REPER Recent Materials Engineering Performances

A special issue of Eng (ISSN 2673-4117). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 18209

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1. International and Interuniversity Centre for Nano Science and Nano Technology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560, India
2. Basic Department of Biotechnology, School of Fundamental Biology and Biotechnology, Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodnyi Av., 660041 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Interests: nanomaterials; polymer blends; fiber-filled polymer composites; polymer nanocomposites; aging and degradation; pervaporation phenomena; sorption and diffusion; interpenetrating polymer systems; recyclability and reuse of waste plastics and rubbers; elastomer crosslinking; dual porous nanocomposite scaffolds for tissue engineering; polymer nanocomposites for electronic applications; water purification; energy storage
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Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems Engineering (PMR) (POLI), University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508-080, Brazil
Interests: automotive engineering; manufacturing engineering; mechanical engineering

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Institute of Materials Science, Joining and Forming, Graz University of Technology, Kopernikusgasse 24, A-8010 Graz, Austria
Interests: materials development in steels and aluminum alloys; welding; metal forming; modelling and simulation of metal processing; additive manufacturing
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Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia y Materiales (ESIQIE), Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Col. Zacatenco, Mexico City 07738, Mexico
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College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China
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Department of Materials and Metallugy, Univerza v Ljubljani, Tržaška Cesta 25, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite you to participate in the first inaugural Special Issue on materials engineering and materials processing technologies. We plan to periodically publish novel Special Issues to provide a platform for scientists from all over the world to freely exchange their views and scientific achievements. To guarantee the maintenance of a substantive and high scientific level, we plan to only allow outstanding scientists to evaluate the submitted material. We provide a substantially broad range of interests; however, we do not rule out the possibility that published articles may traverse beyond the defined scope.

The Special Issue subject concerns all groups of engineering and natural materials used in the manufacture of various utility products, including metal, ceramic, polymer, composite, porous, nanostructured materials, their characterization, and applications. Special Issues related to chemical substances that have not yet had practical applications found in the production of products or their characterization are not of interest.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  1. Materials, nanomaterials, including functional composites with advanced physicochemical and functional properties, and material processing technologies as part of the advanced stage of Industry 4.0 of the industrial revolution and advanced informatics Society 5.0;
  2. Multifunctional, composite, and nanostructured materials—ultralight, ultradurable, with radically increased wear resistance and creep resistance;
  3. Multifunctional composite materials and nanomaterials with a matrix or reinforcement of nanostructured materials, including carbon, other nanofibers, nanowires, nanotubes, and their technologies;
  4. Advanced materials and nanomaterials for renewable energy and for energy transformation, storage, and rationalization;
  5. Advanced materials, technologies, and nanotechnologies for high added-value products of great importance for value chains in the industry, along with additive technologies including 3D and 4D printing;
  6. Ecomaterials as well as composite and nanostructured biomimetic, bionic, and biodegradable materials taking into account the environmental footprint (carbon and water), circular economy of materials, minimization of waste, and cleaner technology of materials and nanomaterials, including the rationalization of the production of polymeric materials;
  7. Advanced materials and nanomaterials as well as technologies and nanotechnologies for medical and health protection purposes as well as engineering–biological hybrid materials using living tissues and cells;
  8. Advanced materials and nanomaterials as well as technologies and nanotechnologies for security applications;
  9. Multifunctional layers, protective and antiwear nanolayers with special physicochemical properties, as well as spatial, layered, self-organizing, and self-healing composites and nanocomposites;
  10. Modelling the structure and properties of multifunctional materials and composites, including nanostructured materials with advanced properties, as well as computer-aided design and manufacturing methods in this area, taking into account the issues of simulation and the use of digital twins.

We would like to cordially invite you to submit your work.

Prof. Dr. Leszek Adam Dobrzański
Prof. Dr. Sabu Thomas
Prof. Dr. Gilmar Ferreira Batalha
Prof. Dr. Christof Sommitsch
Prof. Dr. Jorge Roberto Vargas Garcia
Prof. Dr. Jingwei Zhao
Prof. Dr. Borut Kosec
Prof. Dr. Emilia Wołowiec-Korecka
Dr. Lech Bolesław Dobrzański
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Eng is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • metal materials
  • ceramic materials
  • polymer materials
  • composite materials
  • porous materials
  • nanostructured materials
  • material characterization
  • material applications
  • material processing technologies

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

14 pages, 9852 KiB  
Article
Smith–Watson–Topper Parameter in Partial Slip Bimodal Oscillations of Axisymmetric Elastic Contacts of Similar Materials: Influence of Load Protocol and Profile Geometry
by Emanuel Willert
Eng 2024, 5(1), 333-346; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng5010018 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Based on a very fast numerical procedure for the determination of the subsurface stress field beneath frictional contacts of axisymmetric elastic bodies under arbitrary 2D oblique loading, the contact mechanical influences of loading parameters and contact profile geometry on the Smith–Watson–Topper (SWT) fatigue [...] Read more.
Based on a very fast numerical procedure for the determination of the subsurface stress field beneath frictional contacts of axisymmetric elastic bodies under arbitrary 2D oblique loading, the contact mechanical influences of loading parameters and contact profile geometry on the Smith–Watson–Topper (SWT) fatigue crack initiation parameter in elastic fretting contacts with superimposed normal and tangential oscillations are studied in detail. The efficiency of the stress calculation allows for a comprehensive physical analysis of the multi-dimensional parameter space of influencing variables. It is found that a superimposed normal oscillation of the contact can significantly increase or decrease the SWT parameter, depending on the initial phase difference and frequency ratio between the normal and tangential oscillation. Written in proper non-dimensional variables, the rounded flat punch always exhibits smaller values of the SWT parameter, compared to a full paraboloid with the same curvature, while the truncated paraboloid exhibits larger values. A small superimposed profile waviness also significantly increased or decreased the SWT parameter, depending on the amplitude and wave length of the waviness. While both the load protocol and the profile geometry can significantly alter the SWT parameter, the coupling between both influencing factors is weak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue REPER Recent Materials Engineering Performances)
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18 pages, 3926 KiB  
Article
Zirconia Enrichment of Zircon from Arikya, Nasarawa State, Nigeria, by Magnetic and Gravity Separation Processes for Use as Reinforcing Agent in Composite Formulation
by Benneth Ifenna Okoli, Olufemi A. Agboola, Azikiwe Peter Onwualu, Abdulhakeem Bello, Olusegun Samuel Sholiyi, Vitalis C. Anye and Olatunbosun T. Yusuf
Eng 2024, 5(1), 180-197; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng5010010 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Acceptable zircon for composite formulation in the aerospace industry requires that the mineral contains a minimum of 65% zirconia (ZrO2). Despite having vast deposits of zircon, Nigeria’s aerospace industry has historically relied primarily on imported mild steel tubes for solid rocket [...] Read more.
Acceptable zircon for composite formulation in the aerospace industry requires that the mineral contains a minimum of 65% zirconia (ZrO2). Despite having vast deposits of zircon, Nigeria’s aerospace industry has historically relied primarily on imported mild steel tubes for solid rocket motor cases (SRMCs) construction, resulting in three major challenges: low strength-to-weight ratio, pressure, and temperature containment. In this study, the Arikya zircon deposit located in northern Nigeria was investigated with the aim of upgrading low-grade zircon ore using magnetic and gravity separation processes for use in composite formulation for SRMCs. The dry high-intensity magnetic separator (DHIMS) produced a ZrO2 grade of 52.48%, recovery of 57.99%, and an enrichment ratio of 0.78 with a separation efficiency of 0.56, while the air-floating separator (AFS) generated the highest of 65.52% ZrO2 grade with 70.81% recovery and enrichment ratio of 1.25 with a separation efficiency of 0.25. The ZrO2 content increased from 40.77 to 65.52% after beneficiation. Iron oxide and titanium dioxide contaminants at 0.73 and 0.83% were reduced to 0.66 and 0.54%, respectively, while the specific gravity increased from 4.4 to 4.6 g/cm3. The ZrO2 content and specific gravity were improved to the minimum standard specified for zirconia-reinforced composite application and competed effectively with industrially/globally accepted zircon. These results demonstrated the efficacy of combining DHIMS and AFS to upgrade the low-grade zircon ore from Arikya, Nasarawa State. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue REPER Recent Materials Engineering Performances)
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25 pages, 27997 KiB  
Article
Compliance-Based Determination of Fatigue Design Curves for Elastomeric Adhesive Joints
by Pedro Henrique Evangelista Fernandes, Christof Nagel, Andreas Wulf, Vinicius Carrillo Beber and Bernd Mayer
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2615-2639; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040150 - 16 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 878
Abstract
A compliance-based method for the determination of fatigue design curves for elastomeric adhesive joints is developed and validated. Fatigue experiments are conducted on elastomeric adhesives (a polyurethane and a silane-modified polymer) under different stress ratios (R = 0.1/0.5/−1) and conditions (23 °C/50% r.h. [...] Read more.
A compliance-based method for the determination of fatigue design curves for elastomeric adhesive joints is developed and validated. Fatigue experiments are conducted on elastomeric adhesives (a polyurethane and a silane-modified polymer) under different stress ratios (R = 0.1/0.5/−1) and conditions (23 °C/50% r.h. and 40 °C/60% r.h.). The investigation focused on butt and thick adherent shear test joints. Fatigue tests are recorded with cameras to identify the stages of crack initiation and propagation. For each fatigue test, the stiffness and compliance per cycle are calculated until final failure. The proposed method identifies a transition point that distinguishes regions under stable and unstable compliance growth. Fatigue design curves are then built based on the transition point and on the number of cycles to reach different degrees of initial stiffness (90%, 80%, 70% and 60%). The failure ratio, i.e., the lifetime for reaching a given approach divided by the total lifetime, is introduced to evaluate the data in terms of average values and standard deviation. The results indicate that the proposed method can yield fatigue design curves with a high coefficient of determination (accuracy) and high failure ratio (avoiding over-conservative design). Moreover, the method is robust, as the failure ratio for different adhesives, stress ratios, conditions and geometries is highly consistent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue REPER Recent Materials Engineering Performances)
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19 pages, 9744 KiB  
Article
FE-Simulation and Experimental Characterisation of Environmental Effects on the Diffusion and Mechanical Performance of Hyperelastic Adhesive Joints
by Pedro H. E. Fernandes, Andreas Wulf, Christof Nagel and Vinicius C. Beber
Eng 2023, 4(3), 2122-2140; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4030121 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
In operational applications, hyperelastic adhesive joints are exposed to environmental conditions (moisture and temperature) that affect their mechanical performance. The understanding of how the environment can influence the joint durability through both static and cyclic loading is a key aspect to ensure safety [...] Read more.
In operational applications, hyperelastic adhesive joints are exposed to environmental conditions (moisture and temperature) that affect their mechanical performance. The understanding of how the environment can influence the joint durability through both static and cyclic loading is a key aspect to ensure safety and avoid over-dimensioning. The current work presents an investigation of the effect of environment conditions on the diffusion and mechanical performance of two different hyperelastic adhesive joints (a polyurethane and a silicon-modified polymer). To assess the process of moisture mass diffusion, pure adhesive samples were weighted for 387 days when subjected to outdoor weathering conditions. An FEA-diffusion procedure method was demonstrated by (i) predicting the saturation concentration at steady conditions of 40 °C/15% r.h. (40/15) and 40 °C/60% r.h. (40/60), and (ii) predicting the experienced mass change due to outdoor weathering. The reversibility of the effect of conditioning at 40 °C/60% r.h. on the mechanical properties of the adhesives was assessed via quasi-static and fatigue tensile shear testing. The results support the conclusion that conditioning with the surrogate climate of 40 °C/60% r.h. does not cause irreversible damage, as any potential decrease in shear modulus, tensile shear strength and fatigue life due to 40/60 conditioning can be reversed by re-drying at 40/15. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue REPER Recent Materials Engineering Performances)
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10 pages, 2661 KiB  
Communication
Graphene Deposited on Glass Fiber Using a Non-Thermal Plasma System
by Paulo V. R. Gomes, Rafael N. Bonifacio, Barbara P. G. Silva, João C. Ferreira, Rodrigo F. B. de Souza, Larissa Otubo, Dolores R. R. Lazar and Almir O. Neto
Eng 2023, 4(3), 2100-2109; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4030119 - 9 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1232
Abstract
This study reports a bottom-up approach for the conversion of cyclohexane into graphene nanoflakes, which were then deposited onto fiberglass using a non-thermal generator. The composite was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, which revealed the formation of stacked few-layer graphene with a partially [...] Read more.
This study reports a bottom-up approach for the conversion of cyclohexane into graphene nanoflakes, which were then deposited onto fiberglass using a non-thermal generator. The composite was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, which revealed the formation of stacked few-layer graphene with a partially disordered structure and a d-spacing of 0.358 nm between the layers. X-ray diffraction confirmed the observations from the TEM images. SEM images showed the agglomeration of carbonaceous material onto the fiberglass, which experienced some delamination due to the synthesis method. Raman spectroscopy indicated that the obtained graphene exhibited a predominance of defects in its structure. Additionally, atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses revealed the formation of graphene layers with varying levels of porosity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue REPER Recent Materials Engineering Performances)
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13 pages, 2673 KiB  
Article
Development of Interior and Exterior Automotive Plastics Parts Using Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite
by Akubueze Emmanuel Uzoma, Chiemerie Famous Nwaeche, Md. Al-Amin, Oluwa Segun Muniru, Ololade Olatunji and Sixtus Onyedika Nzeh
Eng 2023, 4(2), 1698-1710; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4020096 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2193
Abstract
The integration of sustainable components in automotive parts is in growing demand. This study involves the entire process, from the extraction of kenaf cellulosic fibers to the fabrication of automotive parts by applying injection molding (sample only) and Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) techniques. [...] Read more.
The integration of sustainable components in automotive parts is in growing demand. This study involves the entire process, from the extraction of kenaf cellulosic fibers to the fabrication of automotive parts by applying injection molding (sample only) and Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) techniques. Fibers were pretreated, followed by moisture content analysis before composite fabrication. The composite was fabricated by integrating the fibers with polypropylene, maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP), unsaturated polyester, and epoxy resin. Mechanical tests were done following ASTM D5083, ASTM D256, and ASTM D5229 standards. The RTM technique was applied for the fabrication of parts with reinforced kenaf long bast fibers. RTM indicated a higher tensile strength of 55 MPa at an optimal fiber content of 40%. Fiber content from 10% to 40% was found to be compatible with or better than the control sample in mechanical tests. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images showed both fiber-epoxy-PE bonding along with normal irregularities in the matrix. The finite element simulations for the theoretical analysis of the mechanical performance characteristics showed higher stiffness and strength in the direction parallel to the fiber orientation. This study justifies the competitiveness of sustainable textile fibers as a reinforcement for plastics to use in composite materials for automotive industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue REPER Recent Materials Engineering Performances)
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14 pages, 2901 KiB  
Article
Effects of Mean Stress and Multiaxial Loading on the Fatigue Life of Springs
by Vladimir Kobelev
Eng 2023, 4(2), 1684-1697; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4020095 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
In this paper, the effects of mean stress and damage accumulation on the fatigue life of springs are theoretically studied. The study examines the fatigue life of homogeneously stressed material subjected to cyclic loading. The mean stress of a load cycle is non-zero. [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effects of mean stress and damage accumulation on the fatigue life of springs are theoretically studied. The study examines the fatigue life of homogeneously stressed material subjected to cyclic loading. The mean stress of a load cycle is non-zero. Goodman and Haigh diagrams are commonly used for estimating fatigue life in engineering applications. Alternatively, conventional hypotheses by Smith–Watson–Topper, Walker and Bergmann have been successfully used to describe uniaxial cyclic fatigue with non-zero mean value over the whole range of the fatigue life. However, the physical characteristics of the mean stress sensitivities in these hypotheses are different. The mean stress sensitivity according to Smith–Watson–Topper is identical for all materials and stress levels. This weakness reduces the applicability of the Smith–Watson–Topper parameter. At first glance, the mean stress sensitivities according to Walker and Bergmann are diverse. The mean stress sensitivities depend upon two different additional correction parameters, namely the Bergmann parameter and the Walker exponent. The possibility of fitting the mean stress sensitivity in these hypotheses overcomes the significant drawback of the Smith–Watson–Topper schema. The principal task of this actual study is to reveal the dependence between the Bergmann parameter and the Walker exponent, which leads to a certain mean stress sensitivity. The manuscript establishes the simple relationship between both fitting parameters, which causes the equivalent mean stress sensitivity for the Bergmann and Walker criteria. As known from the state of the technology, fabrication and operation yield several impacts with a significant influence on the fatigue life of springs. One effect deals with the sequence of low and high stress amplitudes and amplitude-dependent damage accumulation. Particularly, during the load cycle a certain microscopical creep occurs. This creep causes damage. The accumulation hypothesis for creep damage is introduced. The hypothesis can be verified experimentally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue REPER Recent Materials Engineering Performances)
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11 pages, 5906 KiB  
Article
Rutting Performance of Nano-Silica-Modified C320 Bitumen
by Nuha S. Mashaan
Eng 2022, 3(4), 635-645; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040043 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1334
Abstract
Nanomaterials exhibit novel properties and profound attributes as an additive in asphalt binder modification. However, the application of nano-silica in asphalt binders and mixture modification is still limited, and further research is required. Along these lines, in this work, nano-silica with a content [...] Read more.
Nanomaterials exhibit novel properties and profound attributes as an additive in asphalt binder modification. However, the application of nano-silica in asphalt binders and mixture modification is still limited, and further research is required. Along these lines, in this work, nano-silica with a content from 2% to 8% and an increment of 2% was utilized in modifying the bitumen binder type C320, which is considered the most conventional type of bitumen used in Western Australia road asphalt mixtures. Various tests were performed to assess their properties, including complex shear modulus, penetration, softening point, and multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test. The extracted results revealed an increase in the strength and stiffness properties by lowering the penetration, improving the softening point, and increasing the complex shear modulus of all the nano-silica-modified bitumen samples. Interestingly, much of the content of nano-silica leads to higher rutting resistance. However, the rutting resistance was affected by the size of the nano-silica coated with the silane coupling agent. The ideal sample of nano-silica-modified C320 was determined as NS-15 nm (NS-A), which can improve the rutting resistance by about 7.1 kPa. In the current study, the results of the penetration and softening point using 6–8% of NS-A resulted in a relatively significant improvement of up to 45% in comparison with the non-modified binders. Nevertheless, the rutting resistance of the modified asphalt mixtures needs to be further investigated in the future to elaborate on the impact of nano-silica as modified binders on the mechanical properties of Australian asphalt mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue REPER Recent Materials Engineering Performances)
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Review

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14 pages, 3106 KiB  
Review
Comparison between Mullite-Based and Anorthite-Based Porcelain Tiles: A Review
by Kun Li, Eloise de Sousa Cordeiro and Agenor De Noni, Jr.
Eng 2023, 4(3), 2153-2166; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4030123 - 11 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2115
Abstract
This paper begins with an introduction to porcelain tiles. A review of the major scientific and technological features of mullite-based porcelain tiles (MPTs) and anorthite-based porcelain tiles (APTs), focusing primarily on the raw material, processing, phase evolution and mechanical behavior, is then presented. [...] Read more.
This paper begins with an introduction to porcelain tiles. A review of the major scientific and technological features of mullite-based porcelain tiles (MPTs) and anorthite-based porcelain tiles (APTs), focusing primarily on the raw material, processing, phase evolution and mechanical behavior, is then presented. Based on the porcelain tile firing behavior and a series of physical and chemical changes that can occur, a comprehensive comparison is described. In the last part, the prospects for further developments related to MPTs and APTs are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue REPER Recent Materials Engineering Performances)
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23 pages, 3954 KiB  
Review
Polymer Nanocomposites
by Masami Okamoto
Eng 2023, 4(1), 457-479; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4010028 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4184
Abstract
In the last 20 years, there has been a strong emphasis on the development of polymer nanocomposites, where at least one of the dimensions of the filler material is of the order of a nanometer. Polymer nanocomposites are fundamentally different from traditional filled [...] Read more.
In the last 20 years, there has been a strong emphasis on the development of polymer nanocomposites, where at least one of the dimensions of the filler material is of the order of a nanometer. Polymer nanocomposites are fundamentally different from traditional filled polymers because of the immense internal interfacial area and the nanoscopic nature of the nanomaterials. The new multifunctional properties derived from the nano-structure of nanocomposites provide an opportunity to circumvent the traditional properties associated with traditional composites. Numerous examples can be found in the literature that show significant improvements in multifunctional properties of the nanocomposites and this new class materials now being introduced in structural applications, such as gas barrier film, flame retardant product, and other load-bearing applications. This review offers a comprehensive review on the basic concept, technology and application for polymer nanocomposites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue REPER Recent Materials Engineering Performances)
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12 pages, 5050 KiB  
Review
How to Predict Premature Multiphase Steel Cracks during Edge Flangeability
by Lucas Salomao Peres, João Henrique C. Souza and Gilmar Ferreira Batalha
Eng 2022, 3(4), 476-487; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040034 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
The present paper makes a critical review based on the literature and presents examples of experiments developed by the authors, showing how the hole expansion ratio test (HERT) could be useful to understand and avoid premature cracks caused by flanging operations in sheet [...] Read more.
The present paper makes a critical review based on the literature and presents examples of experiments developed by the authors, showing how the hole expansion ratio test (HERT) could be useful to understand and avoid premature cracks caused by flanging operations in sheet metal parts made of advanced high-strength steels. An approach based on damage theory was evaluated along with the mechanical tests necessary to understand the phenomenon, the influence of the trimming process, and the correlation between experimental mechanical testing and simulations. The procedures presented in this work allow for the prediction of edge cracks, often verified after flanging steps during the stamping process, allowing for reductions in tooling costs and setup loops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue REPER Recent Materials Engineering Performances)
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