Green Engineering for Sustainable Development 2023

A special issue of Eng (ISSN 2673-4117). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical, Civil and Environmental Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 17793

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor

E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Lab. of Heterogeneous Mixtures & Combustion Systems, Heroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Athens, Greece
Interests: combustion; fire engineering; energy efficiency in buildings; LCA; KPIs
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail
Guest Editor
Chemistry Department, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
Interests: biodegradable polymers; polymers from renewable resources; sustainable materials development; polymer engineering (structure-properties relationship); processing and characterization of furan-based polyesters; computational studies (modelling of polymerization reaction kinetics)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is a continuation of the previous successful Special Issue "Green Engineering for Sustainable Development". You can find the information and published papers of the previous Special Issue at:  https://www.mdpi.com/journal/eng/special_issues/Green_Engineering_Sustainable_Development.

Sustainable development is of primary importance as the key to future use and management of finite world resources. Sustainable development is a way of organizing society so that it can exist in the long term, considering the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Green Engineering is defined as the design, commercialization, and use of processes and products, which are feasible and economical, while minimizing the generation of pollution at the source and the risk to human health and the environment.

Green Chemistry and Chemical Engineering is a subset of Green Engineering. The goals of Green Chemistry and Green Chemical Engineering are usually achieved with the use of renewable raw materials and eco-friendly solvents along with “green” product design and impact including safety, sustainability, degradation and recyclability. Furthermore, benign synthesis and catalysis, solvent-free processes, process design and intensification, as well as energy use issues are of crucial importance in the manufacturing of green and sustainable materials.

Green Engineering is a broad field including various topics such as new eco-friendly and safe chemicals, methods and techniques for developing environmentally friendly novel materials, new industrial technologies, separation engineering, solvent-free processes, green solvents, process design, process intensification, clean processing and utilization of fossil resources, naturally occurring materials and biomaterials, man-made materials and chemicals, food science, water sources, water protection, toxicology, packaging industries and their impact on environment, environmental engineering, transportation, construction, sustainable construction materials, green building, zero energy buildings, building information modelling, green city and sustainable development, cloud- and green IoT-based technology for sustainable smart cities, daily consumer goods, electronics, photonics, optics, machinery, microbiology, biomedical industries, energy conservation, rural and urban development, pollution, biomass and biorefinery, bioprocesses and bioengineering, industrial ecology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage and network, clean energy and bioenergy, biofuels, biobased materials, biopolymers and composites, hybrid materials, novel materials and devices, processing technologies, nanoscience and nanotechnology, simulation, integration, safety and assessment, new energy harvesting materials and systems, solar energy materials, solar cells and photovoltaic devices, effect of electromagnetic radiation on human health, simulation tools for sustainable environment (especially electromagnetic, and acoustic), impact of pollution on the environment, biohazards, safe medicine, green science in pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, modeling and optimization of applications of engineering sciences to medicine and biology, degradation, CO2 capture, storage, and utilization, recycling and circular economy, life cycle analysis, engineering in bioeconomy, experiences on teaching environmentally safe engineering, among others.

The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight the progress on the topics of green engineering, from energy efficiency and sustainability to biobased chemicals and plastics from renewable resources.

Prof. Dr. George Z. Papageorgiou
Prof. Dr. Maria Founti
Dr. George N. Nikolaidis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Eng is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • eco-friendly and safe chemicals
  • solvent-free processes
  • green solvents
  • process engineering
  • process intensification
  • clean processing of fossil resources
  • biomass and biorefinery
  • biobased materials and biomedical materials
  • energy storage
  • biofuels
  • green science in pharmaceuticals
  • biotechnology
  • degradation
  • CO2 capture
  • water sources
  • toxicology
  • environmental engineering
  • transportation
  • sustainable construction materials
  • zero energy buildings
  • sustainable smart cities
  • rural and urban development
  • renewable energy
  • novel materials and devices
  • nanoscience and nanotechnology
  • simulation tools for sustainable environment
  • solar cells and photovoltaic devices
  • pollution and biohazards
  • recycling and circular economy
  • life cycle analysis
  • engineering in bioeconomy

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

16 pages, 8146 KiB  
Article
Bio-Modified Bitumen: A Comparative Analysis of Algae Influence on Characteristic Properties
by Stavros Kalampokis, Evangelos Manthos, Avraam Konstantinidis, Christos Kakafikas and Artemis Kalapouti
Eng 2024, 5(1), 417-432; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng5010022 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 455
Abstract
The main aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the characteristic properties of bitumen modified with algae. Two types of algae, each with distinct gradation and origin, were employed for this investigation. For each type of algae (noted as chlorella and [...] Read more.
The main aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the characteristic properties of bitumen modified with algae. Two types of algae, each with distinct gradation and origin, were employed for this investigation. For each type of algae (noted as chlorella and microchlorella), three blends were created with varying algae contents (5%, 10%, and 15% by weight of bitumen), utilizing a 70/100 reference bitumen as the virgin material and a basis for comparison. The properties of the blends were investigated using the Penetration, Softening Point, Elastic Recovery, Force Ductility, Dynamic Viscosity, and Storage Stability tests, both before and after short-term ageing (TFOT). The test results were then used to calculate the Activation Energy (Ea), Viscosity-Temperature Susceptibility (VTS) Index, and Mixing Temperature (Tmixing), along with their respective Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) and R2 and p-values. The main finding of the study was that the addition of a low algae content of 5% caused a change in the classification of the unaged bitumen from 70/100 to 50/70 according to EN 12591 and thus hardened the reference bitumen. Additionally, a strong linear statistical correlation was observed between Ea and the VTS index, suggesting that these values should be considered when characterizing the temperature susceptibility of algae-modified bitumen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 4147 KiB  
Article
Lifecycle Analysis of Green Roofs in the Mediterranean Climate
by Mohammad Raoof Rashedi, Rojina Ehsani, Sara Kalantari and Fariborz M. Tehrani
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2571-2581; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040147 - 12 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1272
Abstract
Buildings account for a significant amount of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Electricity and fossil fuels are currently the primary sources of energy used for cooling and heating buildings, depending on the climate and location. Both energy sources are responsible for [...] Read more.
Buildings account for a significant amount of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Electricity and fossil fuels are currently the primary sources of energy used for cooling and heating buildings, depending on the climate and location. Both energy sources are responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. In contrast, plants and vegetation absorb carbon dioxide and, thus, improve the quality of air. This effect indirectly influences climate change to lower energy demands and produce additional emissions due to rising energy consumption trends. Plants also reduce the ambient temperature by providing shade on roof surfaces. Hence, the large-scale deployment of green roofs reduces energy consumption, emissions, and costs. However, green roofs also impact the overall weight of a building and require additional construction costs. Therefore, the contribution of green roofs to the various structural and thermal performances of buildings varies for extensive intensive or semi-intensive systems. These interactions warranted a lifecycle analysis to optimize the extent of green roof applications. This approach highlighted sustainability performance measures, including energy, emissions, water, and waste. The presented study addressed a lifecycle analysis of green roof deployment during a hot summer in a Mediterranean climate zone. This climate applies to many areas that benefit from warming temperatures without extreme needs for cooling or heating. The emphasis on comparing two towns within the same climate zone facilitated a more detail-oriented approach to the lifecycle analysis. The results illustrated the energy consumption and associated release of greenhouse gas emissions related to structural and roofing materials and thermal operations throughout the service life of a building. The conclusions assessed the challenges and opportunities of green roof applications on new and existing buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 1431 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Analysis on a Thermal Barrier Coating with Nano-Ceramic Base: A Potential Solution to Reduce Urban Heat Islands?
by Bruno Malet-Damour, Dimitri Bigot and Garry Rivière
Eng 2023, 4(3), 2421-2442; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4030138 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 897
Abstract
Adopting a multiscale approach is crucial for optimizing urban and building performance, prompting inquiries about the link between a technology’s local efficiency (building scale) and its broader impact (city-wide). To investigate this correlation and devise effective strategies for enhancing building and city energy [...] Read more.
Adopting a multiscale approach is crucial for optimizing urban and building performance, prompting inquiries about the link between a technology’s local efficiency (building scale) and its broader impact (city-wide). To investigate this correlation and devise effective strategies for enhancing building and city energy performance, we experimentally examined a commercial nano-ceramic Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) on a small-scale building and assessed numerically its influence on mitigating Urban Heat Islands (UHIs) at a city scale, translated in our case by the use of the thermal comfort index: the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Our results reveal that the coating significantly curbs heat transfer locally, reducing surface temperatures by over 50 C compared to traditional roofs and attenuating more than 70% of heat flux, potentially alleviating air conditioning demands and associated urban heat effects. However, implementing such coatings across a city does not notably advance overall efficiency and might trigger minor overheating on thermal perception. Hence, while nano-ceramic coatings indirectly aid UHI mitigation, they are not a standalone fix; instead, an integrated strategy involving efficient coatings, sustainable urban planning, and increased vegetation emerges as the optimal path toward creating enduringly sustainable, pleasant, and efficient urban environments to counter urban heat challenges effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1416 KiB  
Article
Solar Thermal Technology Aided Membrane Distillation Process for Wastewater Treatment in Textile Industry—A Technoeconomic Feasibility Assessment
by Mukesh Kumar Gupta, Rajendra B. Mohite, Salunkhe Madhav Jagannath, Pankaj Kumar, Dipak Shankar Raskar, Malay Kumar Banerjee, Suraj Kumar Singh, Dragana Dogančić and Bojan Đurin
Eng 2023, 4(3), 2363-2374; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4030135 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 826
Abstract
Because textile industries are intensely water-consuming and generate a huge quantity of wastewater, the present study examines the scope of using solar thermal technology to treat wastewater from textile industries. A hybrid technology, comprising a compound parabolic concentrator-based solar thermal system in conjunction [...] Read more.
Because textile industries are intensely water-consuming and generate a huge quantity of wastewater, the present study examines the scope of using solar thermal technology to treat wastewater from textile industries. A hybrid technology, comprising a compound parabolic concentrator-based solar thermal system in conjunction with a Membrane Distillation (MD) system, is experimented with for wastewater treatment in textile industries. The MD system requires a water temperature of around 90 °C for efficient functioning. The advanced MD technology using waste heat combined with solar heat to meet the system’s thermal load is technologically evaluated for an experimental textile industry in India. Moreover, the present study critically analyses the techno economics of the proposed hybrid technology. A detailed financial analysis has revealed that, besides technological superiority, the recommended technology is also financially rewarding for wastewater treatment in the textile industry. To cope with the delayed payback period, financial incentives are recommended so that the system becomes a lucrative technological option. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 3868 KiB  
Article
Commercial Level Analysis of P2P vs. Net-Metering Comparing Economic and Technical Indexes
by Esteban A. Soto, Alexander Vizcarrondo Ortega, Andrea Hernandez and Lisa Bosman
Eng 2023, 4(3), 2254-2273; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4030129 - 01 Sep 2023
Viewed by 794
Abstract
As photovoltaics (PV), also known as solar electricity, has been growing over the years, the energy markets have been gradually moving toward decentralization. However, recent media accusations suggest that decentralized renewable energy is slowly becoming unpopular because of the hidden fees being charged [...] Read more.
As photovoltaics (PV), also known as solar electricity, has been growing over the years, the energy markets have been gradually moving toward decentralization. However, recent media accusations suggest that decentralized renewable energy is slowly becoming unpopular because of the hidden fees being charged to owners of installed PV systems. In response, this paper investigates the potential for alternative approaches to incentivize owners using peer-to-peer (P2P) sharing. This study provides an analytical comparison between the use of the P2P mechanism, the net-metering mechanism, and a combination of these in the commercial sector. Through the use of a simulation, this case study presents the possible outcomes of the implementation of these models in a microgrid. Using technical and economic indexes the comparison was made by looking at the following indexes: peak power, energy balance, economic benefit, and transaction index. Based on a microgrid of 28 commercial buildings, readings of consumption were taken at intervals of one hour, and a Python model was made to find PV size and compare trading mechanisms. It was found that the combination of P2P and net-metering had the best overall performance, followed by net-metering itself, with the best season being all for both, and summer for net-metering by itself. This shows that a P2P model implemented in a microgrid helps create more energy balance, although the combination would achieve the highest performance. This study can be used by policymakers for proposing renewable energy policies and regulations that are more beneficial to all prosumers and consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 2930 KiB  
Article
Decentralized Biogas Production in Urban Areas: Studying the Feasibility of Using High-Efficiency Engines
by Rubén González, José García-Cascallana, Javier Gutiérrez-Bravo and Xiomar Gómez
Eng 2023, 4(3), 2204-2225; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4030127 - 24 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1128
Abstract
The study examines decentralized waste treatment in an urban setting with a high-density population of 2500 inhab./km2. The co-digestion of food and garden waste was assumed by using several mid-size digesters, while centralized biogas and digestate valorization was considered. The studied [...] Read more.
The study examines decentralized waste treatment in an urban setting with a high-density population of 2500 inhab./km2. The co-digestion of food and garden waste was assumed by using several mid-size digesters, while centralized biogas and digestate valorization was considered. The studied configuration generates electricity and thermal energy, covering 1.3% of the residential electricity demand and 3.2% of thermal demand. The use of double-turbocharged engines under the most favorable scenario aids cities in reaching sustainability goals. However, the location of treatment plants is a factor that may raise social discomfort and cause a nuisance to citizens. Locating waste plants near residential areas causes discomfort due to possible odors, gaseous emissions, and housing market distortions. Such problematic aspects must be addressed for the decentralized alternative to work. These factors are of great relevance and must be given a practical solution if the circular economic model is to be implemented by considering the insertion of waste streams into the production system and generating local energy sources and raw materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 608 KiB  
Article
The Evaluation of Green Building’s Feasibility: Comparative Analysis across Different Geological Conditions
by Jessica McKenna, Sophia Harris, Kris Heinrich, Taylor Stewart and Koorosh Gharehbaghi
Eng 2023, 4(3), 2034-2054; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4030115 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2457
Abstract
Green building materials have nontoxic properties and are made from recycled materials. This means they are, in most cases, created from renewable resources in comparison to non-renewable resources. This research aims to further improve the justification of green buildings and their materials. This [...] Read more.
Green building materials have nontoxic properties and are made from recycled materials. This means they are, in most cases, created from renewable resources in comparison to non-renewable resources. This research aims to further improve the justification of green buildings and their materials. This is undertaken to determine the validity of such construction techniques. This research utilizes both qualitative and quantitative methods through five Australian case studies. The case studies, which are based on new and redeveloped structures, are selected via different geological locations and are evaluated via logical argumentation along with correlation research. Further, the research will address the problem by identifying a variety of green building materials that can be used to substitute non-green building materials. With careful comparisons among the five buildings, the green signs and implementation advantages and disadvantages will be evaluated. The result of this comparison will assist in improving the current education around the topic of green building and benefit the overall response to positive change within the construction industry. Although green building initiatives are not difficult to apply, they can be cost efficient. To maximize their cost efficiency, these initiatives need to be fully adopted. This includes the adaptation of specific building orientation, design, and sealing off penetrations to greatly improve passive heating and cooling. Further, the use of rainwater tanks also assists with energy efficiency by reducing the amount of mains water used. The utilization of natural lighting along with an advanced solar power system would further reduce the overall energy usage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 5695 KiB  
Article
Multivariate Multi-Step Long Short-Term Memory Neural Network for Simultaneous Stream-Water Variable Prediction
by Marzieh Khosravi, Bushra Monowar Duti, Munshi Md Shafwat Yazdan, Shima Ghoochani, Neda Nazemi and Hanieh Shabanian
Eng 2023, 4(3), 1933-1950; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4030109 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1940
Abstract
Implementing multivariate predictive analysis to ascertain stream-water (SW) parameters including dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, discharge, water level, temperature, pH, and turbidity is crucial in the field of water resource management. This is especially important during a time of rapid climate change, where weather [...] Read more.
Implementing multivariate predictive analysis to ascertain stream-water (SW) parameters including dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, discharge, water level, temperature, pH, and turbidity is crucial in the field of water resource management. This is especially important during a time of rapid climate change, where weather patterns are constantly changing, making it difficult to forecast these SW variables accurately for different water-related problems. Various numerical models based on physics are utilized to forecast the variables associated with surface water (SW). These models rely on numerous hydrologic parameters and require extensive laboratory investigation and calibration to minimize uncertainty. However, with the emergence of data-driven analysis and prediction methods, deep-learning algorithms have demonstrated satisfactory performance in handling sequential data. In this study, a comprehensive Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) and feature engineering were conducted to prepare the dataset, ensuring optimal performance of the predictive model. A neural network regression model known as Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) was trained using several years of daily data, enabling the prediction of SW variables up to one week in advance (referred to as lead time) with satisfactory accuracy. The model’s performance was evaluated by comparing the predicted data with observed data, analyzing the error distribution, and utilizing error matrices. Improved performance was achieved by increasing the number of epochs and fine-tuning hyperparameters. By applying proper feature engineering and optimization, this model can be adapted to other locations to facilitate univariate predictive analysis and potentially support the real-time prediction of SW variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4422 KiB  
Article
Influence of Ventilation Openings on the Energy Efficiency of Metal Frame Modular Constructions in Brazil Using BIM
by Mohammad K. Najjar, Luis Otávio Cocito De Araujo, Olubimbola Oladimeji, Mohammad Khalas, Karoline V. Figueiredo, Dieter Boer, Carlos A. P. Soares and Assed Haddad
Eng 2023, 4(2), 1635-1654; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4020093 - 07 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1232
Abstract
Construction projects demand a higher amount of energy predominantly for heating, ventilation, and illumination purposes. Modular construction has come into the limelight in recent years as a construction method that uses sustainable building materials and optimizes energy efficiency. Ventilation openings in buildings are [...] Read more.
Construction projects demand a higher amount of energy predominantly for heating, ventilation, and illumination purposes. Modular construction has come into the limelight in recent years as a construction method that uses sustainable building materials and optimizes energy efficiency. Ventilation openings in buildings are designed to facilitate air circulation by naturally driven ventilation and could aid in reducing energy consumption in construction projects. However, a knowledge gap makes it difficult to propose the best dimensions of ventilation openings in buildings. Hence, the aim of this work is to empower the decision-making process in terms of proposing the best ventilation opening dimensions toward sustainable energy use and management in buildings. A novel framework is presented herein to evaluate the impact and propose the best dimensions of ventilation openings for metal frame modular construction in Brazil, using building information modeling. The ventilation openings were constructed and their dimensions evaluated in eight Brazilian cities, based on the bioclimatic zone (BioZ) classification indicated in ABNT NBR 15220: Curitiba (1st BioZ); Rio Negro (2nd BioZ); São Paulo (3rd BioZ); Brasília (4th BioZ); Campos (5th BioZ); Paranaíbe (6th BioZ); Goiás (7th BioZ); and Rio de Janeiro (8th BioZ). The study results show that the energy consumption of the same building model would vary based on the dimensions of ventilation openings for each BioZ in Brazil. For instance, modeling the same modular construction unit in the city of Rio Negro could consume around 50% of the energy compared to the same unit constructed in the city of Rio de Janeiro, using the small opening sizes based on the smallest dimensions of the ventilation openings. Similarly, modeling the construction unit in Curitiba, São Paulo, Brasília, Campos, Paranaíba, and Goiás could reduce energy consumption by around 40%, 34%, 36%, 18%, 20%, and 16%, respectively, compared to constructing the same building in the city of Rio de Janeiro, using the small opening sizes based on the smallest dimensions of the ventilation openings. This work could help practitioners and professionals in modular construction projects to design the best dimensions of the ventilation openings based on each BioZ towards increasing energy efficiency and sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 4723 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Modeling of Machine Learning and Phenomenological Model for Predicting the Biomass Gasification Process in Supercritical Water for Hydrogen Production
by Julles Mitoura dos Santos Junior, Ícaro Augusto Maccari Zelioli and Adriano Pinto Mariano
Eng 2023, 4(2), 1495-1515; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4020086 - 29 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1568
Abstract
Process monitoring and forecasting are essential to ensure the efficiency of industrial processes. Although it is possible to model processes using phenomenological approaches, these are not always easy to apply and generalize due to the complexity of the processes and the high number [...] Read more.
Process monitoring and forecasting are essential to ensure the efficiency of industrial processes. Although it is possible to model processes using phenomenological approaches, these are not always easy to apply and generalize due to the complexity of the processes and the high number of unknown parameters. This work aims to present a hybrid modeling architecture that combines a phenomenological model with machine learning models. The proposal is to enable the use of simplified phenomenological models to explain the basic principles behind a phenomenon. Next, the data-oriented model corrects deviations from the simplified model predictions. The research hypothesis consists of showing the benefits of integrating prior knowledge of chemical engineering in simplifying data-based models, enhancing their generalization and improving their interpretability. The gasification process of lignin biomass with supercritical water was used as a case study for this methodology and the variable to be observed was the production of hydrogen. The real experimental data of this process were augmented using Gibbs energy minimization with the Peng–Robinson equation of state, thus generating a more voluminous database that was considered as real process data. The ideal gas model was used as a simplified model, producing significant deviations in predictions (relative deviations greater than 20%). Deviations (∆H2 = H2realH2predict) were used as the target variable for the machine learning model. Linear regression models (LASSO and simple linear regression) were used to predict ∆H2 and this variable was added to the simplified forecast model. This consisted of the hybrid prediction of the resulting hydrogen formation (H2predict). Among the verified models, the simple linear regression adjusted better to the values of ∆H2 (R2 = 0.985) and MAE smaller than 0.1. Thus, the proposed hybrid architecture allowed for the prediction of the formation of hydrogen during the gasification process of lignin biomass, despite the thermodynamic limitations of the ideal gas model. Hybridization proved to be robust as a process monitoring tool, providing the abstraction of non-idealities of industrial processes through simple, data-oriented models, without losing predictive power. The objective of the work was fulfilled, presenting a new possibility for the monitoring of real industrial processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2493 KiB  
Article
Negative Impacts of Trace Metal Contamination on the Macrobenthic Communities along the Santos Port Complex—Brazil
by Jéssica de F. Delgado, Renan M. Amorim, Leonardo da S. Lima, Christine C. Gaylarde, José Antônio Baptista Neto, Samira C. de S. Pinto, Beatriz F. dos S. Gonçalves and Estefan M. da Fonseca
Eng 2023, 4(2), 1210-1224; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4020071 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1394
Abstract
Port sites represent one of the most impacted coastal areas; this impact is due to intensive anthropogenic pressures. In addition to the port complex itself, associated activities, such as indiscriminate disposal of pollutants, including trace metals, affect the local ecosystem. Macroinvertebrate benthic communities [...] Read more.
Port sites represent one of the most impacted coastal areas; this impact is due to intensive anthropogenic pressures. In addition to the port complex itself, associated activities, such as indiscriminate disposal of pollutants, including trace metals, affect the local ecosystem. Macroinvertebrate benthic communities are one of the most effective bioindicators of environmental health because of their importance as a primary food source for many fish, birds, and mammals, as well as their influence on sediment stability and geochemical composition. This article evaluates the benthic macrofauna in the Santos Estuarine System (SES), the location of the Santos Port Complex (SPC), linking trace metal levels to differences in microbenthic community structure and pollutant bioavailability. The distribution of Cd, Ni, and Pb was directly related to organic matter deposits, while Cu and Zn appeared to result from port activities. The SES contained a poor benthic macroinvertebrate community, resulting from the contaminated muddy sediments. A significant negative correlation was found between the macrobenthic diversity and concentrations of Cu in the soluble phase; this implied the pollution-induced degradation of the macrobenthos in SES. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1930 KiB  
Article
Environmental Impacts of Rainwater Harvesting Systems in Urban Areas Applying Life Cycle Assessment—LCA
by Mariana P. da Silva, Jorge González, Bruno B. F. da Costa, Claudia Garrido, Carlos A. P. Soares and Assed N. Haddad
Eng 2023, 4(2), 1127-1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4020065 - 10 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2678
Abstract
Climate change poses a series of challenges to water management to satisfy society’s current and future needs. Considering water an essential resource for life, this research is dedicated to comparing the environmental impacts caused by the conventional water supply system and Conventional Water [...] Read more.
Climate change poses a series of challenges to water management to satisfy society’s current and future needs. Considering water an essential resource for life, this research is dedicated to comparing the environmental impacts caused by the conventional water supply system and Conventional Water Supply system complemented with rainwater harvesting, considering in the first one not only the components of the municipal public supply, but also the hydraulic components of the residences until the point of use. A life cycle assessment—LCA—was conducted for the two systems, considering them from the catchment to the point of use. This methodology quantifies environmental impacts throughout the product or process life cycle to obtain sustainable options, from raw material extraction to ultimate disposal. The results expose that the hybrid system represents an increase in environmental impacts. However, at a building scale, this increase was very small, and this can be seen as favorable to the hybrid system due to the benefit it brings. The seven percent reduction in water demand over the conventional system can represent significant relief in regions that already have water stress as a reality. This study has the potential to guide managers and designers of public water policies, providing data for a better decision-making process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop