Next Issue
Volume 5, March
Previous Issue
Volume 4, September
 
 

Eng, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2023) – 30 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The article deals with the development of a compliance-based method for the determination of fatigue design curves for elastomeric adhesive joints. Fatigue experiments are conducted on elastomeric adhesives (a polyurethane and a silane-modified polymer) under different stress and conditions. The investigation focused on butt and thick adherent shear test joints. Fatigue tests are recorded with cameras to identify the stages of crack initiation and propagation. The results indicate that the proposed method can yield fatigue design curves with a high coefficient of determination (accuracy) and high failure ratio (avoiding over-conservative design). Moreover, the method is robust, as the failure ratios for different adhesives, stress ratios, conditions and geometries are highly consistent. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
13 pages, 1831 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Polyphenol Recovery of Overripe Banana Peel Extract Utilizing Cloud Point Extraction
by Vassilis Athanasiadis, Theodoros Chatzimitakos, Martha Mantiniotou, Dimitrios Kalompatsios, Eleni Bozinou and Stavros I. Lalas
Eng 2023, 4(4), 3026-3038; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040170 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Consuming fruits and vegetables necessitates discarding the inedible parts, which raises issues such as waste management and contamination of the environment. Numerous studies have been conducted in recent years in an effort to identify alternatives that reduce the negative effects of food and [...] Read more.
Consuming fruits and vegetables necessitates discarding the inedible parts, which raises issues such as waste management and contamination of the environment. Numerous studies have been conducted in recent years in an effort to identify alternatives that reduce the negative effects of food and agricultural waste. This study aims to investigate the polyphenol recovery and the antioxidant capacity of overripe banana peel through cloud point extraction (CPE), which is a green method. The optimal conditions of the CPE were three steps of CPE with 10% w/v lecithin, which was used as surfactant, pH 7, and a salt concentration of 15% at 45 °C for 20 min. The total polyphenol content (TPC) was determined to be 541.25 mg GAE/L, the total flavonoid content (TFC) was determined to be 226.38 mg RtE/L, and FRAP and DPPH assays were found to be 2.52 and 2.91 mmol AAE/L, respectively. According to the results, the antioxidant compounds from banana peels can effectively be extracted with the proposed CPE procedure. The as-prepared extracts can potentially be used as food additives to improve human well-being and even as feed additives for a similar purpose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical, Civil and Environmental Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3190 KiB  
Article
Retesting Schemes That Improve Test Quality and Yield Using a Test Guardband
by Chung-Huang Yeh and Jwu-E Chen
Eng 2023, 4(4), 3007-3025; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040169 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 883
Abstract
The digital integrated circuit (IC) testing model module is applied in this study to simulate the fabrication and testing of integrated circuits. The yield and quality of ICs are analyzed by assuming that the wafer devices under test conditions are normal probability distributions. [...] Read more.
The digital integrated circuit (IC) testing model module is applied in this study to simulate the fabrication and testing of integrated circuits. The yield and quality of ICs are analyzed by assuming that the wafer devices under test conditions are normal probability distributions. The difficulties of testing and verification become increasingly great as the design function of the chip becomes remarkably complex. Conversely, the automotive industry chip supply chain has been substantially affected since the COVID-19 outbreak. The shortage of chips in the auto-market has always existed; therefore, increasing available chips under a limited production capacity has become a top priority. Therefore, this study applies the digital integrated circuit testing model (DITM) and proposes a retest plan. This method does not require considerable time to collect large wafer data, nor does it require additional hardware equipment. Furthermore, the required test quality parameters are set, and the test is repeated on the device by adjusting the test guardband (TGB). Moreover, three retesting schemes are proposed to improve the IC test quality (Yq) and test yield (Yt) to meet the requirements of consumers for product quality. A set of 2021 IEEE International Roadmap for Devices and Systems (IRDS) parameters is used to demonstrate the three proposed retesting schemes. The simulation results from the 2021 IRDS data prove that the retest method can effectively improve the test yield (Yt). A comparison of the estimated results of the three retest methods shows that using the repeat test method can maximize the test yield without sacrificing the test quality (Yq). By contrast, repeat testing can indeed improve the test yield (Yt) by 14% or more. Moreover, the increase in sellable ICs not only increases additional earnings for corporations, but also alleviates the current global shortage of automotive ICs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 6117 KiB  
Article
Degradation Behavior of Glue-On Three-Dimensional Printed Plastic Horseshoes in Equine Stables
by Yuki Nakagawa, Kano Yoshida, Daisaku Kaneko and Shin-ichi Ikeda
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2991-3006; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040168 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 954
Abstract
Hoof and leg problems in racehorses can cause serious injuries and decrease their value. Although therapeutic shoeing using special horseshoes can increase the effectiveness of veterinary care, it is labor-intensive and burdensome for farriers. A three-dimensional (3D) printed horseshoe fabricated by additive manufacturing [...] Read more.
Hoof and leg problems in racehorses can cause serious injuries and decrease their value. Although therapeutic shoeing using special horseshoes can increase the effectiveness of veterinary care, it is labor-intensive and burdensome for farriers. A three-dimensional (3D) printed horseshoe fabricated by additive manufacturing has high design flexibility for use in special horseshoes. However, the mechanical properties of 3D printed plastics for use as horseshoes remain unclear. In this study, a proposed 3D printed plastic was subjected to degradation tests under the simulated equine growth environment, and changes in strength during the period of use were investigated. It was found that the strength of polylactic acid and polycarbonate, which are commonly used for 3D printing, was not significantly affected by the environment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4168 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of the Seismic Performance of an Innovative Type of Buckling-Restrained Brace (BRB)
by Ali Naghshineh, Oliver Fischer, Nasreen B. Pathan, Logan Couch and Fariborz M. Tehrani
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2978-2990; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040167 - 1 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1233
Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated that the inclusion of tire-derived aggregate (TDA) enhances the damping, ductility, and toughness of concrete mixtures. The effectiveness of tire-derived aggregate as a ductile material with a higher damping ratio and lower density in buckling-restrained braces has been examined [...] Read more.
Previous studies have demonstrated that the inclusion of tire-derived aggregate (TDA) enhances the damping, ductility, and toughness of concrete mixtures. The effectiveness of tire-derived aggregate as a ductile material with a higher damping ratio and lower density in buckling-restrained braces has been examined at California State University’s Structures Laboratory (CSU). Through experimental and theoretical investigations, this study compares the structural application of buckling-restrained braces with TDA and with conventional concrete infill subjected to various ground motions as well as artificial excitations. The evaluations include modeling a full-scale experimental setup equipped with a single-leg BRB utilizing ETABS 2016 and OpenSees 2000 software. The effectiveness of the application is demonstrated through a comparison of accelerations, displacements, stiffness, and damping ratios between TDA and concrete filling. Additionally, a design guideline for TDA-filled buckling-restrained braced frames is provided. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 10872 KiB  
Article
Visualization of Movement and Expansion of Coal Reaction Zone by Acoustic Emission Monitoring in Underground Coal Gasification System
by Rika Iriguchi, Yuma Ishii, Akihiro Hamanaka, Faqiang Su, Ken-ichi Itakura, Jun-ichi Kodama, Takashi Sasaoka, Hideki Shimada and Gota Deguchi
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2960-2977; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040166 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 784
Abstract
Underground coal gasification (UCG) is the process of directly recovering energy as combustible gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide by combusting unmined coal resources in situ. The UCG process is an invisible phenomenon, in which fracturing activity at high temperature (>1000 °C) [...] Read more.
Underground coal gasification (UCG) is the process of directly recovering energy as combustible gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide by combusting unmined coal resources in situ. The UCG process is an invisible phenomenon, in which fracturing activity at high temperature (>1000 °C) in coal seams expands the gasification zone and increases the combustible components of the product gas. However, excessive expansion of the gasification zone may cause environmental problems such as gas leakage, deformation of the surrounding ground, and groundwater pollution. Therefore, visualization of the gasification zone of UCG is required for both improving gasification efficiency and developing UCG systems with low environmental impact. In this study, the large-scale model UCG experiments conducted on a laboratory scale (size: 625 mm × 650 mm × 2792 mm (H × W × L)) were carried out to discuss the visualization of the gasification reaction zone of coal in UCG by Acoustic Emission (AE) technique with uniaxial and triaxial acceleration transducers. As the results of temperature monitoring and AE source location analysis show, AE sources are located near the high-temperature zone (>1000 °C). In addition, the located AE sources move and expand with the movement and expansion of the high-temperature zone. AE measurement can be a useful technique for monitoring the progress of the UCG reaction zone. AE measurement with triaxial sensors is also useful to predict a high-temperature zone though the measurable range, which has to be considered. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1069 KiB  
Article
Modeling Requirements for Collaborative Robotic Services
by Oscar Stiven Morales Zapata, Yaney Gomez Correa, Leopoldo Rideki Yoshioka and Jose Reinaldo Silva
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2941-2959; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040165 - 21 Nov 2023
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Collaborative robots have experienced low acceptance in applications, especially in industry. This fact has attracted the attention of researchers and practitioners, who point to different causes for this limited acceptance. One of the main reasons is the difficulty in converging on suitable methods [...] Read more.
Collaborative robots have experienced low acceptance in applications, especially in industry. This fact has attracted the attention of researchers and practitioners, who point to different causes for this limited acceptance. One of the main reasons is the difficulty in converging on suitable methods for modeling collaborative interactions between robots and their surrounding context during the requirements phase. These interactions must be elicited and modeled during the requirements stage to maximize value creation through collaboration. Formal verification is necessary, taking into account the risks of human-robot interaction. However, such modeling is often absent in collaborative robot design, and choosing an appropriate approach remains an open problem. This paper addresses this problem using a model-based requirements cycle where the value creation is detached to provide direct analysis, possible optimization, and formal verification. The general process integrates with the general model-based requirements engineering of the remaining system. This service system approach relies on a goal-oriented requirements approach, and specific algorithms were developed to transfer goal-oriented diagrams into Petri Nets—to provide formal process verification. A case study illustrates the application of the proposed method on a collaborative robot used in a university hospital environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1544 KiB  
Article
Activity Concentration Index Values for Concrete Multistory Residences in Greece Due to Fly Ash Addition in Cement
by Stamatia Gavela and Georgios Papadakos
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2926-2940; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040164 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1156
Abstract
According to 2013/59/Euratom Directive, the activity concentration index (ACI) is required to be estimated for each building material that is of concern from a radiation protection point of view. This index applies to building materials and not to constituents that cannot [...] Read more.
According to 2013/59/Euratom Directive, the activity concentration index (ACI) is required to be estimated for each building material that is of concern from a radiation protection point of view. This index applies to building materials and not to constituents that cannot be used as building materials themselves. Fly ash is a byproduct of coal-fired power plants and is one of the main constituents of cement. The radioactivity in fly ash that is produced by Greek lignite power plants cannot be considered insignificant. For example, in the case of the Megalopolis power plant, the concentration for radioisotopes of the 226Ra chain is found to be about 1 kBq/kg. Since natural radionuclide concentrations, which are harmful to human health in terms of radiation exposure, exist in fly ash, ACI should be assessed for building materials containing fly ash. The present study evaluates the ACI of concrete containing fly ash cement when used in multistory residential buildings. Results showed that cement produced in Greece by the three main Greek cement production plants, containing lignite fly ash, and used as a material for concrete multistory constructions, should not be considered as “of concern from a radiation protection point of view”. Each country that wishes to evaluate the use of fly ash into constructions should repeat the method for the ACI uncertainty budget proposed in this study, to assess whether it significantly exceeds the reference value (whether it is of concern from a radiation protection point of view). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 7774 KiB  
Review
Snap-Off during Imbibition in Porous Media: Mechanisms, Influencing Factors, and Impacts
by Guihe Li and Jia Yao
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2896-2925; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040163 - 17 Nov 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1452
Abstract
The phenomenon of snap-off during imbibition in porous media, a fundamental two-phase fluid flow phenomenon, plays a crucial role in both crude oil production and carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization and storage. In porous media where two phases coexist, the instability of [...] Read more.
The phenomenon of snap-off during imbibition in porous media, a fundamental two-phase fluid flow phenomenon, plays a crucial role in both crude oil production and carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization and storage. In porous media where two phases coexist, the instability of the phase interface may give rise to various displacement phenomena, including pore–body filling, piston-like displacement, and snap-off. Snap-off, characterized by the generation of discrete liquid droplets or gas bubbles, assumes paramount significance. This study provides a comprehensive overview of snap-off mechanisms, influencing factors, and impacts. Snap-off initiation arises from variations in the curvature radius at the interface between two phases within narrow regions, primarily influenced by capillary pressure. It can be influenced by factors such as the characteristics of multiphase fluids, the wettability of porous media, as well as the pore–throat geometry and topology within porous media. In turn, snap-off exerts a discernible influence on the fluid dynamics within the porous medium, resulting in impacts that encompass unrecoverable oil droplet formation, the oil bridging effect, drainage–imbibition hysteresis, strong foam generation and transient/dynamic effects. Although the snap-off phenomenon exerts detrimental effects during the conventional waterflooding in oil production, its potential is harnessed for beneficial outcomes in CO2-EOR and CO2 storage. This study significantly advances our understanding of snap-off and its multifaceted roles in multiphase fluid dynamics, offering vital insights for the precise prediction of fluid flow behavior and strategic control. These valuable insights can serve as a theoretical foundation to guide our deliberate modulation of snap-off phenomena, aiming at optimizing oil-recovery processes and enhancing the safety and stability of CO2 storage. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2447 KiB  
Article
Perceptions of Construction Risks Due to Fast-Track Activity Overlapping
by Claudia Garrido Martins, Susan M. Bogus and Vanessa Valentin
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2879-2895; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040162 - 17 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Concurrent engineering through overlapping of activities (i.e., fast-tracking) has been used as a schedule acceleration technique. Fast-track construction projects are generally recognized as riskier and subject to risks arising due to the concurrency of work. This work reports the risk perception of construction [...] Read more.
Concurrent engineering through overlapping of activities (i.e., fast-tracking) has been used as a schedule acceleration technique. Fast-track construction projects are generally recognized as riskier and subject to risks arising due to the concurrency of work. This work reports the risk perception of construction professionals to three different degrees of overlapping. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect the data, and the analysis applied data transformation and descriptive statistics. The risks were mainly perceived in the middle degree of overlapping and in activities occurring earlier in the schedule. The low and high degrees of overlapping were mainly perceived as having no risk or not being feasible, respectively. The four risk types accounted for most of the perceived threats: construction error, design change, crew interference, and poor construction productivity. The findings of this study suggest that construction professionals perceive risks differently based on the amount of activity overlapping. It is consistent with previous studies that found that risks decrease as the project advances and that fast-track projects face additional risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical, Civil and Environmental Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 533 KiB  
Review
Remarks on Constitutive Modeling of Granular Materials
by Mehrdad Massoudi
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2856-2878; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040161 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 835
Abstract
In this paper, we provide a brief overview of certain fundamental concepts which can be used to derive constitutive relations for the stress tensor of granular materials. These include concepts such as dilatancy, cohesion, yield criterion, shear banding, etc. The focus will be [...] Read more.
In this paper, we provide a brief overview of certain fundamental concepts which can be used to derive constitutive relations for the stress tensor of granular materials. These include concepts such as dilatancy, cohesion, yield criterion, shear banding, etc. The focus will be on the constitutive relations which are used in the so-called ‘frictional flow’ or ‘slow flow’ regime as opposed to the rapid flow regime; in the slow flow regime the material is about to yield or has just yielded and the flow has been initiated. This type of flow occurs in the storage of grains, etc., in silos and bins or hoppers after the valves/gates are opened. The techniques of continuum mechanics are used to discuss constitutive relations where the effects of non-linearities such as yield stress, dilatancy, density gradients, etc., are important. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5301 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Design Methodology of Radial Flux Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
by Sergio I. Suriano-Sánchez, Mario Ponce-Silva, Víctor H. Olivares-Peregrino, Susana E. De León-Aldaco, Abraham Claudio-Sánchez and Claudia Cortés-García
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2840-2855; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040160 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 916
Abstract
Permanent magnet motors have become very important in recent years due to the popularization of electric vehicles in the context of the efforts to transition to zero-emission transportation. This has encouraged researchers and hobbyists to learn about electric motor design. However, designing electric [...] Read more.
Permanent magnet motors have become very important in recent years due to the popularization of electric vehicles in the context of the efforts to transition to zero-emission transportation. This has encouraged researchers and hobbyists to learn about electric motor design. However, designing electric motors is not a simple task, as the information to achieve it is not easily available to everyone and it is usually complicated to understand. For that reason, this paper presents the equations and a basic process to design radial flux surface-mounted PM synchronous motors. This design method is the result of combining and organizing information from previous publications to create a relatively simple design guide. The result is a table of equations and a series of general guidelines that were verified by designing and simulating a 500 W eight-pole 2.6 Nm average torque dual-rotor motor and a 20 W four-pole 106 mNm single-rotor motor. The simulations validated the equations and the design method presented in this paper to be used by those interested in the field of electric motors and vehicles; therefore, in the future, others may contribute with improvements, particularizations or optimizations of this methodology, or even create their own. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 9198 KiB  
Article
Study of the Synthesis Variables in the Preparation of CoAl2O4 Pigment Using Microwaves to Reduce Energetic Consumption
by Guillermo Paulo-Redondo and Isaac Nebot-Díaz
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2826-2839; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040159 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Due to the importance of optimizing the manufacture of ceramic pigments, motivated by the increase in prices of both raw materials and energy, and the need to control manufacturing parameters to obtain optimal conditions for the preparation of ceramic inks, two synthesis routes [...] Read more.
Due to the importance of optimizing the manufacture of ceramic pigments, motivated by the increase in prices of both raw materials and energy, and the need to control manufacturing parameters to obtain optimal conditions for the preparation of ceramic inks, two synthesis routes (traditional route and coprecipitation) and two calcination methods (traditional oven and microwave oven) are proposed to obtain the blue ceramic pigment CoAl2O4 with the aim of minimizing the use of mineralizers or flux agents and reducing energy consumption in its manufacturing. The pigments prepared were characterized by thermal analysis and structurally by XRD and SEM, with particle sizes below 300 nm observed. Finally, the colorimetric coordinates of glazed tiles with the pigments obtained were characterized. In all cases, the microwave-assisted synthesis increased the color intensity, considerably decreasing the temperature and calcination time, obtaining a particle size under 300 nm with a very narrow size distribution, and substantially improving the energy cost of its preparation and the color development of the final product. The viability of the combination of synthesis by coprecipitation and microwave calcination as a method of industrial preparation of ceramic pigments has been demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4719 KiB  
Article
The Effect of High-Energy Ball Milling of Montmorillonite for Adsorptive Removal of Cesium, Strontium, and Uranium Ions from Aqueous Solution
by Iryna Kovalchuk, Oleg Zakutevskyy, Volodymyr Sydorchuk, Olena Diyuk and Andrey Lakhnik
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2812-2825; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040158 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 895
Abstract
Clay minerals are widely used to treat groundwater and surface water containing radionuclides. In our study, the method of mechanochemical activation for increasing the sorption capacity of the natural clay mineral montmorillonite was used. By adjusting the grinding time, the increasing sorption parameters [...] Read more.
Clay minerals are widely used to treat groundwater and surface water containing radionuclides. In our study, the method of mechanochemical activation for increasing the sorption capacity of the natural clay mineral montmorillonite was used. By adjusting the grinding time, the increasing sorption parameters of mechanochemically activated montmorillonite were determined. X-ray diffraction method, scanning electron microscopy, and the determination of the specific surface by low-temperature adsorption–desorption of nitrogen to characterize the natural and mechanochemical-activated montmorillonites were used. It was established that the maximal sorption of uranium, strontium, and cesium is found for montmorillonite after mechanochemical treatment for 2 h. It is shown that the filling of the surface of montmorillonite with ions of different natures occurs in various ways during different times of mechanochemical treatment. The appropriateness of the Langmuir and Freundlich models for the sorption parameters of uranium, strontium, and cesium ions on montmorillonite after its mechanochemical activation was established. The effect of natural organic substances—humic acids—on the efficiency of water purification from uranium on mechanoactivated montmorillonite was studied. The obtained sorbents can be effectively used for the removal of trace amounts of radionuclides of different chemical natures (uranium, cesium, and strontium) from polluted surface and ground waters. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

48 pages, 15376 KiB  
Review
Review of Graphene-Based Materials for Tribological Engineering Applications
by Eduardo Tomanik, Wania Christinelli, Roberto M. Souza, Vanessa L. Oliveira, Fabio Ferreira and Boris Zhmud
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2764-2811; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040157 - 6 Nov 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2325
Abstract
Graphene-based materials have great potential for tribological applications. Graphene’s unique properties such as low shear resistance, high stiffness, and thermal conductivity make it an attractive material for improving the properties of lubricants in a wide range of industrial applications, from vehicles to house [...] Read more.
Graphene-based materials have great potential for tribological applications. Graphene’s unique properties such as low shear resistance, high stiffness, and thermal conductivity make it an attractive material for improving the properties of lubricants in a wide range of industrial applications, from vehicles to house refrigerators and industrial machinery such as gearboxes, large compressors, etc. The current review aims to give an engineering perspective, attributing more importance to commercially available graphene and fully formulated lubricants instead of laboratory-scaled produced graphene and base oils without additives. The use of lubricants with graphene-based additives has produced e.g., an increase in mechanical efficiency, consequently reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions by up to 20% for domestic refrigerators and up to 6% for ICE vehicles. Potential effects, other than purely friction reduction, contributing to such benefits are also briefly covered and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 5524 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning Study of the Effect of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of FFF PLA and PLA-CF
by Abdelhamid Ziadia, Mohamed Habibi and Sousso Kelouwani
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2741-2763; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040156 - 3 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1093
Abstract
Material extrusion is a popular additive manufacturing technology due to its low cost, wide market availability, ability to construct complex parts, safety, and cleanliness. However, optimizing the process parameters to obtain the best possible mechanical properties has not been extensively studied. This paper [...] Read more.
Material extrusion is a popular additive manufacturing technology due to its low cost, wide market availability, ability to construct complex parts, safety, and cleanliness. However, optimizing the process parameters to obtain the best possible mechanical properties has not been extensively studied. This paper aims to develop ensemble learning-based models to predict the ultimate tensile strength, Young’s modulus, and the strain at break of PLA and PLA-CF 3D-printed parts, using printing temperature, printing speed, and layer thickness as process parameters. Additionally, the study investigates the impact of process parameters and material selection on the mechanical properties of the printed parts and uses genetic algorithms for multi-objective optimization according to user specifications. The results indicate that process parameters and material selection significantly influence the mechanical properties of the printed parts. The ensemble learning predictive models yielded an R2 value of 91.75% for ultimate tensile strength, 94.08% for Young’s modulus, and 88.54% for strain at break. The genetic algorithm successfully identified optimal parameter values for the desired mechanical properties. For optimal ultimate tensile strength, PLA-CF was used at 222.28 °C, 0.261 mm layer, 40.30 mm/s speed, yielding 41.129 MPa. For Young’s modulus: 4423.63 MPa, PLA-CF, 200.01 °C, 0.388 mm layer, 40.38 mm/s. For strain at break: 2.249%, PLA, 200.34 °C, 0.390 mm layer, 45.30 mm/s. Moreover, this work is the first to model the process–structure property relationships for an additive manufacturing process and to use a multi-objective optimization approach for multiple mechanical properties, utilizing ensemble learning-based algorithms and genetic algorithms. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 8228 KiB  
Article
Pose Detection and Recurrent Neural Networks for Monitoring Littering Violations
by Nyayu Latifah Husni, Okta Felia, Abdurrahman, Ade Silvia Handayani, Rosi Pasarella, Akhmad Bastari, Marlina Sylvia, Wahyu Rahmaniar, Seyed Amin Hosseini Seno and Wahyu Caesarendra
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2722-2740; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040155 - 30 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
Infrastructure development requires various considerations to maintain its continuity. Some public facilities cannot survive due to human indifference and irresponsible actions. Unfortunately, the government has to spend a lot of money, effort, and time to repair the damage. One of the destructive behaviors [...] Read more.
Infrastructure development requires various considerations to maintain its continuity. Some public facilities cannot survive due to human indifference and irresponsible actions. Unfortunately, the government has to spend a lot of money, effort, and time to repair the damage. One of the destructive behaviors that can have an impact on infrastructure and environmental problems is littering. Therefore, this paper proposes a device as an alternative for catching littering rule violators. The proposed device can be used to monitor littering and provide warnings to help officers responsible for capturing the violators. In this innovation, the data obtained by the camera are sent to a mini-PC. The device will send warning information to a mobile phone when someone litters. Then, a speaker will turn on and issue a sound warning: “Do not litter”. The device uses pose detection and a recurrent neural network (RNN) to recognize a person’s activity. All activities can be monitored in a more distant place using IoT technology. In addition, this tool can also monitor environmental conditions and replace city guards to monitor the area. Thus, the municipality can save money and time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence and Data Science for Engineering Improvements)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 228 KiB  
Article
Finding the Age and Education Level of Bulgarian-Speaking Internet Users Using Keystroke Dynamics
by Denitsa Grunova and Ioannis Tsimperidis
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2711-2721; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040154 - 25 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 984
Abstract
The rapid development of information and communication technologies and the widespread use of the Internet has made it imperative to implement advanced user authentication methods based on the analysis of behavioural biometric data. In contrast to traditional authentication techniques, such as the simple [...] Read more.
The rapid development of information and communication technologies and the widespread use of the Internet has made it imperative to implement advanced user authentication methods based on the analysis of behavioural biometric data. In contrast to traditional authentication techniques, such as the simple use of passwords, these new methods face the challenge of authenticating users at more complex levels, even after the initial verification. This is particularly important as it helps to address risks such as the possibility of forgery and the disclosure of personal information to unauthorised individuals. In this study, the use of keystroke dynamics has been chosen as a biometric, which is the way a user uses the keyboard. Specifically, a number of Bulgarian-speaking users have been recorded during their daily keyboard use, and then a system has been implemented which, with the help of machine learning models, recognises certain acquired or intrinsic characteristics in order to reveal part of their identity. The results show that users can be categorised using keystroke dynamics, in terms of the age group they belong to and in terms of their educational level, with high accuracy rates, which is a strong indication for the creation of applications to enhance user security and facilitate their use of Internet services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence and Data Science for Engineering Improvements)
29 pages, 10104 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Multistage Fuel-Oxidation Chemistry, Soot Radiation, and Real Gas Properties on the Operation Process of Compression Ignition Engines
by Valentin Y. Basevich, Sergey M. Frolov, Vladislav S. Ivanov, Fedor S. Frolov and Ilya V. Semenov
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2682-2710; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040153 - 23 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 927
Abstract
The objectives of the study are to reveal the influence of multistage fuel-oxidation chemistry, thermal radiation of soot during the combustion of a small (submillimeter size) fuel droplet, and real gas effects on the operation process of compression ignition engines. The use of [...] Read more.
The objectives of the study are to reveal the influence of multistage fuel-oxidation chemistry, thermal radiation of soot during the combustion of a small (submillimeter size) fuel droplet, and real gas effects on the operation process of compression ignition engines. The use of the multistage oxidation chemistry of iso-octane in the zero-dimensional approximation reveals the appearance of different combinations of cool, blue, and hot flames at different compression ratios and provides a kinetic interpretation of these phenomena that affect the heat release function. Cool flames are caused by the decomposition of alkyl hydroperoxide, during which a very reactive radical, OH, is formed. Blue flames are caused by the decomposition of H2O2 with the formation of OH. Hot flames are caused by the chain branching reaction between atomic hydrogen and molecular oxygen with the formation of OH and O. So-called “double” cool flames correspond to the sequential appearance of a separated cool flame and a low-intensity blue flame rather than two successive cool flames. The use of a one-dimensional model of fuel droplet heating, evaporation, autoignition, and combustion at temperatures and pressures relevant to compression ignition engines shows that the thermal radiation of soot during the combustion of small (submillimeter size) droplets is insignificant and can be neglected. The use of real gas caloric and thermal equations of state of the matter in a three-dimensional simulation of the operation process in a diesel engine demonstrates the significant effect of real gas properties on the engine pressure diagram and on the NO and soot emissions: real gas effects reduce the maximum pressure and mass-averaged temperature in the combustion chamber by about 6 and 9%, respectively, increases the autoignition delay time by a 1.6 crank angle degree, increase the maximum heat release rate by 20%, and reduce the yields of NO and soot by a factor of 2 and 4, respectively. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 11831 KiB  
Article
Self-Directed Mobile Robot Navigation Based on Functional Firefly Algorithm (FFA)
by Bhumeshwar K. Patle, Brijesh Patel, Alok Jha and Sunil Kumar Kashyap
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2656-2681; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040152 - 18 Oct 2023
Viewed by 992
Abstract
This paper proposes an optimized mobile robot navigation strategy using a functional firefly algorithm (FFA) and choice function. This approach has two key advantages: first, the linear objective function performs efficiently with the single degree and finite-order polynomial time operation, and second, the [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an optimized mobile robot navigation strategy using a functional firefly algorithm (FFA) and choice function. This approach has two key advantages: first, the linear objective function performs efficiently with the single degree and finite-order polynomial time operation, and second, the cartesian constraint performs compactly with the chosen degree of freedom on the finite interval. This functional approach optimizes the size of operational parameters in context with key size, operation time, and a finite range of verification. The choice function achieves parameter order (size) reduction. The attraction characteristic of fireflies is represented by the choice function for optimizing the choice between low and high intensities of fireflies. In 2D and 3D environments, the proposed robot navigation performs well in an uncertain environment with static and dynamic obstacles. This efficiency includes the robot’s speed as determined by the choice function’s minimum path lengths. The collision-free path is achieved by the non-void family of non-void sets. The obtained results are optimal in terms of path length and navigational time. The proposed controller is also compared with the other existing controllers, and it is observed that the FFA gives the shortest path in less time for the same environmental condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2951 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Groundwater Contamination in the Southeastern Coast of Brazil: A Potential Threat to Human Health in Marica Municipality
by Maria Cristina M. Publio, Jessica F. Delgado, Bruno S. Pierri, Leonardo da S. Lima, Christine C. Gaylarde, José Antônio Baptista Neto, Charles V. Neves and Estefan M. Fonseca
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2640-2655; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040151 - 17 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1131
Abstract
Groundwater pollution is a current issue that may result in considerable negative effects on human health and the ecological balance. In the present study, the authors evaluated pollutants in groundwater in Maricá Municipality, located on the east side of Rio de Janeiro state [...] Read more.
Groundwater pollution is a current issue that may result in considerable negative effects on human health and the ecological balance. In the present study, the authors evaluated pollutants in groundwater in Maricá Municipality, located on the east side of Rio de Janeiro state in Brazil. The evaluated parameters were temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, Eh, dissolved oxygen, chlorides, nitrates, dissolved organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, phosphates, and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Due to the large number of evaluated points, they were divided into zones according to the respective hydrographic basin. The local accelerated urbanization accompanying income from oil production has led to uncontrolled population growth and associated groundwater pollution. The results of the present study suggest that sewage pollution of Maricá groundwater is already a significant issue. The lack of investment in basic sanitation has led to an imbalance in the local groundwater reservoir. In certain locations of the municipality, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nutrient, and bacteria concentrations increase and spread in the aquifers because of domestic waste disposal. As aquifers are the main source of freshwater for the residents, contamination of them represents a potential threat to local public health. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 27997 KiB  
Article
Compliance-Based Determination of Fatigue Design Curves for Elastomeric Adhesive Joints
by Pedro Henrique Evangelista Fernandes, Christof Nagel, Andreas Wulf, Vinicius Carrillo Beber and Bernd Mayer
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2615-2639; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040150 - 16 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 893
Abstract
A compliance-based method for the determination of fatigue design curves for elastomeric adhesive joints is developed and validated. Fatigue experiments are conducted on elastomeric adhesives (a polyurethane and a silane-modified polymer) under different stress ratios (R = 0.1/0.5/−1) and conditions (23 °C/50% r.h. [...] Read more.
A compliance-based method for the determination of fatigue design curves for elastomeric adhesive joints is developed and validated. Fatigue experiments are conducted on elastomeric adhesives (a polyurethane and a silane-modified polymer) under different stress ratios (R = 0.1/0.5/−1) and conditions (23 °C/50% r.h. and 40 °C/60% r.h.). The investigation focused on butt and thick adherent shear test joints. Fatigue tests are recorded with cameras to identify the stages of crack initiation and propagation. For each fatigue test, the stiffness and compliance per cycle are calculated until final failure. The proposed method identifies a transition point that distinguishes regions under stable and unstable compliance growth. Fatigue design curves are then built based on the transition point and on the number of cycles to reach different degrees of initial stiffness (90%, 80%, 70% and 60%). The failure ratio, i.e., the lifetime for reaching a given approach divided by the total lifetime, is introduced to evaluate the data in terms of average values and standard deviation. The results indicate that the proposed method can yield fatigue design curves with a high coefficient of determination (accuracy) and high failure ratio (avoiding over-conservative design). Moreover, the method is robust, as the failure ratio for different adhesives, stress ratios, conditions and geometries is highly consistent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue REPER Recent Materials Engineering Performances)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3712 KiB  
Article
Modelling Air Flow through Pneumatic Valves: A Brief Review with an Experimental Case Study
by Gustavo Koury Costa
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2601-2614; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040149 - 16 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1364
Abstract
Compressible flow models are commonly used for describing air flow through pneumatic valves. Because of the difficulties in predicting viscous losses, these models ultimately rely on experimental determination of coefficients. Different equations have been proposed for different fluid speeds, having the sonic fluid [...] Read more.
Compressible flow models are commonly used for describing air flow through pneumatic valves. Because of the difficulties in predicting viscous losses, these models ultimately rely on experimental determination of coefficients. Different equations have been proposed for different fluid speeds, having the sonic fluid velocity as a reference mark. However, one might question whether a much simpler approach, where the fluid is considered as incompressible, would still give good results within the typical range of industrial applications. Moreover, practically all models presuppose that the valve output pressure decreases in time, as in a discharge process. This paper reviews some representative one-dimensional compressible flow models and discusses the appropriateness of using equations based solely on discharging flows. Two experimental circuits, where an air reservoir is pressurized and, subsequently, decompressed, are used for comparison between different flow models. It is shown that a simpler set of equations still produces acceptable results for practical pneumatic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 7367 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Three Linear Digital Filters Applied to Improve the Quality of the Measured Acoustic Field
by Estevão Patricio Rodrigues, Djalma Simões dos Santos and Flávio Buiochi
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2582-2600; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040148 - 16 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1085
Abstract
The measurement of acoustic fields generated by ultrasonic transducers is important for determining the focal length, lateral resolution, and amplitudes of the lateral and grating lobes. The acoustic field is commonly characterized by a set of scans using a needle hydrophone. The output [...] Read more.
The measurement of acoustic fields generated by ultrasonic transducers is important for determining the focal length, lateral resolution, and amplitudes of the lateral and grating lobes. The acoustic field is commonly characterized by a set of scans using a needle hydrophone. The output of the hydrophone can be connected to an analog filter to enhance the signal. However, the analog filter might not be sufficient to avoid the noises that distort the signals. Alternatively, linear digital filters can be advantageous to improving the acoustic-field characterization. In this work, three filters were investigated: moving average (MA), band-pass Hamming window (HW), and band-pass Blackman window (BW). The filters were implemented and evaluated in terms of the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the measured sound field, which was filtered, in relation to the simulated acoustic field (gold standard). As a compromise between effective filtering and signal non-distortion, a method to model the MA kernel length was proposed. All the filters reduced the noise of the measured acoustic field. The HW and the BW filters were more effective (RMSE = 4.01%) than the MA filter (RMSE = 4.28%). In spite of the small quantitative difference, acoustic field comparisons showed qualitative improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 4147 KiB  
Article
Lifecycle Analysis of Green Roofs in the Mediterranean Climate
by Mohammad Raoof Rashedi, Rojina Ehsani, Sara Kalantari and Fariborz M. Tehrani
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2571-2581; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040147 - 12 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1518
Abstract
Buildings account for a significant amount of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Electricity and fossil fuels are currently the primary sources of energy used for cooling and heating buildings, depending on the climate and location. Both energy sources are responsible for [...] Read more.
Buildings account for a significant amount of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Electricity and fossil fuels are currently the primary sources of energy used for cooling and heating buildings, depending on the climate and location. Both energy sources are responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. In contrast, plants and vegetation absorb carbon dioxide and, thus, improve the quality of air. This effect indirectly influences climate change to lower energy demands and produce additional emissions due to rising energy consumption trends. Plants also reduce the ambient temperature by providing shade on roof surfaces. Hence, the large-scale deployment of green roofs reduces energy consumption, emissions, and costs. However, green roofs also impact the overall weight of a building and require additional construction costs. Therefore, the contribution of green roofs to the various structural and thermal performances of buildings varies for extensive intensive or semi-intensive systems. These interactions warranted a lifecycle analysis to optimize the extent of green roof applications. This approach highlighted sustainability performance measures, including energy, emissions, water, and waste. The presented study addressed a lifecycle analysis of green roof deployment during a hot summer in a Mediterranean climate zone. This climate applies to many areas that benefit from warming temperatures without extreme needs for cooling or heating. The emphasis on comparing two towns within the same climate zone facilitated a more detail-oriented approach to the lifecycle analysis. The results illustrated the energy consumption and associated release of greenhouse gas emissions related to structural and roofing materials and thermal operations throughout the service life of a building. The conclusions assessed the challenges and opportunities of green roof applications on new and existing buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 5289 KiB  
Article
Development of an Airbag Geometry Specific for Autonomous Vehicles
by Bartolomeu Franco, José Manuel Alves Ribeiro and Isidro de Jesús Sánchez-Arce
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2553-2570; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040146 - 11 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1399
Abstract
Airbags are important safety devices in modern vehicles. However, their effectiveness is linked to the occupants being seated in standard positions. Although autonomous vehicles are less accident-prone, they are also equipped with airbags, similar to any other vehicle. Additionally, autonomous vehicles allow for [...] Read more.
Airbags are important safety devices in modern vehicles. However, their effectiveness is linked to the occupants being seated in standard positions. Although autonomous vehicles are less accident-prone, they are also equipped with airbags, similar to any other vehicle. Additionally, autonomous vehicles allow for occupants seated in non-standard positions, so in the case of a collision, the airbags’ effectiveness decreases. In this work, an airbag design suitable for both assisted and autonomous driving conditions is proposed, the driver’s airbag being the object of interest. Airbag geometry, threads, seam strength, and seam geometries were selected following Design of Experiments (DoE) methodologies and a series of experimental tests. Moreover, an adaptive system based on sewn tethers allows the airbag to adapt to the driving mode, which is proposed and validated. Finally, all the findings were experimentally tested on two different geometries. The results were satisfactory as the deployed airbag shape and dimensions were as expected, indicating that this airbag design is capable of protecting the driver of a vehicle capable of autonomous driving. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1525 KiB  
Article
A Basic Study for Predicting Dysphagia in Panoramic X-ray Images Using Artificial Intelligence (AI) Part 2: Analysis of the Position of the Hyoid Bone on Panoramic Radiographs
by Yukiko Matsuda, Emi Ito, Migiwa Kuroda, Kazuyuki Araki, Wataru Nakada and Yoshihiko Hayakawa
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2542-2552; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040145 - 10 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Background: Oral frailty is associated with systemic frailty. The vertical position of the hyoid bone is important when considering the risk of dysphagia. However, dentists usually do not focus on this position. Purpose: To create an AI model for detection of the position [...] Read more.
Background: Oral frailty is associated with systemic frailty. The vertical position of the hyoid bone is important when considering the risk of dysphagia. However, dentists usually do not focus on this position. Purpose: To create an AI model for detection of the position of the vertical hyoid bone. Methods: In this study, 1830 hyoid bone images from 915 panoramic radiographs were used for AI learning. The position of the hyoid bone was classified into six types (Types 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) based on the same criteria as in our previous study. Plan 1 learned all types. In Plan 2, the five types other than Type 0 were learned. To reduce the number of groupings, three classes were formed using combinations of two types in each class. Plan 3 was used for learning all three classes, and Plan 4 was used for learning the two classes other than Class A (Types 0 and 1). Precision, recall, f-values, accuracy, and areas under the precision–recall curves (PR-AUCs) were calculated and comparatively evaluated. Results: Plan 4 showed the highest accuracy and PR-AUC values, of 0.93 and 0.97, respectively. Conclusions: By reducing the number of classes and not learning cases in which the anatomical structure was partially invisible, the vertical hyoid bone was correctly detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence and Data Science for Engineering Improvements)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 9598 KiB  
Article
Agitation of Viscoplastic Fluid in a Rotating Vessel Using Close Clearance Agitators
by Amine Benmoussa
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2525-2541; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040144 - 8 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1117
Abstract
Technological advancements have continued to progress in all fields, achieving remarkable feats. Additionally, productivity is increasing across the board as a result of strong economic expansion, which has encouraged changes in people’s way of life, such as the increasing use of pharmaceutical products, [...] Read more.
Technological advancements have continued to progress in all fields, achieving remarkable feats. Additionally, productivity is increasing across the board as a result of strong economic expansion, which has encouraged changes in people’s way of life, such as the increasing use of pharmaceutical products, cosmetics, detergents, and food products. A hydrothermal study is required in these areas to optimize the design of the stirring system. The aim of the current work is to investigate the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of a mechanical agitation system with a non-Newtonian fluid of the Bingham–Bercovier type in a cylindrical vessel with three blade configurations. Our research is specifically directed towards mechanically agitated systems utilizing close clearance stirrers, particularly focusing on the anchor, gate and two-bladed impellers, within cylindrical tanks that possess flat bottoms without baffles. The results show that the anchor impeller, with its broad blades and low-shear characteristics, is more suited for breaking down yield stress and inducing flow in these fluids, which creates a wide flow pattern that effectively overcomes yield stress. However, the addition of vertical arms to transform it into a gate impeller promotes mixing, heat transfer and thermal efficiency with a small energy cost compared to an anchor impeller against the two-bladed impeller. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 8005 KiB  
Article
Robot Cooking—Transferring Observations into a Planning Language: An Automated Approach in the Field of Cooking
by Markus Schmitz, Florian Menz, Ruben Grunau, Nils Mandischer, Mathias Hüsing and Burkhard Corves
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2514-2524; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040143 - 7 Oct 2023
Viewed by 999
Abstract
The recognition of human activities from video sequences and their transformation into a machine-readable form is a challenging task, which is the subject of many studies. The goal of this project is to develop an automated method for analyzing, identifying and processing motion [...] Read more.
The recognition of human activities from video sequences and their transformation into a machine-readable form is a challenging task, which is the subject of many studies. The goal of this project is to develop an automated method for analyzing, identifying and processing motion capture data into a planning language. This is performed in a cooking scenario by recording the pose of the acting hand. First, predefined side actions are detected in the dataset using classification. The remaining frames are then clustered into main actions. Using this information, the known initial positions and virtual object tracking, a machine-readable planning domain definition language (PDDL) is generated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 862 KiB  
Article
WB Score: A Novel Methodology for Visual Classifier Selection in Increasingly Noisy Datasets
by Wagner S. Billa, Rogério G. Negri and Leonardo B. L. Santos
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2497-2513; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040142 - 25 Sep 2023
Viewed by 833
Abstract
This article addresses the challenges of selecting robust classifiers with increasing noise levels in real-world scenarios. We propose the WB Score methodology, which enables the identification of reliable classifiers for deployment in noisy environments. The methodology addresses four significant challenges that are commonly [...] Read more.
This article addresses the challenges of selecting robust classifiers with increasing noise levels in real-world scenarios. We propose the WB Score methodology, which enables the identification of reliable classifiers for deployment in noisy environments. The methodology addresses four significant challenges that are commonly encountered: (i) Ensuring classifiers possess robustness to noise; (ii) Overcoming the difficulty of obtaining representative data that captures real-world noise; (iii) Addressing the complexity of detecting noise, making it challenging to differentiate it from natural variations in the data; and (iv) Meeting the requirement for classifiers capable of efficiently handling noise, allowing prompt responses for decision-making. WB Score provides a comprehensive approach for classifier assessment and selection to address these challenges. We analyze five classic datasets and one customized flooding dataset in São Paulo. The results demonstrate the practical effect of using the WB Score methodology is the enhanced ability to select robust classifiers for datasets in noisy real-world scenarios. Compared with similar techniques, the improvement centers around providing a visual and intuitive output, enhancing the understanding of classifier resilience against noise, and streamlining the decision-making process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence and Data Science for Engineering Improvements)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 7198 KiB  
Article
Steady vs. Dynamic Contributions of Different Doped Conducting Polymers in the Principal Components of an Electronic Nose’s Response
by Wiem Haj Ammar, Aicha Boujnah, Aimen Boubaker, Adel Kalboussi, Kamal Lmimouni and Sébastien Pecqueur
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2483-2496; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040141 - 22 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
Multivariate data analysis and machine learning classification have become popular tools to extract features without physical models for complex environments recognition. For electronic noses, time sampling over multiple sensing elements must be a fair compromise between a period sufficiently long to output a [...] Read more.
Multivariate data analysis and machine learning classification have become popular tools to extract features without physical models for complex environments recognition. For electronic noses, time sampling over multiple sensing elements must be a fair compromise between a period sufficiently long to output a meaningful information pattern and sufficiently short to minimize training time for practical applications. Particularly when a reactivity’s kinetics differ from the thermodynamics in sensitive materials, finding the best compromise to get the most from the data is not obvious. Here, we investigate the influence of data acquisition to improve or alter data clustering for molecular recognition on a conducting polymer electronic nose. We found out that waiting for sensing elements to reach their steady state is not required for classification, and that reducing data acquisition down to the first dynamical information suffices to recognize molecular gases by principal component analysis with the same materials. Especially for online inference, this study shows that a good sensing array is not an array of good sensors, and that new figures of merit should be defined for sensing hardware using machine learning pattern recognition rather than metrology. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop