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Med. Sci. Forum, 2021, ECERPH-3

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Cover Story (view full-size image): This volume presents a collection of contributions that were made to the virtual event “The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Environmental Research and Public Health—Public Health Issues in [...] Read more.
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Abstract
Vitamin D and COVID-19: A PubMed-Based Overview of Reviews
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09051 - 11 Jan 2021
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Abstract
In recent years, the role of vitamin D in the immune system has been explored. In light of the global burden of COVID-19, this literature overview aims to understand whether vitamin D can be a useful integrative option for COVID-19 prevention. A PubMed-based [...] Read more.
In recent years, the role of vitamin D in the immune system has been explored. In light of the global burden of COVID-19, this literature overview aims to understand whether vitamin D can be a useful integrative option for COVID-19 prevention. A PubMed-based overview of reviews (date of search: 7 December 2020). After a database search, 305 articles were found, and 15 reviews were included in this study. From a mechanistic perspective, vitamin D may inactivate some viral compounds, reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines (NF-kB, IL-6, TNF), modulate ACE-2 and MMP-9 concentrations, and diminish the risk of endothelial dysfunction and bradykinin storm. In a meta-analysis, a positive association between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 severity was observed (OR = 1.64; 95% C.I.: [1.30; 2.09]), and other researchers suggested that this association may also involve an increased risk of infection. A preventive role was hypothesized even for diabetic, obese, or pediatric subjects. However, in most reviews, the evidence base was considered insufficient to draw definitive conclusions. In a broad meta-analysis, it was reported that administering 400–1000 IU/day of vitamin D for up to 12 months was significantly associated with some degree of protection against acute respiratory infections (OR = 0.70; 95% C.I.: [0.72; 0.93]). Some studies indicated that vitamin D serum concentrations of 20–30 ng/mL reduced the risk of acute respiratory infections, while others pointed out that higher levels (up to 40–60 ng/mL) may be preferable for this purpose. In conclusion, vitamin D supplementation may be useful for COVID-19, especially in individuals with low levels of this micronutrient. In fact, vitamin D deficiency is associated with worse disease severity and possibly with an increased risk of infection. Considering its high tolerability and low costs, further large clinical studies are advised to ascertain whether a standardized supplementation may be a valuable clinical strategy to apply on a large scale. Full article

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Proceeding Paper
Mobilizing Non-Traditional Public Health Partners to Mitigate the Effects of Coronavirus Infection and to Reduce the Risk of Emerging Disease
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09032 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 148
Abstract
Partnerships are a cornerstone of modern public health practice, yet in the face of the global COVID-19 pandemic, many traditional public health partners either floundered or lacked the resources to perform adequately. The public health community should begin looking at alternative pathways to [...] Read more.
Partnerships are a cornerstone of modern public health practice, yet in the face of the global COVID-19 pandemic, many traditional public health partners either floundered or lacked the resources to perform adequately. The public health community should begin looking at alternative pathways to fulfilling public health needs when traditional partners are not available. One such partner that has historically been overlooked in providing Public Health support, especially with interventional epidemiology and public health policy, is the advanced materials (AM) community. The AM community could play a larger role in public health practice by developing and implementing preventive measures for disease, including for global pandemics such as COVID-19. One such example of how this partnership could work is the Advanced Material Pandemic and Future Preparedness Taskforce (AMPT), which is an international public-benefit initiative focused on using advanced materials to help solve some of humanity’s most pressing challenges. As an international cooperative platform, the multidisciplinary taskforce is building a global infrastructure and an ecosystem network that enables the advanced material community to respond swiftly and effectively under the umbrella of future preparedness. Advanced materials have played and will continue to play some role in public health, including for use in diagnostic tests, antimicrobial coatings, and filtering facepiece respirators. Technology has advanced to a point where researchers and the manufacturers of advanced materials now have a clear direction and resources to be the partners that the public health community can no longer afford to overlook, especially in times of crisis, when new ways of thinking are required to solve pressing challenges. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Sanitary, Hygienic and Organizational Criteria for Reducing the Risk of COVID-19
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09042 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 216
Abstract
Novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) was identified in December 2019 in the People’s Republic of China, and it started emerging as an international healthcare emergency. The COVID-19 pandemic might represent the tip of the iceberg, and it is the responsibility of all public healthcare authorities [...] Read more.
Novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) was identified in December 2019 in the People’s Republic of China, and it started emerging as an international healthcare emergency. The COVID-19 pandemic might represent the tip of the iceberg, and it is the responsibility of all public healthcare authorities and experts to develop an adequate response using the right protocols and instruments to ensure public safety. As a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we proposed a set of approaches to prevent the risk of COVID-19: risk assessment criteria, a preventive action plan, an occupational classification system, and sanitary-hygienic principles. All these approaches are beneficial in developing policies and decisions for improving the performance and the outcomes of national and global public health authorities. The risk measurement scale (high risk, medium risk, and low risk) can be used to measure the risk magnitude of contracting coronavirus infection, and to classify occupations according to the coronavirus infectious risk. Furthermore, an essential strategy for reducing the coronavirus risk is introducing sanitary-hygienic principles (time protection, distance protection, and impact scale protection) and the preventive action plan (reconsidering architectural standards, designing and building modular hospitals and modular equipment, and preparing a professional workforce). Full article
Proceeding Paper
Non-Conformity to Social Distancing Rules Give Rise to Various COVID-19 Clusters in Malaysia
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-08990 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 259
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) can be transmitted via contact with affected individuals and social distancing is widely practiced as a public preventive measure to contain the disease. Social distancing implementation includes maintaining at least one-meter distance between every individual, avoiding mass gatherings and [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) can be transmitted via contact with affected individuals and social distancing is widely practiced as a public preventive measure to contain the disease. Social distancing implementation includes maintaining at least one-meter distance between every individual, avoiding mass gatherings and staying out of crowded places. To ensure successful implementation of social distancing, many countries including Malaysia have opted for Movement Control Order (MCO). Under MCO, mass assembly of cultural, religious, and social events are prohibited, education institutions, government, and public premises are closed and there are strict restrictions on leaving and entering the country. Here, we report on several clusters of COVID-19 cases in Malaysia that emerged due to non-conformity toward social distancing. Our report thus provides information for policy makers for designing a better pandemic response plan in the country. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Health State Valuation and Its Socio-Economic Factors: Online Samples from the U.S. and Canada
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09000 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 118
Abstract
This paper seeks to explore how people value the state of health and what socio-economic factors they might consider. I conducted an online experiment and a survey to elicit individuals’ decisions under hypothetical health states, which vary at three levels: mild, moderate, and [...] Read more.
This paper seeks to explore how people value the state of health and what socio-economic factors they might consider. I conducted an online experiment and a survey to elicit individuals’ decisions under hypothetical health states, which vary at three levels: mild, moderate, and severe. The socio-economic factors mainly include payment, personal financial situation, hospital service, support from their family, etc. The subjects were from two separate online pools of the United States and Canada, which have similar socio-economic backgrounds and different health care systems. This paper presents that subjects are sensitive to different levels of health states. In those who choose the risky medical treatment under the same health states, the Canadian participants are willing to accept a lower success probability. Among the socio-economic factors that are significant to this health-related decision, some factors are only significant in one country’s participants. For the American sample, it is “access to health insurance”, while for the Canadian sample, it is “disturbances in everyday family life”. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Management of Technostress in Teachers as Occupational Risk in the Context of COVID-19
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-08999 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 237
Abstract
The integration of new technologies in schools and high schools is linked to new problems with the use and management of ITC tools, such as technostress in teachers. Technostress is associated with several negative effects on workers’ health, such as anxiety, musculoskeletal disorders, [...] Read more.
The integration of new technologies in schools and high schools is linked to new problems with the use and management of ITC tools, such as technostress in teachers. Technostress is associated with several negative effects on workers’ health, such as anxiety, musculoskeletal disorders, headache, mental and physical fatigue. Due to the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic, the majority of schools closed, and face-to-face courses were replaced with online courses in a very short time. In these circumstances, several teachers were forced to increase their skills with ICT technology to accomplish their teaching objectives, and their technological workload was higher than at the beginning of the course. In the current research, the technostress of teachers was evaluated based on a validated questionnaire. Results pointed out that occupational risks linked to technostress were high during the pandemic period. Older teachers showed more vulnerability to the risk, because a lack of training and adaptation of some of the new tools for online courses, while women showed higher levels of anxiety and emotional tension. Prevention measures as specific training programs for ICT, rational use of ICT, and a more balanced distribution of work and family life at home should be developed to address the problem. Full article
Proceeding Paper
The Impacts of Green Space Structure on Asthma in Toronto, Canada
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09123 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 125
Abstract
A series of studies have proved that green space can influence air pollution, which is the main risk factor for asthma. In addition, the biodiversity hypothesis suggests use of green space can contribute to increasing human commensal microbiota on the skin, which makes [...] Read more.
A series of studies have proved that green space can influence air pollution, which is the main risk factor for asthma. In addition, the biodiversity hypothesis suggests use of green space can contribute to increasing human commensal microbiota on the skin, which makes it possible to enhance immunity to allergic atopy. Given that, the co-effects of green space might jointly influence asthma. However, existing studies mainly focus on one or part of the pathway between them, and most of them shed light on the influence of greenness or trees on asthma. Green space structure, capable to influence both air pollution and microbial diversity, is also probably a significant factor to influence asthma. Regarding this, this study takes Toronto as the case to explore two potential mechanisms that shape the impact of green space structure on asthma. Additionally, tree diversity that might moderate this impact was also examined in this study. By regression analysis, it is found that the impact of green space structure on the prevalence of asthma by reducing air pollution was not evident. Moreover, green space structure has no significant contribution to the prevalence of asthma, but when moderated by tree diversity, it has the potential to reduce the prevalence of male asthmatics, and such moderation effect only works on male asthmatics. Except for that, several covariates selected in this study were also found to correlate with the prevalence of asthma. In particular, the relationship between household income and the prevalence of asthma is only significant among female asthmatics. Full article
Proceeding Paper
The Role of Sex and Family Status in the Relationship between Exposure to Violence and Child-to-Parent Violence
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-08998 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 154
Abstract
The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship of exposure to violence and justification of violence with child-to-parent violence (CPV) towards father and mother. The sample comprised 748 high school students (413 male and 335 female), between 13 and 20 years [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship of exposure to violence and justification of violence with child-to-parent violence (CPV) towards father and mother. The sample comprised 748 high school students (413 male and 335 female), between 13 and 20 years old. The Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ) was employed to assess CPV. Exposure to violence in high school, at home, on the street and on television was assessed using the Violence Exposure Questionnaire (VEQ), whereas exposure to violence in video games was assessed through a questionnaire prepared by the authors. Justification of violence was analyzed using the Justification of Violence subscale of the Irrational Beliefs Scale for Adolescents (ECIA). Regarding violence towards mother, the results show that, in the case of female participants, there was a significant relationship with exposure to violence on the street and at home, and an inverse relationship with video games, as well as with violence justification, whereas in the case of male participants, there was a significant relationship with the same variables, except for violence in video games. Conversely, with regard to violence towards father, there was a significant relationship with violence at home and violence justification in the case of females, as well as with violence at home and on the street and violence justification in the case of male participants. With regard to the role of the type of family, in the case of non-divorced families, there was a significant relationship with exposure to violence on the street and at home, and an inverse relationship with video games, as well as with violence justification, whereas in the case of divorced families, the only significant variable was violence justification. Finally, with regard to violence towards father, there was a significant relationship with violence at high school, on the street and at home, along with violence justification in the case of non-divorced families, as well as violence on the street and violence justification in the case of divorced families. The present study shows the role of participant sex and family status in the relationship of exposure to violence and violence justification with CPV. These findings indicate the importance of taking into account those variables in preventing violence towards parents. Full article
Proceeding Paper
Preliminary Study on Associated Risk Factors of Mortality Due to COVID-19 Pandemic in Malaysia
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09022 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 393
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has claimed numerous lives worldwide. Malaysia documented about 118 mortalities during the second wave of the outbreak. This study aims to assess associated risk factors of the COVID-19 mortalities from 18 March until 22 May 2020. The majority of patients [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has claimed numerous lives worldwide. Malaysia documented about 118 mortalities during the second wave of the outbreak. This study aims to assess associated risk factors of the COVID-19 mortalities from 18 March until 22 May 2020. The majority of patients were above 60 years old (69.0%), male (78.0%), and Malaysian citizens (98.0%). The mean age of the mortalities was 64.01 years old (±SD 14.91 years). The major risk factors consist of hypertension (52.0%), diabetes mellitus (43.0%), cardiovascular diseases (21.0%), extra-pulmonary solid malignancies (5.0%), cerebrovascular diseases (3.0%), pulmonary diseases (1.0%) and pulmonary malignancies (1.0%). About 23.0% of mortalities were related to established clusters while 5.0% had a history of travelling overseas. The mean survival time was 11.87 days (±SD 9.32 days). Approximately 50.0% of the patients survived until day 10 post-admission. The probability of the patients surviving beyond 30 days post-admission was less than 10.0%. There is a significant difference between groups for having a shorter duration to death for risk factors including age group, history of travelling overseas, attending mass gatherings, and having pulmonary malignancies. The hazard ratio (HR) for pulmonary malignancy is 5.512 (95% CI 0.662, 45.899), mass gathering; 3.434 (95% CI 1.375, 8.579), pulmonary disease is 2.442 (95% CI 0.314, 18.983), travelling overseas; 2.251 (95% CI 0.657, 7.711), extra-pulmonary solid malignancy; 2.165 (95% CI 0.767, 6.112), and despite the significant result only applied for mass gathering (p-value = 0.008). COVID-19 screening should be mandatory for those who attend mass gatherings as they are the main source of COVID-19 spread in the community during the second wave outbreak in Malaysia. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Concern about the Effects of the Pandemic Caused by COVID-19 in the Retail Sector in Spain. Differences between Men and Women
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09035 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 187
Abstract
This study analyzed differences between men and women from a sample of retail workers in their perception of the effects that COVID-19 can have on the workplace. Participants (n = 467) answered an online survey including questions about sociodemographic data and perception [...] Read more.
This study analyzed differences between men and women from a sample of retail workers in their perception of the effects that COVID-19 can have on the workplace. Participants (n = 467) answered an online survey including questions about sociodemographic data and perception of COVID-19. We obtained data throughout October-December 2020. The results showed that participants exhibit deep concern about the COVID-19 pandemic and its influence at the work level. Both genders exhibited deep concern about the pandemic and about how the COVID-19 had affected them at the workplace. However, women have more uncertainty in their work. They have noticed more changes at the psychosomatic level, they are more afraid that their employment situation will be affected by the pandemic, and they consider that their situation will worsen. In conclusion, while the COVID-19 pandemic has similarly affected men and women in terms of their work, expectations about the future effects of the crisis caused by COVID-19 are worse for women than for men. Full article
Proceeding Paper
Mental Health and Resilience during the COVID-19 Pandemic among Spanish Residents: Do Age and Gender Matter? An Exploratory Study
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09045 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 120
Abstract
Since the WHO designated the COVID-19 outbreak as a global pandemic in March 2020, Spain is one of the top ten countries around the world with the highest number of infected people. The COVID-19 pandemic not only damages individuals’ physical but also psychological [...] Read more.
Since the WHO designated the COVID-19 outbreak as a global pandemic in March 2020, Spain is one of the top ten countries around the world with the highest number of infected people. The COVID-19 pandemic not only damages individuals’ physical but also psychological health, increasing the probability of developing mental health problems. The exposure of the population to the substantial psychosocial stress that the COVID-19 represents seems to lead them to experience lower feelings of life satisfaction and higher levels of state anxiety and death anxiety, especially among women, younger people and those with a lower resilience capacity. Despite their usefulness in intervention terms, data at this level on Spanish residents are still scarce. This study aims to explore the relations among age, gender, levels of resilience and mental health in a sample made up of 195 Spanish adults. It was conducted within three months from the state of alarm declared in Spain on 14 March 2020. Nonparametric tests conducted indicated that younger people experienced higher levels of death anxiety, and lower feelings of satisfaction with life. Moreover, younger women have less resilience. Taken as a whole, these findings suggest the importance of developing interventions that incorporate, especially among younger women, the strengthening of such a key personal resource as resilience capacity. Full article
Proceeding Paper
Towards Bayesian Evaluation of Seroprevalence Studies
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09006 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 132
Abstract
Bayes’ Theorem represents a mathematical formalization of the common sense. What we know about the world today is what we knew yesterday plus what the data told us. The lack of understanding of this concept is the source of many errors and wrong [...] Read more.
Bayes’ Theorem represents a mathematical formalization of the common sense. What we know about the world today is what we knew yesterday plus what the data told us. The lack of understanding of this concept is the source of many errors and wrong judgements in the current COVID-19 pandemic. In this contribution, we show how to use the framework of Bayesian inference to produce a reasonable estimate of seroprevalence from studies that use a single binary test. Bayes’ Theorem sometimes produces results that seem counter-intuitive at first sight. It is important to realize that the reality may be different from its image represented by test results. The extent to which these two worlds differ depends on the performance of the test (i.e., its sensitivity and specificity), and the prevalence of the tested condition. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Analysis of the Risk of Infection by COVID-19 Taking into Account the Social Determinants of Health in Bogotá between February and August 2020
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-08996 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 173
Abstract
This spatial epidemiology study was carried out to evaluate the risk of contracting COVID-19, taking into account the social determinants of health (SDH). The study demonstrated a strong relationship between the data from the model created in the risk analysis and the infections [...] Read more.
This spatial epidemiology study was carried out to evaluate the risk of contracting COVID-19, taking into account the social determinants of health (SDH). The study demonstrated a strong relationship between the data from the model created in the risk analysis and the infections that were locality registered during the months of February to August 2020. Kennedy, Bosa, and Engativá, were the suburbs that presented a higher risk of contagion of COVID-19 compared to the rest of the city. Although, for the study of Bogotá, the same variables and weights were considered for the estimation of risk, the study found that no area of the city was excluded from presenting the virus. However, the areas where there was a higher risk of contracting the virus depended on the characteristics of the local population, the number of reproductions of the virus by suburbs, and the applicable poverty rates. With the results obtained and the model implemented, it is possible to verify what was established in the 1990s, regarding the term syndemia, due to the synergy between the two diseases; in this case, COVID-19 and base comorbidities that are present in the population, added to the social determinants of health, which allow a holistic approach to the management and prevention measures against contagions, starting in the areas of extreme poverty. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Impact of COVID-19 Outbreak on the Level of Worry and Its Association to Modified Active Mobility Behaviour among Australian Children: A Cross-Sectional National Study
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09009 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 179
Abstract
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the physical health of children is limited. However, the changes in life behaviour imposed to contain its spread may have prolonged lifelong impact, particularly on vulnerable child populations. These potential harms can be mitigated, but require [...] Read more.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the physical health of children is limited. However, the changes in life behaviour imposed to contain its spread may have prolonged lifelong impact, particularly on vulnerable child populations. These potential harms can be mitigated, but require identification of those most at risk. This paper aims to analyze the spatial disparity of the impact COVID-19 outbreak placed on parents and their primary school-age children’s (grades 4–6) levels of worry. We conducted a national online survey sampling of parents and their children across five Australian states. Participants were recruited using social media for western Australia and a research company for the remaining states. Postal code, socio-demographics, exposures to COVID-19 cases, amount and frequency of following the news before and during the pandemic outbreak were captured. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate spatial statistical analyses were performed. Parents’ level of worry related to COVID-19 is significantly associated with parents’ amount and frequency of following COVID-19 news. It is critical to convey urgent information for public health awareness during health crises such as COVID-19. However, limiting the amount of exposure time towards unneeded media news may reduce population anxiety. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Managing Uncertainty in the Face of Certain Dangers
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09024 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 99
Abstract
We examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on a community-based research project. This clinical trial investigates whether increased neighborhood greenness lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases through reduction of air pollution. Facilitating the project involves considerable community engagement, and the project relies [...] Read more.
We examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on a community-based research project. This clinical trial investigates whether increased neighborhood greenness lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases through reduction of air pollution. Facilitating the project involves considerable community engagement, and the project relies on successful collaboration across a multidisciplinary team. As concerns surrounding SARS-CoV-2 increased, adjustments to our research were needed. When cases of COVID-19 escalated, clinical trials were halted. In this analysis, we employ a dialectical approach to examine the competing tensions evidenced in community work during the pandemic. From the vantage point of dialectical theory, competing feelings can occur simultaneously (such as concurrent experiences of dissatisfaction/satisfaction or need for progress/safety) and influence experience. This analysis considers the dialectical tensions created by the pandemic as well as the means of reconciling some tensions and wrestling with others. Full article
Proceeding Paper
Association between Air Pollutants and Cancer Incidence Rates in Japan: An Ecological Study
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09054 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 128
Abstract
We investigated the associations between the incidence rates of five typical cancer types and five air pollutants in 317 Japanese municipalities in 2017. We obtained the concentrations of the five air pollutants, i.e., sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitric dioxide [...] Read more.
We investigated the associations between the incidence rates of five typical cancer types and five air pollutants in 317 Japanese municipalities in 2017. We obtained the concentrations of the five air pollutants, i.e., sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitric dioxide (NO2), photochemical oxidants (Ox), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), from Japan’s National Institute for Environmental Studies and calculated the yearly mean of each. We identified patients of both sexes with the five most common cancers in Japan’s National Cancer Registry, which covers all cancer patients in the country. For males, we included prostate, stomach, colorectal, lung, and liver cancers. For females, we included breast, colorectal, lung, stomach, and uterine cancers. We calculated the Spearman’s correlation coefficients between 25 pairs of air-pollutant concentrations and the age-standardized incidence rate of the cancer types for each sex. We used Poisson regression models to examine the dose–response relationships. We identified 11 significantly positive correlation coefficients at the Bonferroni-corrected alpha level for the five pollutants for the five cancers in both sexes. We observed significantly positive dose–response relationships between NO2 and colorectal cancer and PM2.5 and lung cancer for both sexes. We also observed significant dose–response relationships between SO2 and PM2.5 and liver cancer for males and between NO and lung cancer and NO2 and breast cancer for females. We did not observe significant associations with prostate, stomach, or uterine cancer. Our findings support the concept that exposure to air pollutants increases cancer incidence rates. Full article
Proceeding Paper
Responses of Italian Public Hospitals to COVID-19 Pandemic: Analysis of Supply and Demand of Hospital ICU Beds
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09019 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 138
Abstract
This study aims to analyze the pressure on Italian public hospitals from the additional demand created by COVID-19. Starting from the analysis of regulatory interventions ordered by the central government in response to the emergency, this paper analyzes daily the trend of hospital [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze the pressure on Italian public hospitals from the additional demand created by COVID-19. Starting from the analysis of regulatory interventions ordered by the central government in response to the emergency, this paper analyzes daily the trend of hospital beds and admissions in intensive care units from March to November 2020. The results revealed a critical situation in the system for meeting demand, with numerous regions operating beyond their capacity, especially in the first wave of the pandemic. The study presents two relevant messages. First, it is necessary to slow the spread of COVID-19 in the Italian population allowing more time for the reorganization of the supply and relieve the pressure on the health system: a third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic would cause the collapse of the national health system. Another suggestion regards the regionalized organization of health services: the design may be adequate in situations of routine demand but faces important challenges during pandemics. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
COVID-19 Pandemic: Sanitary–Hygienic Aspects of Household Members’ Self-Isolation
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09044 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 125
Abstract
Self-isolation is a preventive measure that started in January 2020 as a response to the spread of COVID-19, and it has no precedents in human history. During this pandemic, governments forced billions of people to self-isolate for several months, and the sanitary–hygienic assessment [...] Read more.
Self-isolation is a preventive measure that started in January 2020 as a response to the spread of COVID-19, and it has no precedents in human history. During this pandemic, governments forced billions of people to self-isolate for several months, and the sanitary–hygienic assessment of self-isolation became an essential issue. We suggest a definition for sanitary–hygienic self-isolation and then develop methods for assessing how hygienic the isolation of the household members is. The Household Members’' Self-Isolation Index Point Score (HMSI) is determined based on the number of self-isolated household members, the coefficients of household members’ physical activity, the indoor area per household member, the time spent in fresh air, and the number of domestic conflicts during the household members’ self-isolation This is inversely proportional to the calorie intake. HMSI can identify if family household members' isolation is optimal, favorable, or unfavorable. In this paper, we determined an approach to assess the level of the functional reserves, and then we identified the leading health risk factors of the self-isolated household members. The sanitary–hygienic assessment of self-isolation can prevent cardiovascular, alimentary-dependent diseases and pathologies of the musculoskeletal system. Besides, self-isolation accompanies a decrease in physical activity and unbalanced nutrition. Full article
Proceeding Paper
Associations of Outdoor Activity, Screen Time with Body Weight: A Cross-Sectional Study of Chinese Preschool Children
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09036 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 88
Abstract
This study was conducted to explore the relationship between outdoor activity time, screen time and body weight of children. All the participants, 3–6 years of age (n = 1422), from four kindergartens in Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, were selected as the subjects [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to explore the relationship between outdoor activity time, screen time and body weight of children. All the participants, 3–6 years of age (n = 1422), from four kindergartens in Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, were selected as the subjects by random cluster sampling. Weight and height were measured. Total screen time, time of outdoor play were self-reported by parents in a questionnaire. We used the X2 test, t-test and logistic regression analysis to analyze the data. After adjusting the influencing factors such as children’s age, father’s education level and screen time, the risk of overweight and obesity was 1.734 times (95% CI: 1.178–2.552) higher for the children with outdoor activity time ≤ 2 h/d: 2.050 (95% CI: 1.252–3.357) for boys, 1.472 (95% CI: 0.785–2.761)—for girls. After adjusting the influencing factors such as children’s age, father’s education level and outdoor activity time, the risk of overweight and obesity in the children with screen time ≥ 1 h/d was 1.639 times (95% CI: 1.272–2.113) that in the children whose screen time was less than 1 h/d, including 1.474 times (95% CI: 1.057–2.057) higher for boys and 1.676 times (95% CI: 1.119–2.511) higher for girls. Thus, both long screen time and outdoor activity time were associated with the increase in the risk of overweight and obesity. Full article
Proceeding Paper
Relationship between Sensory Processing Sensitivity and Mental Health
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09064 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 247
Abstract
Sensory processing sensitivity, characterized by deeper cognitive, sensory and emotional information processing, has been previously related to several mental health problems. However, the studies are rare, and an integration of the obtained findings needs to be addressed. We conducted a systematic review of [...] Read more.
Sensory processing sensitivity, characterized by deeper cognitive, sensory and emotional information processing, has been previously related to several mental health problems. However, the studies are rare, and an integration of the obtained findings needs to be addressed. We conducted a systematic review of studies using scientific databases in order to integrate the available information about sensory processing sensitivity and its consequences in mental health. Thirteen studies were included and analyzed in the review. According to these studies, high levels of sensory processing sensitivity might be related to the appearance of several mental health disturbances, such as anxiety or depression. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Medical Professionals Require Curricula Support to Overcome Their Reluctance to Embrace Self-Directed Learning in Response to COVID-19
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-08986 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 160
Abstract
As a result of the 12 March 2020 lockdown of academic institutions in response to COVID-19, overnight, self-directed learning via online platforms became indispensable for all medical professionals. The curricula of medical professionals and research regarding adult learning recommend self-directed learning as the [...] Read more.
As a result of the 12 March 2020 lockdown of academic institutions in response to COVID-19, overnight, self-directed learning via online platforms became indispensable for all medical professionals. The curricula of medical professionals and research regarding adult learning recommend self-directed learning as the preferred method of learning. Yet medical professionals, especially medical students, have been reluctant to embrace self-directed learning for various reasons. Those who do adopt self-directed learning willingly have been found to have a passion for learning as well as a higher grade point average (GPA). One method for encouraging self-directed learning in medical professionals is the multi-disciplinary, online University of Toronto Health Narratives Research Group. The limitations regarding medical learning resulting from COVID-19 show no sign of abating. Therefore, medical professionals, especially medical students, would do well to participate in multi-disciplinary groups like the Health Narratives Research Group to encourage and enrich their ability to self-direct their learning. Furthermore, the curricula of medical programs should support their efforts to do so through providing opportunities to engage in such multi-disciplinary narrative research groups. Full article
Proceeding Paper
Virus-Laden Particles and Particulate Matter (Air Pollutants) with Viruses Attached: How Rumors That Air Pollutants Spread SARS-CoV-2 Are Born
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-08982 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 104
Abstract
Premature and unsubstantiated claims that SARS-CoV-2 coagulates (creates clusters) with outdoor particulate matter (PM10) in the air and that SARS-CoV-2 can be transported by air pollutants became widely circulated in the media and have been cited by some studies as fact. Although the [...] Read more.
Premature and unsubstantiated claims that SARS-CoV-2 coagulates (creates clusters) with outdoor particulate matter (PM10) in the air and that SARS-CoV-2 can be transported by air pollutants became widely circulated in the media and have been cited by some studies as fact. Although the presence of the markers of SARS-CoV-2 (viral fragments of coronavirus) in environmental samples is an important finding, the media and researchers should be cautious regarding the claim that SARS-CoV-2 can create clusters with outdoor PM10 in the air and spread via particulate air pollution, as this statement is currently only a hypothesis that lacks direct or indirect supporting evidence. Full article
Proceeding Paper
Elevated Heat Stroke Risk in Older Adults Indirectly Caused by COVID-19 Restrictions in a Provincial Prefecture of Japan
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09073 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 142
Abstract
Emergency transport data from Tottori Prefecture, Japan were used to evaluate the indirect impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) restrictions on heat stroke. There were 426 cases of emergency transport owing to heat stroke in summer 2020 compared with 1465 cases combined for [...] Read more.
Emergency transport data from Tottori Prefecture, Japan were used to evaluate the indirect impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) restrictions on heat stroke. There were 426 cases of emergency transport owing to heat stroke in summer 2020 compared with 1465 cases combined for the summers of 2017–2019. The mean age of cases in 2020 was 66.2 years—significantly higher than the 60.0 years in 2017 (p = 0.004), 57.4 years in 2018 (p < 0.001), and 57.6 years in 2019 (p < 0.001). In 2020, 47.7% of cases were older than 75 (previously, 35.6–44.2%), and 36.9% were transported from their residence, (previously, 26.6–29.3%). Thus, COVID-19 measures, such as “stay at home” requests, may have increased the risk of heat stroke in older adults. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Coworking Spaces: Threat or Opportunity to Face Crisis Situations
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09099 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 131
Abstract
A crisis situation such as the COVID-19 pandemic placed many workers at home and changed the minds of how business activities can be carried out. This paper analyses whether coworking spaces help us to work safely and overcome the problems derived from working [...] Read more.
A crisis situation such as the COVID-19 pandemic placed many workers at home and changed the minds of how business activities can be carried out. This paper analyses whether coworking spaces help us to work safely and overcome the problems derived from working at home. In-depth reviews of coworking websites were performed and interviews with key players and users are under process. Website analysis classified a series of measures in three categories: sanitization, working together with social distancing and new products and services. Nevertheless, a deeper analysis of the positive and negative impact of coworking spaces under this new scenario is needed. Full article
Proceeding Paper
Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among Health Care Personnel in Portugal
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09068 - 01 Jan 2021
Viewed by 152
Abstract
Health care personnel (HCP) might be highly exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study aims to determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among HCP in Portugal. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 1 June and 19 July 2020, following the first wave of COVID-19 in [...] Read more.
Health care personnel (HCP) might be highly exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study aims to determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among HCP in Portugal. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 1 June and 19 July 2020, following the first wave of COVID-19 in the country, with a convenience sample of HCP from different Portuguese health care units, geographically distributed at the national level. Diagnosis of COVID-19 was an exclusion criterion. HCP were tested for IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Data regarding participants’ demographic characteristics, medical history, COVID-19 symptoms, previous clinical testing for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) practices while caring for patients in areas with COVID-19 patients were also recorded. A total of 1802 HCP were screened (80.9% women), of which 55 (3.1%) had positive test results for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Factors such as geographical distribution (p = 0.002), profession (p = 0.018), having had a family member with COVID-19 (p < 0.001) and having had contact with family members with COVID-19 (p = 0.003) were found to be associated with infection. Adjusting for gender, age group, regional health administration and size of the household, health care assistants have an increased risk of having a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result in comparison to nurses. Understanding the prevalence of and factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCP is important for developing effective strategies to protect them and their patients. Full article
Proceeding Paper
Remotely Delivered Mind–Body Physical Activity Improves Physical Function in Older Adults
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09095 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 61
Abstract
A pilot trial of remotely delivered mind–body physical activity was carried out in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants performed twice weekly one-hour sessions of the program for eight weeks, with sessions delivered using Zoom. Physical function was evaluated using the Short [...] Read more.
A pilot trial of remotely delivered mind–body physical activity was carried out in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants performed twice weekly one-hour sessions of the program for eight weeks, with sessions delivered using Zoom. Physical function was evaluated using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), with the individual components of balance, gait speed and the Five-times Sit-To-Stand (5STS) also compared. A significant improvement was noted in 5STS performance for the experimental group (n = 10) of 4.1 s (d = 2.0; 95% CI: 0.8, 3.2). There were no significant differences for balance, gait speed or total SPPB score. Future work is needed to determine whether remotely delivered physical activities could be a feasible alternative to face-to-face sessions for older people with limited mobility. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
The Changing of Physical Activities during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Do Indonesian People Exercise More?
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09090 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 149
Abstract
Exercise, a subcategory of physical activity, has been proven to have significant health benefits for people. The COVID-19 pandemic, however, has limited people physical activities by restricting outdoor activities. This study aims to analyze how COVID-19 influences people’s exercise habits. Using an online [...] Read more.
Exercise, a subcategory of physical activity, has been proven to have significant health benefits for people. The COVID-19 pandemic, however, has limited people physical activities by restricting outdoor activities. This study aims to analyze how COVID-19 influences people’s exercise habits. Using an online survey, we obtained data from 320 Indonesians who are currently exercising. The result shows the good effect of COVID-19 on people’s exercise habits. Almost half of the participants who already exercise before COVID-19 pandemic increase their intensity and performance, one of four participants decreased their performance, while one of three participants did not change their exercise behavior. Moreover, COVID-19 pandemic also provided good effect on people’s exercise since 1 of 5 participants who did not exercise before started exercising during the COVID-19 pandemic. Maintaining immune system function becomes the main reason people exercise intensively or even start making this habit. The COVID-19 pandemic can be a good momentum to promote exercising as a part of a healthy lifestyle. However, health protocols to prevent coronavirus spread must be strengthened. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Coronavirus (COVID-19): What Could Be the Environmental Effects of Disinfectant Use in the Pandemic?
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-08981 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 139
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the wide use of different disinfectants to reduce the spread of the virus in homes and public spaces. In particular, more chemical compounds are used in public places than they should be in order to control the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the wide use of different disinfectants to reduce the spread of the virus in homes and public spaces. In particular, more chemical compounds are used in public places than they should be in order to control the epidemic in many parts of the world. However, with this practice, human health, biological diversity, and water resources can be adversely affected. Therefore, the possible effects of chemicals used for cleaning and hygiene purposes should be evaluated in an integrated manner. The chemicals effective in deactivating the virus and their possible environmental effects were explored in this article. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Overview of Air Quality in Konya during COVID-19 Lockdown Periods
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09083 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 64
Abstract
Turkey confirmed its first COVID-19 case on 11 March 2020 and confirmed COVID-19 cases surpassed >10,000 within two weeks. The Turkish government implemented restrictions including closure of businesses, travel restrictions, and age-based lockdowns as of late March 2020. To battle the ongoing surge [...] Read more.
Turkey confirmed its first COVID-19 case on 11 March 2020 and confirmed COVID-19 cases surpassed >10,000 within two weeks. The Turkish government implemented restrictions including closure of businesses, travel restrictions, and age-based lockdowns as of late March 2020. To battle the ongoing surge in cases, full weekend lockdowns were introduced at metropolitan cities between 11 April and 3 May 2020. As a result of these measures, community mobility in Turkey decreased more than 75%. In this study, air quality in the metropolitan city of Konya was assessed for PM10 and NO2 for 4-week periods from 6 April to 3 May in 2018–2020. Hourly concentrations of PM10 and NO2 were obtained from a National Air Quality Monitoring Network station, and concentrations of these pollutants for the 2020 period were compared with those for the same periods of 2018–2019. Significant declines were observed for PM10 and NO2 in the 2020 period compared with the 2018–2019 periods. The PM10 concentration declined by 55.7% in 2020, with an absolute decrease of 24.2 µg/m3. NO2 also declined significantly, with a 37.7% reduction and an absolute decrease of 11.1 µg/m3. Measures taken to battle the COVID-19 virus have decreased the airborne pollutant levels in many parts of the world. Control measures that can keep the air pollution at a sustainable low level need to be taken. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
The Impact of the Average Temperature, Humidity, Wind Speed, Altitude, and Population Density on Daily COVID-19 Infection Evolution
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09094 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 90
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of climate conditions, altitude, and population density on daily COVID-19 infection evolution. For an average wind speed of greater than 25 km/h, the number of daily COVID-19 infections slightly decreased with a rate [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of climate conditions, altitude, and population density on daily COVID-19 infection evolution. For an average wind speed of greater than 25 km/h, the number of daily COVID-19 infections slightly decreased with a rate of 10%, while the temperature, humidity and altitude factors did not affect its evolution. Furthermore, population density strongly affects its progression with an approximate rate of 90%. Finally, we propose a mathematical model to estimate the evolution of COVID-19 infections over time by simultaneously taking into consideration the wind speed and the population density effects. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Relationships among Student-Athletes’ Identity and Mental Health Condition—Survey in the COVID-19 Pandemic
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09074 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 53
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the degree of student athletes’ identity and mental health problems in Japanese intercollegiate student-athletes in the COVID-19 pandemic. This study clarifies the current state of mental problems of student-athletes in Japan. The [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the degree of student athletes’ identity and mental health problems in Japanese intercollegiate student-athletes in the COVID-19 pandemic. This study clarifies the current state of mental problems of student-athletes in Japan. The participants were 402 male student-athletes (Age M = 19.72 ± 1.37). The results of correlational analyses indicated that there were significant negative correlations between degree of student-athlete’s identity and depression and sports helplessness for senior grade student-athletes. In addition, as a result of dividing the degree of student-athlete’s identity into three groups and examining the relationship with mental problems, it demonstrated that student-athletes who have a stronger student-athlete identity showed a lower degree of depression and sports helplessness. Full article
Proceeding Paper
Quality of Life and Psychosocial Impact of the Lockdown Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic on Patients with Cancer: Results of a Preliminary Analysis
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09021 - 18 Apr 2022
Viewed by 130
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life and the psychosocial impact of the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer patients in Italy using a questionnaire aiming to detect the psychosocial impact of the lockdown. Among their [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life and the psychosocial impact of the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer patients in Italy using a questionnaire aiming to detect the psychosocial impact of the lockdown. Among their basic needs, psychological and medical support appeared to be prevalent followed by the need for safe transportation to reach the treatment facilities. Internet was their main source of information on the coronavirus. Although 72.7% of patients did not give up hospital therapies, 32.6% complained of variations in the continuity of the treatments. The majority of the sample (73.8%) was scared to be infected but 21.9% did not share their anxieties and worries with others. The multivariate regression analysis showed that a pessimistic perception of their quality of life was influenced by living in extra-urban areas and alone (OR 1.51), while the perception of reduced physical function resulted in a state of anxiety and stress (OR = 1.8) and difficulties in the continuity of medical assistance (OR = 1.3). Full article
Proceeding Paper
Water Global Health Benefit: The Water Footprint of the Dietary Patterns and the Acceptability of a 100% Plant-Based Diet
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09058 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 164
Abstract
Water is exhaustible but fundamental from the perspective of global health. Food choices seem to play a relevant impact on human water consumption. We assessed the water footprint of widespread dietary patterns, and we used a mix-methods approach. We administered an adapted version [...] Read more.
Water is exhaustible but fundamental from the perspective of global health. Food choices seem to play a relevant impact on human water consumption. We assessed the water footprint of widespread dietary patterns, and we used a mix-methods approach. We administered an adapted version of a 17-item questionnaire to a sample of young subjects, aiming to assess the level of acceptability of the diet that showed the lowest water consumption. The 100% plant-based diet was the winner, but its acceptability was weak. Our findings support the current evidence promoting adherence to a low or non-animal-based diet, which favors human and environmental health. Full article
Proceeding Paper
‘Going Outside for Fresh Air, Sunshine and Walking’: A Qualitative Analysis of US Older Adults’ Therapeutic Landscapes during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09088 - 25 Apr 2022
Viewed by 235
Abstract
Therapeutic engagement with nature can support health and wellbeing among older adults. This may be particularly important to cope with adversities of the COVID-19 pandemic when public health measures have been particularly stringent for individuals in this age group. Utilizing therapeutic landscapes as [...] Read more.
Therapeutic engagement with nature can support health and wellbeing among older adults. This may be particularly important to cope with adversities of the COVID-19 pandemic when public health measures have been particularly stringent for individuals in this age group. Utilizing therapeutic landscapes as a conceptual framework, we conducted a secondary thematic analysis of qualitative data to explore older adults’ everyday experiences (n = 769) with outdoor spaces and nature during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US. The data analyzed is part of the COVID-19 Coping Study baseline survey collected online between April and May 2020. Preliminary findings indicate that participants purposefully engaged with nature and outdoor spaces in diverse ways. This engagement provided opportunities for exercising and maintaining a routine at a safe physical distance from others, which promoted their physical, mental, and social well-being. Full article
Proceeding Paper
Relationships between Mothers’ Food- and Physical Activity- Related Habits and Level of Preschoolers’ Food Literacy and Motor Skills in Disadvantaged Urban Areas: The Training-to-Health Project
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09008 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 53
Abstract
Objectives. The practice of physical activity (PA) and correct food choices since pre-school age can help in obesity prevention and that of other chronic disorders. In this process, mothers have an important role, but the relationship with their children’s lifestyle is still unclear [...] Read more.
Objectives. The practice of physical activity (PA) and correct food choices since pre-school age can help in obesity prevention and that of other chronic disorders. In this process, mothers have an important role, but the relationship with their children’s lifestyle is still unclear in disadvantaged areas. The aim of this study is to explain the extent to which maternal food habits and PA level predict food-related aspects and PA practice in preschoolers from disadvantaged urban areas. Methods. It is a cross-sectional study. A total of 79 dyads of mothers and children were recruited from kindergartens. A questionnaire was compiled by mothers to collect data on: family socio-demographic aspects; mothers’ and children’s dietary intake frequencies, PA/sedentariness, weight and height; mothers’ perception on children’s food intake, children’s food literacy (FL) and Quotient of Gross Motor Development (QGMD). Results. The following associations were discovered: mothers’ and children’s food habits (beta = 0.66, p < 0.001); mothers’ and children’s fruit/vegetables consumption (OR 16.2, 95% CI 4.68–59.77), and intake of the other items (sugar and carbonated drinks, confectioned sweet and savory snacks, ready meals, breakfast); mothers’ education or PA level and children’s FL (beta −0.25, p < 0.05; beta 0.25, p < 0.05, respectively); mothers’ PA or sedentariness and children’s QGMD (beta 0.26, p < 0.05; −0.21, p < 0.1, respectively); mothers’ BMI and food habits (beta −0.19, p < 0.05) and children’s BMI (beta 0.04, p < 0.05); education and food habits (beta −0.34, p < 0.05). Mothers did not correctly perceive their children’s BMI, PA practicing and food intake (p < 0.05). Conclusions. To delineate the global path of the relationships between mothers’ and children’s lifestyles in disadvantaged urban areas can be useful to planning effective interventions aimed to help children and families in maintaining their healthy habits which suddenly changed during COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
Proceeding Paper
Do Our Patients Really Need Telerehabilitation? Digital Physical Therapy for Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in the COVID-19 Pandemic
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09076 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 108
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic forced the reorganization of the multidisciplinary healthcare system for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Digital solutions seemed to be an optimal way for providing rehabilitation during this time. The aim of our study was to investigate whether it is possible to [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic forced the reorganization of the multidisciplinary healthcare system for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Digital solutions seemed to be an optimal way for providing rehabilitation during this time. The aim of our study was to investigate whether it is possible to conduct respiratory physical therapy with the use of telerehabilitation methods in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Methods: The study was conducted during the online conference ‘DMD—Let’s be together’ for Polish families with DMD. During the physical therapy panel, we showed the video with the instructions of respiratory exercises: glossopharyngeal breathing, positive inspiratory pressure, and positive expiratory pressure. All participants (n = 152) were asked to fill in the online survey evaluating the quality of the instructions, its acceptance, and understanding. Results: The survey was filled in by 31 (20.4%) participants; the mean age of the patients was 13.8, and 19 (61.3%) were ambulant. The video was displayed 127 times. The overall mean rating of the session was 4.77/5, and intelligibility was rated 4.74/5. Fourteen (45.2%) patients declared that they had performed the exercises by themselves or with their caregiver’s assistance; all caregivers declared that it is possible to perform the proposed exercises a few times a week or daily. Only two respondents replied to the invitation for an individual online session. Conclusions: The findings from the study show that respiratory telerehabilitation may be implemented in DMD patients; however, the interest in digital rehabilitation among caregivers of DMD boys in Poland is low. The reason for this situation requires further research. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
COVID-19 Pandemic in Brazil: Clinical Manifestation and Effect of Comorbidities on Outcomes of Hospitalized SARI Cases
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09070 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 41
Abstract
Hospitalized SARI cases of 2020 reported to the Ministry of Health of Brazil through the SIVEP Gripe system are subject to our analysis. They are classified as COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 and clinical manifestations and comorbidities are reported for each group. The time trend [...] Read more.
Hospitalized SARI cases of 2020 reported to the Ministry of Health of Brazil through the SIVEP Gripe system are subject to our analysis. They are classified as COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 and clinical manifestations and comorbidities are reported for each group. The time trend in the number of cases reported in 2020 is compared to the previous year and the performance of the PCR test is explored in each group. The proportion of death is reported among different subgroups of the patients by epidemiological week. Logistic and Poisson regression models are used to check the effect of comorbidities on clinical outcomes. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Pain and Psychotic-like Experiences in Young People Using Cannabis
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09056 - 01 Jun 2022
Viewed by 96
Abstract
Research has demonstrated that cannabis use is linked with a greater risk of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), particularly in young people. As many people use cannabis for the alleviation of pain, it is important to examine the impact that PLEs have on pain. This [...] Read more.
Research has demonstrated that cannabis use is linked with a greater risk of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), particularly in young people. As many people use cannabis for the alleviation of pain, it is important to examine the impact that PLEs have on pain. This is because the current literature finds that psychotic and schizophrenic disorders impact pain experience, and PLEs are subclinical positive symptoms of psychosis. There is limited research on the impact of PLEs on pain experience, particularly in cannabis users, and thus, the current study aims to address this gap in the literature. The study also examines whether childhood trauma and mental health problems contribute to the heightened risk of pain in cannabis users, and whether these relationships are moderated by PLEs. The current study was a cross-sectional design including young cannabis users aged 18–25 (n = 2630). Participants completed questionnaire measures of cannabis use, PLEs, self-reported pain, childhood trauma, anxiety, and depression. Logistic regression analyses revealed that young cannabis users experiencing more PLEs reported significantly higher pain. Additionally, experiencing a history of childhood trauma and depression were also found to result in higher pain in these cannabis users. Moderation analyses revealed that PLEs moderated the relationship between depression and pain; however, in contrast to our predictions, PLEs did not moderate the relationship between childhood trauma and pain. Anxiety did not significantly predict higher pain. The results of the current study have important implications for the use and legalisation of THC medically, and the social, emotional, and cognitive aspects of pain and cannabis use. We propose recommendations for mitigating the risk of PLEs associated with cannabis use in chronic pain patients who are medically prescribed THC for its analgesic effects and we include suggestions for future research. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Concerns over the Spread of Misinformation and Fake News on Social Media—Challenges Amid the Coronavirus Pandemic
Med. Sci. Forum 2021, 4(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECERPH-3-09078 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 50
Abstract
The unfolding pandemic of COVID-19, also known as coronavirus, has caused challenges across the globe. Shelter-in-place, lockdown, and social distancing policies increased the use of social media for societies to stay connected. This study investigated the psychological issues societies experienced using social media [...] Read more.
The unfolding pandemic of COVID-19, also known as coronavirus, has caused challenges across the globe. Shelter-in-place, lockdown, and social distancing policies increased the use of social media for societies to stay connected. This study investigated the psychological issues societies experienced using social media in the community during this critical period. Cross-sectional online surveys were used to collect qualitative data from 1991 respondents living in the UK, USA, and Australia during April–May 2020 when the shelter-in-place or stay-at-home policies were in place. The study found that the spread of misinformation and conspiracy theories caused psychosocial challenges and disconnections in the community. Full article
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