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Review

Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids in Poultry Nutrition: Effect on Production Performance and Health

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Department of Poultry, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
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Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum 63514, Egypt
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Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
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Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Edfina 22758, Egypt
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Department of Animal Husbandry and Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Behira, Rasheed, Edfina 22758, Egypt
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Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Sciences, UP Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalay Evum Go-Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura 281001, Uttar Pradesh, India
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Division of Veterinary Clinical Complex, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Jammu and Kashmir, Srinagar 190006, India
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Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263145, (Udham Singh Nagar), Uttarakhand, India
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ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Sirsa Road, Hisar 125 001, Haryana, India
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Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243122, Uttar Pradesh, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(8), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080573
Received: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 18 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Nutrition)
In this review, we discuss previous studies, state-of-the-art technology, and the potential implications of utilizing omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in poultry diets, as well as the application of these fatty acids in the poultry industry for improving poultry production and health. Essential roles are played by these fatty acids in development and metabolism, growth and productive performance, immune response and anti-oxidative properties, improving meat quality, bone growth and development, and improving fertility rates and semen quality.
Omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids are important components of cell membranes. They are essential for health and normal physiological functioning of humans. Not all fatty acids can be produced endogenously owing to the absence of certain desaturases; however, they are required in a ratio that is not naturally achieved by the standard diet of industrialized nations. Poultry products have become the primary source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), with one of the most effective solutions being to increase the accretion of PUFAs in chicken products via the adjustment of fatty acids in poultry diets. Several studies have reported the favorable effects of ω-3 PUFA on bone strength, bone mineral content and density, and semen quality. However, other studies concluded negative effects of LC-PUFA on meat quality and palatability, and acceptability by consumers. The present review discussed the practical application of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids in poultry diets, and studied the critical effects of these fatty acids on productive performance, blood biochemistry, immunity, carcass traits, bone traits, egg and meat quality, and semen quality in poultry. Future studies are required to determine how poultry products can be produced with higher contents of PUFAs and favorable fatty acid composition, at low cost and without negative effects on palatability and quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: omega-3; omega-6; fatty acid; nutrition; performance; antioxidant; egg and meat quality; fertility; immunity; health omega-3; omega-6; fatty acid; nutrition; performance; antioxidant; egg and meat quality; fertility; immunity; health
MDPI and ACS Style

Alagawany, M.; Elnesr, S.S.; Farag, M.R.; Abd El-Hack, M.E.; Khafaga, A.F.; Taha, A.E.; Tiwari, R.; Yatoo, M.I.; Bhatt, P.; Khurana, S.K.; Dhama, K. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids in Poultry Nutrition: Effect on Production Performance and Health. Animals 2019, 9, 573. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080573

AMA Style

Alagawany M, Elnesr SS, Farag MR, Abd El-Hack ME, Khafaga AF, Taha AE, Tiwari R, Yatoo MI, Bhatt P, Khurana SK, Dhama K. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids in Poultry Nutrition: Effect on Production Performance and Health. Animals. 2019; 9(8):573. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080573

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alagawany, Mahmoud, Shaaban S. Elnesr, Mayada R. Farag, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Asmaa F. Khafaga, Ayman E. Taha, Ruchi Tiwari, Mohd. I. Yatoo, Prakash Bhatt, Sandip K. Khurana, and Kuldeep Dhama. 2019. "Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids in Poultry Nutrition: Effect on Production Performance and Health" Animals 9, no. 8: 573. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080573

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