat with consideration of animal health poses a challenge for broiler production. Low protein diets with high amounts of synthetic amino acids (AAs) like methionine (Met) are the consequence. In a five-week feeding trial, 360 broilers (Ross 308) assigned to four feeding groups were offered protein-reduced complete diets (starter: 20% crude protein (CP); grower: 18.5% CP; finisher: 17.5% CP), supplemented with essential AAs. The “MHA” group received DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA; trade name: MHA®), groups “L” and “DL” the respective Met source in equivalent concentrations each exceeding the nutritional recommendations. “R-MHA” (“R” for “reduced”) received the minimum required level (using MHA as Met source). Performance exceeded performance goals without differences between the groups. The average feed conversion ratio (FCR) amounted to 1.35. The carcass/body weight ratio of R-MHA was significantly lower (0.782) compared to DL (0.808) and L (0.809). Breast meat of R-MHA contained significantly more fat (144 g/kg dry matter (DM)) compared to L (104 g/kg DM) and significantly lower CP content (R-MHA: 838 g/kg DM; L: 875 g/kg DM). The results indicated possible improvement in slaughter yield by protein-reduced diets supplemented with L-Met, thus recommending further research focusing on the Met influence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Probiotics as Antibiotics Substitutes on Growth Performance, Serum Biochemical Parameters, Intestinal Morphology, and Barrier Function of Broilers
Animals 2019, 9(11), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110985 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1154
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the combination of probiotics replacing antibiotics on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, intestinal morphology, and expression of tight junction proteins in intestinal mucosa of broilers. A total of 168 Arbor Acres broilers [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the combination of probiotics replacing antibiotics on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, intestinal morphology, and expression of tight junction proteins in intestinal mucosa of broilers. A total of 168 Arbor Acres broilers (45.04 ± 0.92 g) were randomly divided into three treatments, with seven replicates per treatment, and eight broilers per replicate. The experiment included phases 1 (d 0 to 21) and 2 (d 21 to 42). The dietary treatments contained a corn soybean meal-based diet (control group; CON); an antibiotic group (basal diet + 75 mg/kg chlortetracycline; CTC), and a probiotics group (basal diet + probiotics (500 mg/kg in phase 1 and 300 mg/kg in phase 2; Bacillus subtilis 5 × 109 CFU/g, Bacillus licheniformis 2.5 × 1010 CFU/g and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1 × 109 CFU/g; PB). The results showed broilers fed PB had improved (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) in phase 1 and increased (p < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) in phase 2, as well as improved (p < 0.05) ADG and FCR overall (d 0 to 42). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, organic matter, gross energy, and crude protein was increased (p < 0.05) in broilers fed PB, while the ATTD of dry matter and organic matter was enhanced in broilers fed CTC compared with CON. Broilers fed PB showed increased (p < 0.05) serum total antioxidant capacity concentrations and tended to have higher (p = 0.06) level of serum immunoglobulin M in phase 1 compared with CON. These broilers also had increased (p < 0.05) level of serum immunoglobulin A in phase 2 in comparison with CON and CTC. Moreover, broilers fed CTC and PB showed increased (p = 0.05) villus height to crypt depth ratio in duodenum, as well as higher (p < 0.05) mRNA expression of zonula occludens-1 in jejunum compared with CON. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with PB as chlortetracycline substitute could improve the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum antioxidant capacity, jejunal mucosal barrier function, and intestinal morphology of broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Chromium-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles on the Intestinal Electrophysiological Indices and Glucose Transporters in Broilers
Animals 2019, 9(10), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100819 - 17 Oct 2019
Viewed by 750
Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of chromium-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (Cr-CNPs) on the electrophysiological indices, gene expression of glucose transporters, and tissue glycogen in broilers. A total of 200 one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into five groups, with each having five [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of chromium-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (Cr-CNPs) on the electrophysiological indices, gene expression of glucose transporters, and tissue glycogen in broilers. A total of 200 one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into five groups, with each having five replicates (n = 8). Group A was fed a corn–soybean meal diet, while the diets of groups B, C, D, and E were supplemented with 200, 400, 800, and 1200 µg/kg of Cr as Cr-CNPs, respectively. On day 35, the jejunum was collected for electrophysiological study, gene expression of glucose transporters, and tissues glycogen determination. The basal short-circuit current and tissue conductance before the addition of glucose was the same in all groups. Following the addition of glucose, the change in short-circuit current decreased (p < 0.05) in the jejunal tissues of birds supplemented with 400 and 1200 µg Cr-CNPs compared with the control group. Gene expression of SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 remained unaffected with supplementation. The serum glucose and liver glycogen concentration decreased (p < 0.05) linearly with supplementation, while no effect was observed on muscle glycogen. In conclusion, Cr-CNPs supplementation decreases the glucose absorption and liver glycogen content, without affecting the gene expression of glucose transporters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Effects of Mannanoligosaccharide Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Immunity, and Oxidative Status of Partridge Shank Chickens
Animals 2019, 9(10), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100817 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 655
Abstract
Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) can be used in poultry production to modulate immunity and improve growth performance. So, we hypothesized that our enzymatic MOS could achieve the same effects in broilers. To investigate this, a total of 192 one-day-old Partridge Shank chickens were allocated to [...] Read more.
Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) can be used in poultry production to modulate immunity and improve growth performance. So, we hypothesized that our enzymatic MOS could achieve the same effects in broilers. To investigate this, a total of 192 one-day-old Partridge Shank chickens were allocated to four dietary treatments consisting of six replicates with eight chicks per replicate, and they were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g MOS per kg of diet(g/kg) for42 days. Treatments did not affect the growth performance of chickens. Dietary MOS linearly increased the relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and jejunal immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) content, whereas it linearly decreased cecal Salmonella colonies at 21 days (p < 0.05). The concentration of jejunal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and IgG at 42 days as well as ileal sIgA, IgG, and IgM at 21 and 42 days were quadratically enhanced by MOS supplementation (p < 0.05). Also, chickens fed MOS exhibited linear and quadratic reduction in jejunal malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this enzymatic MOS can improve the immune function and intestinal oxidative status of Partridge Shank chickens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Soybean Lecithin High in Free Fatty Acids for Broiler Chicken Diets: Impact on Performance, Fatty Acid Digestibility and Saturation Degree of Adipose Tissue
Animals 2019, 9(10), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100802 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1661
Abstract
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the inclusion of soybean lecithin with a high free fatty acid content (L) in starter and grower–finisher broiler diets, as well as its influence on performance, energy and fatty acid (FA) utilization and the FA profile of [...] Read more.
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the inclusion of soybean lecithin with a high free fatty acid content (L) in starter and grower–finisher broiler diets, as well as its influence on performance, energy and fatty acid (FA) utilization and the FA profile of the abdominal fat pad (AFP). A basal diet was supplemented with soybean oil (S; Experiment 1) or acid oil (AO; Experiment 2) at 3%, and increasing amounts of L (1%, 2% and 3%) were included in replacement. The inclusion of L did not modify performance parameters (p > 0.05). The S replacement by L reduced energy and total FA utilization (p ≤ 0.05) in starter diets; however, in grower–finisher diets, a replacement up to 2% did not modify energy and FA utilization (p > 0.05). The AO substitution by L produced no modifications on energy and FA utilization (p > 0.05) during the starter phase, while the blend of 1% of AO and 2% of L resulted in the best combination in terms of the FA digestibility. The FA profile of the AFP reflected the FA composition of diets. The addition of L could replace, up to 2% or be blended with AO in broiler grower–finisher diets as an energy source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Valorization of Red Grape Pomace Waste Using Polyethylene Glycol and Fibrolytic Enzymes: Physiological and Meat Quality Responses in Broilers
Animals 2019, 9(10), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100779 - 10 Oct 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 771
Abstract
The amount of grape pomace (GP) waste that can be included as a functional feed in broiler diets is limited by anti-nutritional compounds such as fiber and condensed tannins. This study evaluated the effect of pre-treating GP with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and a [...] Read more.
The amount of grape pomace (GP) waste that can be included as a functional feed in broiler diets is limited by anti-nutritional compounds such as fiber and condensed tannins. This study evaluated the effect of pre-treating GP with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and a cellulolytic enzyme mixture on physiological and meat quality parameters of broilers. Cobb 500 broilers (249.2 ± 20.31 g live-weight) were reared on five isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets: 1. Commercial chicken diet (CON); 2. CON containing untreated GP at 100 g/kg (dGP); 3. CON containing 100 g/kg GP pre-treated with PEG (50 g/kg) (dPEG); 4. CON containing 100 g/kg GP pre-treated with enzyme (1 g/kg) (ENZ); and 5. CON containing 100 g/kg GP pre-treated with PEG (50 g/kg) and enzyme (1 g/kg) (PENZ). Overall body weight gains were similar in broilers reared on the CON, dPEG, ENZ and PENZ diets but lower in dGP chickens. The meat of birds reared on dPEG, ENZ, dGP and CON had a similar water-holding capacity, which was lower than in PENZ chickens. Diets influenced the size of duodenum, ileum, jejunum and caeca. Polyethylene glycol treatment promoted similar body weight gains and hot carcass weights as the commercial control diet, suggesting that the anti-nutritional effects of condensed tannins were successfully ameliorated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dietary Threonine Levels on Intestinal Immunity and Antioxidant Capacity Based on Cecal Metabolites and Transcription Sequencing of Broiler
Animals 2019, 9(10), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100739 - 28 Sep 2019
Viewed by 825
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the effects of different dietary threonine levels on the antioxidant and immune capacity and the immunity of broilers. A total of 432 one-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups, each with 6 replicates of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the effects of different dietary threonine levels on the antioxidant and immune capacity and the immunity of broilers. A total of 432 one-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups, each with 6 replicates of 18 broilers. The amount of dietary threonine in the four treatments reached 85%, 100%, 125%, and 150% of the NRC (Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 1994) recommendation for broilers (marked as THR85, THR100, THR125, and THR150). After 42 days of feeding, the cecum contents and jejunum mucosa were collected for metabolic analysis and transcriptional sequencing. The results indicated that under the condition of regular and non-disease growth of broilers, compared with that of the THR85 and THR150 groups, the metabolic profile of the THR125 group was significantly higher than that of the standard requirement group. Compared with the THR100 group, the THR125 group improved antioxidant ability and immunity of broilers and enhanced the ability of resisting viruses. The antioxidant gene CAT was upregulated. PLCD1, which is involved in immune signal transduction and plays a role in cancer suppression, was also upregulated. Carcinogenic or indirect genes PKM2, ACY1, HK2, and TBXA2 were down-regulated. The genes GPT2, glude2, and G6PC, which played an important role in maintaining homeostasis, were up-regulated. Therefore, the present study suggests that 125% of the NRC recommendations for Thr level had better effects on antioxidant and immune capacity, as well as maintaining the homeostasis of the body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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The Effect of Dietary Camelina sativa Oil or Cake in the Diets of Broiler Chickens on Growth Performance, Fatty Acid Profile, and Sensory Quality of Meat
Animals 2019, 9(10), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100734 - 27 Sep 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementing the diets of broiler chickens with Camelina sativa oil or cake as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on their growth performance, fatty acid profile, and sensory quality of [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementing the diets of broiler chickens with Camelina sativa oil or cake as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on their growth performance, fatty acid profile, and sensory quality of meat. The 456 Ross 308 broilers aged 21–42 days were divided into 3 groups with 4 replicates of 38 birds in each. Chickens in the control group I (CTR) were fed a standard grower–finisher feed mixture containing 60 g/kg rapeseed oil. The experimental components, C. sativa oil—CSO (group II) or cake—CSC (group III), were included in a diet based on wheat and soybean at 40 and 100 g/kg, respectively. The use of Camelina oil and cake as feed components did not have a significant effect on the growth performance of the chickens. Analysis of the fatty acid profile in the lipids of the breast muscles showed that Camelina oil and cake reduced the content of monounsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.05) but increased the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially α-linolenic acid (C18:3) (p < 0.01). Furthermore, both components reduced the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs in the breast muscles (p < 0.01). Sensory analysis revealed that Camelina oil had a beneficial effect on meat juiciness, whereas Camelina cake slightly worsened the flavor and tastiness of the meat. In conclusion, supplementing the diet of broiler chickens with Camelina oil or cake can be an efficient method for modifying the fatty acid profile of the meat lipids in a beneficial way, without any negative impact on the growth performance of the chickens. According to the dietetic recommendations for humans, broiler chicken meat with a higher level of PUFA n-3 can be a good alternative source of these fatty acids in the human diet. Furthermore, Camelina oil improved the juiciness of breast meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Denatonium Benzoate-Induces Oxidative Stress in the Heart and Kidney of Chinese Fast Yellow Chickens by Regulating Apoptosis, Autophagy, Antioxidative Activities and Bitter Taste Receptor Gene Expressions
Animals 2019, 9(9), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090701 - 19 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
The sense of taste which tells us which prospective foods are nutritious, poisonous and harmful is essential for the life of the organisms. Denatonium benzoate (DB) is a bitter taste agonist known for its activation of bitter taste receptors in different cells. The [...] Read more.
The sense of taste which tells us which prospective foods are nutritious, poisonous and harmful is essential for the life of the organisms. Denatonium benzoate (DB) is a bitter taste agonist known for its activation of bitter taste receptors in different cells. The aim of the current study was to investigate the mRNA expressions of bitter taste, downstream signaling effectors, apoptosis-, autophagy- and antioxidant-related genes and effector signaling pathways in the heart/kidney of chickens after DB dietary exposure. We randomly assigned 240, 1-day-old Chinese Fast Yellow chicks into four groups with five replicates of 12 chicks and studied them for 28 consecutive days. The dietary treatments consisted of basal diet and feed containing DB (5, 20 and 100 mg/kg). The results revealed that dietary DB impaired (p < 0.05) the growth performance of the chickens. Haemotoxylin and eosin staining and TUNEL assays confirmed that medium and high doses of DB damaged the epithelial cells of heart/kidney and induced apoptosis and autophagy. Remarkably, the results of RT-PCR and qRT-PCR indicated that different doses of DB gradually increased (p < 0.05) mRNA expressions of bitter taste, signaling effectors, apoptosis-, autophagy- and antioxidant- related genes on day 7 in a dose-response manner, while, these expressions were decreased (p < 0.05) subsequently by day-28 but exceptional higher (P < 0.05) expressions were observed in the high-dose DB groups of chickens. In conclusion, DB exerts adverse effects on the heart/kidney of chickens in a dose-response manner via damaging the epithelium of the heart/kidney by inducing apoptosis, autophagy associated with bitter taste and effector gene expressions. Correlation analyses for apoptosis/autophagy showed agonistic relationships. Our data provide a novel perspective for understanding the interaction of bitter taste, apoptosis, autophagy and antioxidative genes with bitter taste strong activators in the heart/kidney of chicken. These insights might help the feed industries and pave the way toward innovative directions in chicken husbandry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Effect of Bamboo Leaf Extract on Antioxidant Status and Cholesterol Metabolism in Broiler Chickens
Animals 2019, 9(9), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090699 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary bamboo leaf extract (BLE) on antioxidant status and cholesterol metabolism in broilers. One-day-old male Arbor Acres (576) broilers were randomly divided into six groups. A control group was fed a basal [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary bamboo leaf extract (BLE) on antioxidant status and cholesterol metabolism in broilers. One-day-old male Arbor Acres (576) broilers were randomly divided into six groups. A control group was fed a basal diet, while five experimental groups were supplemented with 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0g BLE per kg feed in their basal diets. The result indicated that BLE supplementation linearly improved eviscerated yield and decreased abdominal fat (p < 0.05). A significant decrease of serum triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) content was observed with BLE supplementation (p < 0.05). BLE supplementation linearly improved the total antioxidant capacity and catalase activity in both serum and liver (p < 0.05). Glutathione peroxidase was quadratically increased in serum and linearly increased in the liver with BLE supplementation (p < 0.05). The malonaldehyde content in liver showed a linear and quadratic decrease with BLE supplementation (p < 0.05). BLE supplementation up-regulated the mRNA expression of cholesterol 7- alpha hydroxylase and low-density lipoprotein receptor and downregulated 3-hydroxy3-methyl glutamates coenzyme A reductase mRNA expression in the liver. The antioxidant enzyme mRNA expressions were all up-regulated by BLE supplementation in the liver. In conclusion, supplemental BLE improved antioxidant status and cholesterol metabolism in broilers, which eventually led to a decrease of serum TG, LDL-c content, and abdominal fat deposition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Effect of Chestnut Tannins and Short Chain Fatty Acids as Anti-Microbials and as Feeding Supplements in Broilers Rearing and Meat Quality
Animals 2019, 9(9), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090659 - 05 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1240
Abstract
Chestnut tannins (CT) and saturated short medium chain fatty acids (SMCFA) are valid alternatives to contrast the growth of pathogens in poultry rearing, representing a valid alternative to antibiotics. However, the effect of their blends has never been tested. Two blends of CT [...] Read more.
Chestnut tannins (CT) and saturated short medium chain fatty acids (SMCFA) are valid alternatives to contrast the growth of pathogens in poultry rearing, representing a valid alternative to antibiotics. However, the effect of their blends has never been tested. Two blends of CT extract and Sn1-monoglycerides of SMCFA (SN1) were tested in vitro against the proliferation of Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella typhymurium, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni. The tested concentrations were: 3.0 g/kg of CT; 3.0 g/kg of SN1; 2.0 g/kg of CT and 1.0 g/kg of SN1; 1.0 g/kg of CT and 2.0 g/kg of SN1. Furthermore, their effect on broiler performances and meat quality was evaluated in vivo: one-hundred Ross 308 male birds were fed a basal diet with no supplement (control group) or supplemented with CT or SN1 or their blends at the same concentration used in the in vitro trial. The in vitro assay confirmed the effectiveness of the CT and SN1 mixtures in reducing the growth of the tested bacteria while the in vivo trial showed that broiler performances, animal welfare and meat quality were not negatively affected by the blends, which could be a promising alternative in replacing antibiotics in poultry production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Effect of Supplemental Cyanocobalamin on the Growth Performance and Hematological Indicators of the White Pekin Ducks from Hatch to Day 21
Animals 2019, 9(9), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090633 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 762
Abstract
The experiment was conducted to evaluate the requirement of cyanocobalamin of male Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age. A total of three-hundred-eighty-four, one-day-old meat-type male Pekin ducks were randomly allocated to six treatments, i.e., dietary cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) concentrations of [...] Read more.
The experiment was conducted to evaluate the requirement of cyanocobalamin of male Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age. A total of three-hundred-eighty-four, one-day-old meat-type male Pekin ducks were randomly allocated to six treatments, i.e., dietary cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) concentrations of 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 1.00 mg/kg, respectively in their feed. Each treatment had eight replicated pens with eight ducks for each pen. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for 21 days. Different growth parameters including average daily weight gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and hematological indicators were evaluated because, on the basis of hematological indicators, the health and nutritional status of an animal can be accessed. It is observed that supplemental cyanocobalamin has no significant effect on ADG, ADFI, and FCR but it improves hematological parameters such as white blood cells, red blood cells, and its indices and platelet counts compared to the control group (p < 0.05). On the basis of growth performance and hematological indicators it is concluded that 0.02 mg cyanocobalamin/kg of feed is the dietary requirement of male Pekin ducks from hatch to day 21 of age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Threonine Requirements in Dietary Low Crude Protein for Laying Hens under High-Temperature Environmental Climate
Animals 2019, 9(9), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090586 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1213
Abstract
Lohmann Brown hens (n = 420), at 28 weeks of age, were divided into five dietary treatments, and each treatment included six replicates of 14 laying hens. Dietary crude protein (14%) was presented as the control diet. Dietary L-Thr was added to the [...] Read more.
Lohmann Brown hens (n = 420), at 28 weeks of age, were divided into five dietary treatments, and each treatment included six replicates of 14 laying hens. Dietary crude protein (14%) was presented as the control diet. Dietary L-Thr was added to the control diet for 12 weeks. Dietary Thr levels are 0.43%, 0.49%, 0.57%, 0.66%, and 0.74%, based on digestible base. From 28 to 40 weeks, hen-day egg production presented a quadratic trend to supplementing dietary Thr (R2 = 0.96, p = 0.02), and reached a maximum level at 0.58%. Serum uric acid demonstrated a quadratic trend (R2 = 0.62, p = 0.02) at 0.59%. Both serum total cholesterol and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG-CoA) reductase showed lower levels (p < 0.05) at 0.66% Thr. Serum CuZn-SOD elevated (p < 0.05) at 0.49%, 0.57%, and 0.66% Thr, as compared to the control group, and showed a quadratic trend (R2 = 0.87, p = 0.003) at 0.56%. Supplemental L-Thr decreased (p < 0.05) the expression of ileal HSP70 at 0.66% Thr. In summary, the optimal dietary Thr requirements to optimize egg production, serum uric acid, and serum CuZn-SOD were 0.58%, 0.59%, and 0.56%, respectively, by regression analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Enriched Charcoal as Permanent 0.2% Feed-Additive in Standard and Low-Protein Diets of Male Fattening Turkeys: An On-Farm Study
Animals 2019, 9(8), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080541 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Wet litter is the most important cause of footpad dermatitis in poultry, this in turn being a highly relevant animal-related welfare indicator. This field study was subdivided into two experiments. In Experiment 1, the standard diet was supplemented by 0.2% enriched charcoal, being [...] Read more.
Wet litter is the most important cause of footpad dermatitis in poultry, this in turn being a highly relevant animal-related welfare indicator. This field study was subdivided into two experiments. In Experiment 1, the standard diet was supplemented by 0.2% enriched charcoal, being a non-specific absorber and therefore might be promising in reducing faecal moisture. In Experiment 2, the experimental group received a reduced crude protein diet during weeks 6–13, combined with a 0.2% enriched charcoal supplementation. The trials were each conducted with two batches on three farms under on-farm conditions. The animals were observed at 6, 10, 14 and 18 weeks of age to collect data on body weight and different health parameters. The mortality and litter samples were analysed after slaughtering. In Experiment 1, performance and health were not affected despite higher dry matter content of the litter. In Experiment 2, the weight of birds receiving the protein-reduced diet was decreased significantly throughout the experiment. However, the slaughter weight did not differ. The mortality was reduced by 0.5% in the experimental group. Therefore, it was concluded that 0.2% of enriched charcoal is not a valuable feed-additive regarding animal health, while temporary protein reduction might have positive effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Responsiveness Expressions of Bitter Taste Receptors Against Denatonium Benzoate and Genistein in the Heart, Spleen, Lung, Kidney, and Bursa Fabricius of Chinese Fast Yellow Chicken
Animals 2019, 9(8), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080532 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
The present study was conducted to investigate the responsiveness expressions of ggTas2Rs against denatonium benzoate (DB) and genistein (GEN) in several organs of the Chinese Fast Yellow Chicken. A total of 300 one-day-old chicks that weighed an average of 32 g were randomly [...] Read more.
The present study was conducted to investigate the responsiveness expressions of ggTas2Rs against denatonium benzoate (DB) and genistein (GEN) in several organs of the Chinese Fast Yellow Chicken. A total of 300 one-day-old chicks that weighed an average of 32 g were randomly allocated into five groups with five replicates for 56 consecutive days. The dietary treatments consisted of basal diet, denatonium benzoate (5 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg), and genistein 25 mg/kg. The results of qRT-PCR indicated significantly (p < 0.05) high-level expressions in the heart, spleen, and lungs in the starter and grower stages except for in bursa Fabricius. The responsiveness expressions of ggTas2Rs against DB 100 mg/kg and GEN 25 mg/kg were highly dose-dependent in the heart, spleen, lungs, and kidneys in the starter and grower stages, but dose-independent in the bursa Fabricius in the finisher stage. The ggTas2Rs were highly expressed in lungs and the spleen, but lower in the bursa Fabricius among the organs. However, the organ growth performance significantly (p < 0.05) increased in the groups administered DB 5 mg/kg and GEN 25 mg/kg; meanwhile, the DB 20 mg/kg and DB 100 mg/kg treatments significantly reduced the growth of all the organs, respectively. These findings indicate that responsiveness expressions are dose-dependent, and bitterness sensitivity consequently decreases in aged chickens. Therefore, these findings may improve the production of new feedstuffs for chickens according to their growing stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dietary Betaine on Growth Performance, Digestive Function, Carcass Traits, and Meat Quality in Indigenous Yellow-Feathered Broilers under Long-Term Heat Stress
Animals 2019, 9(8), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080506 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 1614
Abstract
Heat stress has a profound effect on poultry health and productivity. The present study evaluated whether feeding betaine could ameliorate long-term heat stress-induced impairment of productive performance in indigenous yellow-feathered broilers. A total of 240 five-week-old male broilers were randomly allocated to five [...] Read more.
Heat stress has a profound effect on poultry health and productivity. The present study evaluated whether feeding betaine could ameliorate long-term heat stress-induced impairment of productive performance in indigenous yellow-feathered broilers. A total of 240 five-week-old male broilers were randomly allocated to five treatments with six replicates of eight broilers each. The five treatments included a thermoneutral zone control group (TN, fed basal diet), a heat stress control group (HS, fed basal diet), and an HS control group supplemented 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg betaine, respectively. The TN group was raised at 26 ± 1 °C during the whole study, HS groups exposed to 32 ± 1 °C for 8 h/day from 9:00 am to 17:00 pm. The results showed that heat stress decreased the body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake of broilers during 1–5, 6–10, and 1–10 weeks (p < 0.05). Dietary betaine tended to improve the BWG and feed intake of broilers under 5 weeks of heat stress (linear, p < 0.10), and betaine supplementation linearly increased the BWG and feed intake during 6–10 and 1–10 weeks (p < 0.05). Additionally, nitrogen retention was reduced by 5 weeks and 10 weeks of heat stress (p < 0.05), whereas dietary betaine could improve nitrogen retention in heat stressed broilers after both 5 and 10 weeks of heat stress (linear, p < 0.05). Moreover, this study observed that the trypsin activity of jejunum was decreased by 5 weeks of heat stress (p < 0.05), whereas betaine supplementation had quadratic effects on trypsin activity of jejunum in heat stressed broilers (p < 0.05). Furthermore, 10 weeks of heat stress induced a reduction of villus height of the duodenum and jejunum (p < 0.05), and decreased the villus height to crypt depth ratio of the jejunum (p < 0.05). Supplementation with betaine ameliorated the adverse effects of heat stress on these parameters (p < 0.05). Compared with the TN group, 10 weeks of heat stress reduced carcass and breast yield (p < 0.05) and betaine supplementation improved carcass and breast yield of heat stressed broilers (linear, p < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of betaine could reduce the detrimental effects of long-term heat stress on growth performance, digestive function, and carcass traits in indigenous yellow-feathered broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Chitooligosaccharide Inclusion as an Alternative to Antibiotics Improves Intestinal Morphology, Barrier Function, Antioxidant Capacity, and Immunity of Broilers at Early Age
Animals 2019, 9(8), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080493 - 27 Jul 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1155
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of chitooligosaccharide (COS) inclusion as an alternative to antibiotics on growth performance, intestinal morphology, barrier function, antioxidant capacity, and immunity in broilers. In total, 144 one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 3 groups [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of chitooligosaccharide (COS) inclusion as an alternative to antibiotics on growth performance, intestinal morphology, barrier function, antioxidant capacity, and immunity in broilers. In total, 144 one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 3 groups and fed a basal diet free from antibiotics (control group) or the same basal diet further supplemented with either chlortetracycline (antibiotic group) or COS, for 21 days. Compared with the control group, inclusion of COS reduced the feed to gain ratio, the jejunal crypt depth, the plasma diamine oxidase activity, and the endotoxin concentration, as well as jejunal and ileal malondialdehyde contents, whereas increased duodenal villus height, duodenal and jejunal ratio of villus height to crypt depth, intestinal immunoglobulin G, and jejunal immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents were observed, with the values of these parameters being similar or better to that of the antibiotic group. Additionally, supplementation with COS enhanced the superoxide dismutase activity and IgM content of the duodenum and up-regulated the mRNA level of claudin three in the jejunum and ileum, when compared with the control and antibiotic groups. In conclusion, dietary COS inclusion (30 mg/kg), as an alternative to antibiotics, exerts beneficial effects on growth performance, intestinal morphology, barrier function, antioxidant capacity, and immunity in broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Does in Ovo Injection of Two Chicken Strains with Royal Jelly Impact Hatchability, Post-Hatch Growth Performance and Haematological and Immunological Parameters in Hatched Chicks?
Animals 2019, 9(8), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080486 - 25 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
The hypothesis of the present work was that the effects of in ovo injection may differ in different chicken strains. The influence of in ovo royal jelly (RJ) injection on hatching, growth and blood parameters in two chicken strains (Dokki-4 and El-Salam as [...] Read more.
The hypothesis of the present work was that the effects of in ovo injection may differ in different chicken strains. The influence of in ovo royal jelly (RJ) injection on hatching, growth and blood parameters in two chicken strains (Dokki-4 and El-Salam as example for different strains) was evaluated. A total of 1080 eggs were used. On the seventh day of incubation, the eggs were randomly allocated into six experimental groups in a 2 × 3 arrangement that included the two chicken strains and three concentrations of RJ (0, 0.25 and 0.5 mL RJ/egg). Injection with 0.5 mL RJ/egg improved hatchability compared to the other treatments. The El-Salam strain exhibited significantly higher body weight and body weight gain than the Dokki-4 strain. Injection with 0.5 mL RJ/egg significantly (p < 0.05) improved chicken body weight and daily weight gain compared to the control treatment. RJ injection decreased blood lipid profile parameters and the numbers of monocytes and eosinophils and increased total protein, globulin, haemoglobin (Hb) and lymphocyte levels compared to the control treatment. The Dokki-4 strain showed significantly higher antibody titres against avian influenza virus (AIV) (p < 0.05) and sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) (p < 0.0001) than the El-Salam strain and RJ injection enhanced antibody titres against AIV, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and SRBCs. Therefore, the Dokki-4 strain was superior to the El-Salam strain for the tested parameters and injection with 0.5 mL RJ/egg produced the best hatching parameters, growth performance and health-related traits. RJ in ovo injection was much more effective in the Dokki-4 strain than in the El-Salam strain, which supported the hypothesis of the study that varying the chicken strain could alter the response to the in ovo injection with RJ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dietary Xylanase and Arabinofuranosidase Combination on the Growth Performance, Lipid Peroxidation, Blood Constituents, and Immune Response of Broilers Fed Low-Energy Diets
Animals 2019, 9(7), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9070467 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1544
Abstract
The present study was conducted to examine that impact of dietary xylanase (Xyl) and arabinofuranosidase (Abf) supplementation on the performance, protein and fat digestibility, the lipid peroxidation, the plasma biochemical traits, and the immune response of broilers. A total of 480, un-sexed, and [...] Read more.
The present study was conducted to examine that impact of dietary xylanase (Xyl) and arabinofuranosidase (Abf) supplementation on the performance, protein and fat digestibility, the lipid peroxidation, the plasma biochemical traits, and the immune response of broilers. A total of 480, un-sexed, and one-day-old broilers (Ross 308) were randomly divided into three treatments with eight replicates, where chicks in the first treatment were fed basal diets and served as the control, chicks in the second treatment were fed diets formulated with reductions of 90 kcal/kg, and chicks in the third treatment were fed the same formulated diets used in the second group as well as the Xyl and Abf combination (Rovabio® Advance). Feed intake was decreased by the low energy diet, leading to an enhancement in feed efficiency enzyme supplementation in the low energy diet (p < 0.015). Both protein and fat digestibility were improved (p < 0.047) due to enzyme supplementation. Moreover, enzyme supplementation increased muscle total lipids content and decreased muscle thiobarbituric acid retroactive substance content. Furthermore, diets supplemented with Xyl and Abf exhibited an increase in antibody titers against the Newcastle disease virus (p < 0.026). In addition, enzyme supplementation increased gene expression related to growth and gene expression related to fatty acid synthesis. It could be concluded that dietary Xyl and Abf supplementation had beneficial impacts on growth, nutrient digestibility, lipid peroxidation, immune response, and gene expressions related to growth and fatty acid synthesis in broiler chickens fed low-energy diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Graded Levels of Metabolizable Energy on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Slow-Growing Yellow-Feathered Male Chickens
Animals 2019, 9(7), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9070461 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
A dose-response study was conducted to investigate the metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for Lingnan chickens from 9 to 15 weeks of age. One thousand two hundred 8-week-old slow-growing yellow-feathered male chickens were allotted to five dietary ME levels (2805, 2897, 2997, 3095 and [...] Read more.
A dose-response study was conducted to investigate the metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for Lingnan chickens from 9 to 15 weeks of age. One thousand two hundred 8-week-old slow-growing yellow-feathered male chickens were allotted to five dietary ME levels (2805, 2897, 2997, 3095 and 3236 kcal/kg). The results revealed that the daily metabolizable energy intake increased (p < 0.01), whereas the feed intake and feed:gain ratio decreased linearly (p < 0.01) with the increment in dietary ME level. The final body weight and daily gain of the highest ME treatment tended (p > 0.05) to be greater than those obtained with the lower ME levels. The fat content in breast muscle showed a quadratic response (p < 0.05) to the increase in dietary energy level. The shear force values of breast muscle in the 2897, 3095 and 3236 kcal/kg treatments were lower (p < 0.05) than those of the 2997 kcal/kg treatment. In conclusion, among the tested ME levels, 3095 kcal/kg was adequate for feed intake, shear force, and plasma uric acid, and 3236 kcal/kg tended to increase the body weight, body gain, and feed conversion ratio of Lingnan males between 9 and 15 weeks of age; further studies are still required for testing higher levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of L-Carnitine and Excess Lysine-Methionine on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Immunity Markers of Broiler Chicken
Animals 2019, 9(6), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9060362 - 16 Jun 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1616 | Correction
Abstract
L-carnitine as well as lysine and methionine are amino acids of important nutritional and nutraceutical interest and are used in nutritional strategies as dietary supplements to improve feed quality characteristics in animals and broiler chicken in particular. This study investigated the effect of [...] Read more.
L-carnitine as well as lysine and methionine are amino acids of important nutritional and nutraceutical interest and are used in nutritional strategies as dietary supplements to improve feed quality characteristics in animals and broiler chicken in particular. This study investigated the effect of different levels of L-carnitine and extra levels of lysine-methionine on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and some immune system markers. Two hundred seventy male Ross 308 broilers were a fed control diet (C) and eight different diets supplemented with an excess of amino acids. In the experimental diets, identified as D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7, and D8, extra L-carnitine, lysine, and methionine were added in excess with respect to the American National Research Council (NRC) recommendations: L-carnitine equal to NRC (D1), control diet supplemented with lysine at 30% in excess of NRC, methionine at 30% in excess of NRC, and L-carnitine equal to NRC (D2), control diet supplemented with lysine equal to NRC, methionine equal to NRC, and L-carnitine at 15% in excess of NRC (D3), control diet supplemented control diet supplemented with lysine at 15% in excess of NRC, methionine at 15% in excess of NRC, and L-carnitine at 15% in excess of NRC (D4), control diet supplemented lysine at 30% in excess of NRC, methionine at 30% in excess of NRC, and L-carnitine at 15% in excess of NRC (D5), control diet supplemented with lysine equal to NRC recommendations, methionine equal to NRC recommendations, and L-carnitine at 75% in excess of NRC (D6), control diet supplemented with lysine at 15% in excess of NRC, methionine at 15% in excess of NRC, and L-carnitine at 75% in excess of NRC (D7), and control diet supplemented with lysine at 30% in excess of NRC, methionine at 30% in excess of NRC, and L-carnitine at 75% in excess of NRC (D8). During the starter and growth phases, feed intake was not affected by dietary treatment (p > 0.05). By contrast, body weight and FCR were both affected (p < 0.001) during the starter period. During the finisher phase, feed consumption was affected (p < 0.05) by dietary treatment. Feed intake of broilers fed on C, D3, D6, and D7 were statistically similar (p > 0.05) (1851.90, 1862.00, 1945.10, and 1872.80 g/pen/day, respectively) and were higher (p < 0.05) than 1564.40 g/pen/day (D5). With the exception of drumsticks, neck, back thoracic vertebrae, and proventriculus weights, the economical carcass segments were not affected (p > 0.05) by the dietary supplementation of amino acids. Duodenum and ileum weights and lengths decreased with amino acid supplementation (p < 0.05). IgT and IgG titers against Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBC) for both primary and secondary responses were not affected by dietary treatments (p > 0.05). Dietary amino acids supplementation did not affect IgM titer after the secondary challenge (p > 0.05) and had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on serum antibody titers in broilers vaccinated against Newcastle disease (NCD) and Gumboro ‘s disease at the 27th and 30th days, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of In Ovo Injection of L-Arginine in Different Chicken Embryonic Development Stages on Post-Hatchability, Immune Response, and Myo-D and Myogenin Proteins
Animals 2019, 9(6), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9060357 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1519
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in ovo injection with different ratios of L-arginine (L-Arg) into Ross broiler eggs at three different embryonic developmental stages (eighth day (d), 14th day, and 18th day) on the survival, hatchability, and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in ovo injection with different ratios of L-arginine (L-Arg) into Ross broiler eggs at three different embryonic developmental stages (eighth day (d), 14th day, and 18th day) on the survival, hatchability, and body weight (BW) of one-day-old hatched chicks. Additionally, we have analyzed the levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), the protein expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs), and we have also determined micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormality (NA). In addition, the genotoxic effect was observed in peripheral blood cells such as the presence of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in the experimental groups. The results showed that survival and hatching rates as well as body weight were increased on the 14th day of incubation compared to the eighth and 18th day of incubation at lower concentrations of L-Arg. Moreover, the levels of SGOT and SGPT were also significantly (p < 0.05) increased on the 14th day of incubation at the same concentration (100 μg/μL/egg) of injection. In addition, immunoglobulin (IgM) levels were increased on the 14th day of incubation compared to other days. The protein expressions of HSP-47, HSP-60, and HSP-70 in the liver were significantly down-regulated, whereas the expression of myogenin and myoblast determination protein (MyoD) were significantly up-regulated on the 14th day after incubation when treated with all different doses such as 100 μg, 1000 μg, and 2500 μg/μL/egg, namely 3T1, 3T2, and 3T3, respectively. However, the treatment with low doses of L-Arg down-regulated the expression levels of those proteins on the 14th day of incubation. Histopathology of the liver by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining showed that the majority of liver damage, specifically intracytoplasmic vacuoles, were observed in the 3T1, 3T2, and 3T3 groups. The minimum dose of 100 μg/mL/egg on the 14th day of incubation significantly prevented intracytoplasmic vacuole damages. These results demonstrate that in ovo administration of L-Arg at (100 μg/μL/egg) may be an effective method to increase chick BW, hatch rate, muscle growth-related proteins, and promote the immune response through increasing IgM on the 14th day of the incubation period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Dietary Modulation of Selenium Form and Level on Performance, Tissue Retention, Quality of Frozen Stored Meat and Gene Expression of Antioxidant Status in Ross Broiler Chickens
Animals 2019, 9(6), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9060342 - 11 Jun 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
This study compares between different selenium forms (sodium selenite; SeS, selenomethionine; Met-Se or nano-Se) and levels on growth performance, Se retention, antioxidative potential of fresh and frozen meat, and genes related to oxidative stress in Ross broilers. Birds (n = 450) were randomly [...] Read more.
This study compares between different selenium forms (sodium selenite; SeS, selenomethionine; Met-Se or nano-Se) and levels on growth performance, Se retention, antioxidative potential of fresh and frozen meat, and genes related to oxidative stress in Ross broilers. Birds (n = 450) were randomly divided into nine experimental groups with five replicates in each and were fed diets supplemented with 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 mg Se/kg as (SeS, Met-Se), or nano-Se. For overall growth performance, dietary inclusion of Met-Se or nano-Se significantly increased (p < 0.05) body weight gain and improved the feed conversion ratio of Ross broiler chicks at the level of 0.45 and 0.6 mg/kg when compared with the group fed the same level of SeS. Se sources and levels significantly affected (p < 0.05) its concentrations in breast muscle, liver, and serum. Moreover, Se retention in muscle was higher (p < 0.05) after feeding of broiler chicks on a diet supplemented with Met-Se or nano-Se compared to the SeS group, especially at 0.6 mg/kg. Additionally, higher dietary levels from Met-Se or nano-Se significantly reduced oxidative changes in breast and thigh meat in the fresh state and after a four-week storage period and increased muscular pH after 24 h of slaughter. Also, broiler’s meat in the Met-Se and nano-Se groups showed cooking loss and lower drip compared to the SeS group (p < 0.05). In the liver, the mRNA expression levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were elevated by increasing dietary Se levels from Met-Se and nano-Se groups up to 0.6 mg/kg when compared with SeS. Therefore, dietary supplementation with 0.6 mg/kg Met-Se and nano-Se improved growth performance and were more efficiently retained than with SeS. Both sources of selenium (Met-Se and nano-Se) downregulated the oxidation processes of meat during the first four weeks of frozen storage, especially in thigh meat, compared with an inorganic source. Finally, dietary supplementation of Met-Se and nano-Se produced acceptable Se levels in chicken meat offered for consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Whole-Life or Fattening Period Only Broiler Feeding Strategies Achieve Similar Levels of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enrichment Using the DHA-Rich Protist, Aurantiochytrium limacinum
Animals 2019, 9(6), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9060327 - 06 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1377
Abstract
The fatty acid composition of broiler chicken tissues can be increased by adding omega-3 rich ingredients to their diets. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of tissue enrichment observed following the supplementation of broilers with the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich [...] Read more.
The fatty acid composition of broiler chicken tissues can be increased by adding omega-3 rich ingredients to their diets. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of tissue enrichment observed following the supplementation of broilers with the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich protist, Aurantiochytrium limacinum (AURA) for their whole life (42 days) or for the final 21-day fattening period. Day-old chicks (n = 350) were distributed among 35 pens (10 birds per pen) with each pen randomly assigned to one of five treatments: Control; 0.5% AURA from day 0–42; 1% AURA from day 0–42; 0.5% AURA from day 21–42; 1% AURA from day 21–42. Production parameters were recorded over the course of the study and the fatty acid profile of the breast, thigh, liver, kidney and skin with adhering fat was quantified at the end of the feeding period. The level of supplementation had a significant impact on the degree of omega-3 tissue enrichment, however, no differences were observed when the same dose was provided for 21 or 42 days. These results indicate that supplementation with AURA for a period of 21 days does not negatively affect broiler productivity and is the most efficient strategy to increase the nutritional value of broiler products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Intestinal Morphology in Broiler Chickens Supplemented with Propolis and Bee Pollen
Animals 2019, 9(6), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9060301 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1526
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of dietary supplementation with propolis and bee pollen on the intestinal morphology and absorptive surface areas of chickens. Two hundred day-old Ross 308 chickens (100 male and 100 female) were equally allocated into [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of dietary supplementation with propolis and bee pollen on the intestinal morphology and absorptive surface areas of chickens. Two hundred day-old Ross 308 chickens (100 male and 100 female) were equally allocated into five groups. Throughout the whole study, the control group of chickens was fed with a basal diet, while the experimental groups of chickens were fed with the same diet supplemented with propolis and bee pollen: P1 = 0.25 g of propolis/kg + 20 g of bee pollen/kg; P2 = 0.5 g of propolis/kg; P3 = 1.0 g of propolis/kg; P4 = 20 g of bee pollen/kg. The duodenal villi of chickens from all experimental groups were significantly higher and wider (p < 0.001), while their duodenal villi crypts were significantly deeper (p < 0.001) in comparison with these parameters in chickens from the control group. The villus height to crypt depth ratio, as well as the absorptive surface areas of broiler chickens, were significantly increased (p < 0.001) in experimental groups of chickens in comparison with the control group. These findings suggest that dietary supplementation with propolis and bee pollen has a beneficial effect on broilers chickens’ intestinal morphophysiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Assessment of Residual Feed Intake and Its Relevant Measurements in Two Varieties of Japanese Quails (Coturnixcoturnix japonica) under High Environmental Temperature
Animals 2019, 9(6), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9060299 - 30 May 2019
Viewed by 1045
Abstract
Three hundred and ten 12-week-old laying Japanese quails (Coturnixcoturnix japonica) from gray and white varieties (155 each) were randomly selected from the initial population and kept in individual battery cages. The measurements of growth and egg production were determined to derive [...] Read more.
Three hundred and ten 12-week-old laying Japanese quails (Coturnixcoturnix japonica) from gray and white varieties (155 each) were randomly selected from the initial population and kept in individual battery cages. The measurements of growth and egg production were determined to derive residual feed intake (RFI). The relationship between RFI and egg quality, blood parameters, and carcass characteristics was also determined. The results indicated that the gray quails had significantly higher egg mass and lower broken eggs compared to the white quails. A significant increase of eggshell strength and shell percentage was found in eggs produced from gray quails compared to their white counterparts, although their shell thickness means weresimilar. The results of multiple regression analysis clearly identified a significant effect of metabolic body weight and egg mass for the computation of expected feed intake, rather than body weight gain, in both varieties of Japanese quails. A strong positive correlation between RFI and feed intake in both gray and white quail varieties was found. The same trend was also observed for feed conversion ratio (FCR). Therefore, including RFI in the selection criteria of Japanese quails in order to improve FCR under high environmental temperature is highly recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Phytase Supplementation to Diets with or without Zinc Addition on Growth Performance and Zinc Utilization of White Pekin Ducks
Animals 2019, 9(5), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050280 - 25 May 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1061
Abstract
The effect of phytase and inorganic Zn supplementation was studied in 180 male White Pekin ducks (WPD) from 1 to 56 days of age. The birds were divided into four groups fed the same basal diet (containing 26 ppm of Zn from raw [...] Read more.
The effect of phytase and inorganic Zn supplementation was studied in 180 male White Pekin ducks (WPD) from 1 to 56 days of age. The birds were divided into four groups fed the same basal diet (containing 26 ppm of Zn from raw materials): the control group did not receive Zn supplementation; the second group was supplemented with 30 ppm of Zn oxide; and the third and fourth groups were fed the control and the 30 ppm diets, respectively, both supplemented with 500 U of E. coli phytase. Each group contained five replicates of nine ducks. The body weight and feed intake were recorded at 1, 28 and 56 days of age. At 56 days of age, five birds/group were used to measure feed digestibility and five other birds/group were slaughtered. Zn at 30 ppm increased the body weight gain (BWG, p < 0.01) and feed intake (p < 0.05) and improved the feed conversion (FCR, p < 0.05) of the growing ducks. The Zn retention and Zn level in the excreta increased (p < 0.01) due to Zn supplementation. The addition of phytase improved BWG (p < 0.01) and FCR (p < 0.05) of growing ducks. The use of phytase reduced (p < 0.01) the level of Zn in duck excreta. Phytase supplementation to the basal diet at 30 ppm seems to be adequate to meet Zn requirements for ducks without further Zn additions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Soybean Isoflavones on Growth Performance, Immune Function, and Viral Protein 5 mRNA Expression in Broiler Chickens Challenged with Infectious Bursal Disease Virus
Animals 2019, 9(5), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050247 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
A total of 200 one-day-old male broilers were assigned to five groups, and each group consisted of four replicates with 10 birds per replicate. Chicks were fed the basal diet with 0 (non-infected control), 0 (infected control), 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg soybean [...] Read more.
A total of 200 one-day-old male broilers were assigned to five groups, and each group consisted of four replicates with 10 birds per replicate. Chicks were fed the basal diet with 0 (non-infected control), 0 (infected control), 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg soybean isoflavones (SI) for 42 days. At 21 days of age, chickens were inoculated with an infectious bursal dose (causing 50% morbidity) of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) BC 6/85 strain by the eye-drop and nasal route (except for the non-infected group). Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased (p < 0.05) in broilers infected with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) from 22 to 42 days. However, infected broilers fed 10 and 20 mg SI/kg had the maximum (p <0.05) ADG and ADFI from 1 to 42 days. Body weight (BW) increased (p < 0.05) in infected broilers fed the 10 and 20 mg SI /kg diet. The bursa weight at 7 days post-infection (dpi) was increased (p < 0.05) by the supplemental 10 mg SI/kg diet. Infected broilers showed the highest (p < 0.05) bursa lesions, with an average score of 4.0 ± 0.0, while the severity of bursa lesions was decreased (p < 0.05) at 3 dpi and 7 dpi by the supplemental 20 mg SI/kg diet. Supplemental SI at 20 mg/kg decreased (p < 0.05) the viral protein 5 (VP5) mRNA expression at 3 dpi and 7 dpi. The level of interferon gamma (IFNγ) was elevated (p < 0.05) in the infected group at 3 dpi and 7 dpi as compared with the control group, while its level was decreased (p < 0.05) by supplemental 10 mg/kg SI at 3 dpi. The level of nuclear factor κB in the bursal tissue showed the lowest value (p < 0.05) with supplemental 10 and 20 mg SI/kg diet at 7 dpi. Supplemental 10, 20, 40 mg/kg SI improved (p < 0.05) the serum total antioxidant activity (T-AOC) in infected broilers at 3 dpi. In addition, the serum level of malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased (p < 0.05) in the group fed 20 mg/kg SI at 7 dpi. In conclusion, supplemental 10~20 mg/kg SI may have a positive effect on broiler chickens infected with IBDV, probably because SI decrease the severity of bursa lesions and viral protein 5 mRNA expression, and have strong antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Ameliorative Effect of Bacillus subtilis on Growth Performance and Intestinal Architecture in Broiler Infected with Salmonella
Animals 2019, 9(4), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040190 - 23 Apr 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1415
Abstract
A total of 600 day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) confirmed for the absence of Salmonella were randomly allocated to five treatments each with 10 replicates: negative control (basal diet only); positive control (basal diet) + infected with Salmonella; T1, Salmonella infected + [...] Read more.
A total of 600 day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) confirmed for the absence of Salmonella were randomly allocated to five treatments each with 10 replicates: negative control (basal diet only); positive control (basal diet) + infected with Salmonella; T1, Salmonella infected + avilamycin; T2, Salmonella infected + Bacillus subtilis (ATCC PTA-6737; 2 × 107 CFU/g) and T3, Salmonella infected + B. subtilis (DSM 172999; 1.2 × 106 CFU/g). The results revealed that feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) were significantly (p < 0.01) lower in T1 compared to T2. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly (p < 0.01) lower in T2 and T3 compared to other treatments. Similarly, the performance efficiency factor (PEF) was also significantly (p < 0.01) higher in T2 and T3 compared to positive control. Villus height was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in T2 compared to all other treatments. However, villus width and surface area were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in T1. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with B. subtilis improved growth and intestinal health by reversing the negative effects of Salmonellosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Dietary Supplementation of a Formulation Containing Ascorbic Acid and a Solid Dispersion of Curcumin with Boric Acid against Salmonella Enteritidis and Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens
Animals 2019, 9(4), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040184 - 22 Apr 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1582
Abstract
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of the prophylactic or therapeutic administration of a 0.1% mixture containing ascorbic acid and a solid dispersion of curcumin with polyvinylpyrrolidone and boric acid (AA-CUR/PVP-BA) against Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) in broiler chickens. [...] Read more.
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of the prophylactic or therapeutic administration of a 0.1% mixture containing ascorbic acid and a solid dispersion of curcumin with polyvinylpyrrolidone and boric acid (AA-CUR/PVP-BA) against Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) in broiler chickens. A third experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of the dietary administration of 0.1% AA-CUR/PVP-BA in a necrotic enteritis (NE) model in broiler chickens. The prophylactic administration of 0.1% AA-CUR/PVP-BA significantly decreased S. Enteritidis colonization in cecal tonsils (CT) when compared to the positive control group (PC, p < 0.05). The therapeutic administration of 0.1% AA-CUR/PVP-BA significantly reduced the concentration of S. Enteritidis by 2.05 and 2.71 log in crop and CT, respectively, when compared with the PC on day 10 post-S. Enteritidis challenge. Furthermore, the serum FITC-d concentration and total intestinal IgA levels were also significantly lower in chickens that received 0.1% AA-CUR/PVP-BA. Contrary, the PC group showed significantly higher total intestinal IgA levels compared to the negative control or AA-CUR/PVP-BA groups in the NE model. However, 0.1% AA-CUR/PVP-BA showed a better effect in reducing the concentration of S. Enteritidis when compared to the NE model. Further studies with higher concentration of AA-CUR/PVP-BA into the feed to extend these preliminary results are currently being evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
Activity and Anti-Aflatoxigenic Effect of Indigenously Characterized Probiotic Lactobacilli against Aspergillus flavus—A Common Poultry Feed Contaminant
Animals 2019, 9(4), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040166 - 15 Apr 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1281
Abstract
Aflatoxin contamination in human food and animal feed is a threat to public safety. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) can be especially damaging to poultry production and consequently economic development of Pakistan. The present study assessed the in vitro binding of AFB1 by indigenously characterized [...] Read more.
Aflatoxin contamination in human food and animal feed is a threat to public safety. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) can be especially damaging to poultry production and consequently economic development of Pakistan. The present study assessed the in vitro binding of AFB1 by indigenously characterized probiotic lactobacilli. Six isolates (Lactobacillus gallinarum PDP 10, Lactobacillus reuetri FYP 38, Lactobacillus fermentum PDP 24, Lactobacillus gallinarum PL 53, Lactobacillus paracasei PL 120, and Lactobacillus gallinarum PL 149) were tested for activity against toxigenic Aspergillus flavus W-7.1 (AFB1 producer) by well diffusion assay. Only three isolates (PL 53, PL 120, and PL 149) had activity against A. flavus W-7.1. The ameliorative effect of these probiotic isolates on AFB1 production was determined by co-culturing fungus with lactobacilli for 12 days, followed by aflatoxin quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro AFB1 binding capacities of lactobacilli were determined by their incubation with a standard amount of AFB1 in phosphate buffer saline at 37 °C for 2 h. AFB1 binding capacities of isolates ranged from 28–65%. Four isolates (PDP 10, PDP 24, PL 120, and PL 149) also ceased aflatoxin production completely, whereas PL 53 showed 55% reduction in AFB1 production as compared to control. The present study demonstrated Lactobacillus gallinarum PL 149 to be an effective candidate AFB1 binding agent against Aspergillus flavus. These findings further support the binding ability of lactic acid bacteria for dietary contaminants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Genus Allium as Poultry Feed Additive: A Review
Animals 2019, 9(12), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121032 - 26 Nov 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1767
Abstract
The genus Allium, belonging to the family Amaryllidaceae has been known since ancient times for their therapeutic potentials. As the number of multi-drug resistant infections has increased due to in-feed antibiotic usage in poultry, the relevance of alliums as feed additives has [...] Read more.
The genus Allium, belonging to the family Amaryllidaceae has been known since ancient times for their therapeutic potentials. As the number of multi-drug resistant infections has increased due to in-feed antibiotic usage in poultry, the relevance of alliums as feed additives has been critically assessed. Garlic and the other Allium species, such as onions, leek, shallot, scallion, and chives, have been characterized to contain a plethora of bioactive compounds such as organosulfur compounds, polyphenols, saponins, fructans, and fructo-oligosaccharides. Consequently, alliums have been validated to confer antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, immunostimulatory, gut homeostasis, and lipid- as well as cholesterol-lowering properties in poultry. This review intends to summarize recent progress on the use of edible alliums as poultry feed additives, their beneficial effects, and the underlying mechanisms of their involvement in poultry nutrition. Perspectives for future research and limitations are also briefly discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Use of Medicinal Mushrooms in Layer Ration
Animals 2019, 9(12), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121014 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Application of different medicinal mushrooms intended to enhance production performance and health status has created an importance demand in poultry production. One goal of using medicinal mushrooms is to get rid of antibiotics in poultry feed without affecting the optimum performance. Increasing concerns [...] Read more.
Application of different medicinal mushrooms intended to enhance production performance and health status has created an importance demand in poultry production. One goal of using medicinal mushrooms is to get rid of antibiotics in poultry feed without affecting the optimum performance. Increasing concerns about this issue have led to more attention on antibiotic substitutes and a significant demand for them for organic egg production. Thus, supplementation with medicinal mushrooms is a new concept for research in layer production, however, there is still a great deal of confusion about inclusion levels and the mode of action of medicinal mushrooms on production performance and health status in laying hens. Taking this into account, this review outlines the experimental uses of medicinal fungi on the growth performance, laying performance, egg quality, and health status of layer birds based on previous findings to date. Finally, we highlight that supplementation with medicinal fungi can play a role on the immunity, health, and production performance in laying hens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids in Poultry Nutrition: Effect on Production Performance and Health
Animals 2019, 9(8), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080573 - 18 Aug 2019
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 3248
Abstract
Omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids are important components of cell membranes. They are essential for health and normal physiological functioning of humans. Not all fatty acids can be produced endogenously owing to the absence of certain desaturases; however, they are required [...] Read more.
Omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids are important components of cell membranes. They are essential for health and normal physiological functioning of humans. Not all fatty acids can be produced endogenously owing to the absence of certain desaturases; however, they are required in a ratio that is not naturally achieved by the standard diet of industrialized nations. Poultry products have become the primary source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), with one of the most effective solutions being to increase the accretion of PUFAs in chicken products via the adjustment of fatty acids in poultry diets. Several studies have reported the favorable effects of ω-3 PUFA on bone strength, bone mineral content and density, and semen quality. However, other studies concluded negative effects of LC-PUFA on meat quality and palatability, and acceptability by consumers. The present review discussed the practical application of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids in poultry diets, and studied the critical effects of these fatty acids on productive performance, blood biochemistry, immunity, carcass traits, bone traits, egg and meat quality, and semen quality in poultry. Future studies are required to determine how poultry products can be produced with higher contents of PUFAs and favorable fatty acid composition, at low cost and without negative effects on palatability and quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Open AccessReview
Use of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Herb as a Feed Additive in Poultry: Current Knowledge and Prospects
Animals 2019, 9(8), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080536 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 1877
Abstract
Supplementation of livestock and poultry diets with herbal plants containing bioactive components have shown promising reports as natural feed supplements. These additives are able to promote growth performance and improve feed efficiency, nutrient digestion, antioxidant status, immunological indices, and poultry health. Several studies [...] Read more.
Supplementation of livestock and poultry diets with herbal plants containing bioactive components have shown promising reports as natural feed supplements. These additives are able to promote growth performance and improve feed efficiency, nutrient digestion, antioxidant status, immunological indices, and poultry health. Several studies have used complex herbal formulas with the partial inclusion of licorice. However, the individual use of licorice has been rarely reported. The major problem of the poultry industry is the epidemiological diseases, mainly confined to the respiratory, digestive, and immune systems. Licorice has certain bioactive components such as flavonoids and glycyrrhizin. The roots of this herb contain 1 to 9% glycyrrhizin, which has many pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, antiviral, anti-infective and anti-inflammatory properties. Licorice extracts (LE) have a positive effect on the treatment of high-prevalence diseases such as the immune system, liver, and lung diseases. Studies showed that adding LE to drinking water (0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 g/L) reduced serum total cholesterol (p < 0.05) of broiler chickens. Moreover, LE supplementation in poultry diets plays a significant role in their productive performance by enhancing organ development and stimulating digestion and appetite. Along with its growth-promoting effects, licorice has detoxifying, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and other health benefits in poultry. This review describes the beneficial applications and recent aspects of the Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) herb, including its chemical composition and role in safeguarding poultry health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Application of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) as Natural Feed Supplement in Poultry Diets
Animals 2019, 9(7), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9070431 - 09 Jul 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2565
Abstract
Application of natural herbs with a view to enhancing production performance and health status has created an important demand in poultry production. With the increasing concerns on this issue, greater attention paid to alternatives to antibiotics for organic meat and egg production has [...] Read more.
Application of natural herbs with a view to enhancing production performance and health status has created an important demand in poultry production. With the increasing concerns on this issue, greater attention paid to alternatives to antibiotics for organic meat and egg production has led to a great demand. This study was conducted with view to assessing the possible role of M. oleifera as a natural feed supplement in poultry ration. Various scientific findings and published research articles were considered concerning issues including the study background, objectives, major findings, and conclusions of the review. M oleifera is known as a miracle tree because of its wealthy resource of various nutrients with high biological values. M. oleifera has been used as a growth promoter, immune enhancer, antioxidant, and has a hypo-cholesterol effect on chickens. It has both nutritional and therapeutic values. However, there is still much confusion in past published articles involving the major roles of M. oleifera in production performance and health status of chickens. Taking this into account, the present study highlights an outline of the experimental uses of M. oleifera on growth performance, egg production performance, egg quality, and health status in broilers and laying hens justified with the past findings to the present. The knowledge gaps from the past studies are considered, and the feasibility of M. oleifera in poultry ration is suggested. The findings have motivated further study on M. oleifera to find out the most active ingredients and their optimal doses in both broiler and laying hen rations. Finally, the present study highlights that supplementation of M. oleifera may play a role in the immunity, sound health, and production performance in poultry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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Other

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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Ghoreyshi, S.M.; et al. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of L-Carnitine and Excess Lysine-Methionine on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Immunity Markers of Broiler Chicken. Animals 2019, 9, 362
Animals 2019, 9(9), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090608 - 26 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
The authors would like to make the following corrections to the published paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
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