Next Article in Journal
Combining Crude Glycerin with Chitosan Can Manipulate In Vitro Ruminal Efficiency and Inhibit Methane Synthesis
Next Article in Special Issue
Effect of Feed Additives as Alternatives to In-feed Antimicrobials on Production Performance and Intestinal Clostridium perfringens Counts in Broiler Chickens
Previous Article in Journal
Reestablishment of Social Hierarchies in Weaned Pigs after Mixing
Previous Article in Special Issue
Growth Performance of Broilers as Influenced by Different Levels and Sources of Methionine Plus Cysteine
Open AccessArticle

Dietary Betaine Improves Intestinal Barrier Function and Ameliorates the Impact of Heat Stress in Multiple Vital Organs as Measured by Evans Blue Dye in Broiler Chickens

1
Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville Victoria 3010, Australia
2
Feedworks Pty Ltd., Romsey, Victoria 3434, Australia
3
Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville Victoria 3010, Australia
4
Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, The University of Melbourne, Parkville Victoria 3010, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010038
Received: 27 November 2019 / Revised: 18 December 2019 / Accepted: 21 December 2019 / Published: 23 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
Heat stress alters the normal physiological status, compromising the function of organs such as the small intestine. However, evidence exists of a wider distribution of organ dysfunction, stemming from factors such as a reduction in blood flow due to redistribution to the skin for increased radiant heat loss to the environment. Simultaneously, assessing organ dysfunction at multiple locations presents technical difficulties, and hence studies are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this experiment was to determine the pattern of Evans Blue Dye distribution as a cost-effective indicator of organ dysfunction in HS chickens supplemented with betaine. The results showed that Evans Blue Dye concentration increased in the kidney and muscle during heat stress, while such concentration was reduced with betaine. Therefore, betaine could improve the broiler’s tolerance to heat stress, and Evans Blue Dye may be a useful tool for investigating the effects of heat stress on broiler organ dysfunction.
In a 2 × 2 factorial design, 60 male Ross-308 broilers were fed either a control or 1 g/kg betaine diet and housed under thermoneutral (TN) or heat stress (HS) conditions. Broilers were acclimated to diets for 1 week under TN (25 °C), then either kept at TN or HS, where the temperature increased 8 h/day at 33 °C and 16 h/day at 25 °C for up to 10 days. Respiration rate (RR) was measured at four time points, and on each of 1, 2, 3, 7 and 10 days of HS, 12 broilers were injected with 0.5 mg/kg of Evans Blue Dye (EBD) solution to quantify regional changes in tissue damage. Betaine was quantified in tissues, and ileal damage was assessed via morphometry and transepithelial resistance (TER). Heat stress elevated RR (p < 0.001) and resulted in reduced villous height (p = 0.009) and TER (p < 0.001), while dietary betaine lowered RR during HS (p < 0.001), increased betaine distribution into tissues, and improved ileal villous height (p < 0.001) and TER (p = 0.006). Heat stress increased EBD in the muscle and kidney of chickens fed the control diet but not in those receiving betaine. Overall, these data indicate that supplemented betaine is distributed to vital organs and the gastrointestinal tract, where it is associated with improved tolerance of HS. Furthermore, EBD markers help reveal the effects of HS on organs dysfunction. View Full-Text
Keywords: heat stress; betaine; Evans blue dye; physiological responses; broiler chickens heat stress; betaine; Evans blue dye; physiological responses; broiler chickens
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Shakeri, M.; Cottrell, J.J.; Wilkinson, S.; Zhao, W.; Le, H.H.; McQuade, R.; Furness, J.B.; Dunshea, F.R. Dietary Betaine Improves Intestinal Barrier Function and Ameliorates the Impact of Heat Stress in Multiple Vital Organs as Measured by Evans Blue Dye in Broiler Chickens. Animals 2020, 10, 38. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010038

AMA Style

Shakeri M, Cottrell JJ, Wilkinson S, Zhao W, Le HH, McQuade R, Furness JB, Dunshea FR. Dietary Betaine Improves Intestinal Barrier Function and Ameliorates the Impact of Heat Stress in Multiple Vital Organs as Measured by Evans Blue Dye in Broiler Chickens. Animals. 2020; 10(1):38. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010038

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shakeri, Majid; Cottrell, Jeremy J.; Wilkinson, Stuart; Zhao, Weicheng; Le, Hieu H.; McQuade, Rachel; Furness, John B.; Dunshea, Frank R. 2020. "Dietary Betaine Improves Intestinal Barrier Function and Ameliorates the Impact of Heat Stress in Multiple Vital Organs as Measured by Evans Blue Dye in Broiler Chickens" Animals 10, no. 1: 38. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010038

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop