Advances in Structural Analysis and Rehabilitation for Existing Structures

A special issue of Eng (ISSN 2673-4117). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical, Civil and Environmental Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 13555

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calabria, via P. Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende, CS, Italy
Interests: cementitious; geopolymer; mortar; concrete; construction engineering; civil engineering materials; building materials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue titled "Advances in Structural Analysis and Rehabilitation for Existing Structures" is a timely and important addition to the field of civil engineering. This Special Issue presents the latest research and developments in the area of structural analysis and rehabilitation of existing structures, which is a critical and growing area of focus for the engineering community. The issue covers a broad range of topics related to the assessment, repair, strengthening, and maintenance of existing structures and includes contributions from leading researchers and practitioners from around the world.

The issue welcomes papers on the topic of structural assessment and monitoring. These papers describe innovative techniques for assessing the condition of existing structures, including non-destructive testing methods, structural health monitoring systems, and machine learning algorithms. For example, one paper describes a new approach for using machine learning algorithms to predict the remaining useful life of reinforced concrete structures based on non-destructive testing data. Another paper presents a wireless sensing system for real-time monitoring of bridge structures, which can provide early warning of potential structural issues and enable proactive maintenance.

Moreover, papers regarding repair and strengthening techniques for existing structures are expected. These papers address a variety of challenges, such as improving the durability and load-carrying capacity of deteriorating structures. One paper, for instance, discusses the use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites to strengthen concrete structures. Another paper presents a study on the use of shape memory alloy (SMA) wires to repair and strengthen reinforced concrete structures subjected to seismic loads.

Another set of papers in the issue focuses on the use of advanced materials for structural rehabilitation. These papers discuss the use of materials such as self-healing concrete, high-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites, and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates for the repair and strengthening of existing structures. For example, one paper presents a study on the use of self-healing concrete for repairing cracks in concrete structures. Another paper discusses the use of CFRP laminates for the seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete structures.

The issue also includes a set of papers on the topic of sustainability in structural rehabilitation. These papers focus on the development of sustainable rehabilitation strategies, such as the use of recycled materials, the use of renewable energy sources for monitoring and maintenance, and the development of life-cycle assessment tools for evaluating the environmental impact of rehabilitation strategies. One paper presents a study on the use of recycled aggregates in concrete for sustainable rehabilitation of deteriorated structures. Another paper discusses the use of renewable energy sources for powering wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring.

Overall, the Special Issue "Advances in Structural Analysis and Rehabilitation for Existing Structures" presents a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the latest research and developments in the field. The issue covers a broad range of topics related to the assessment, repair, strengthening, and maintenance of existing structures and includes contributions from leading researchers and practitioners from around the world. The papers in this issue will be of interest to researchers, engineers, and practitioners involved in the design, assessment, and rehabilitation of existing structures and will provide valuable insights and knowledge to help to address the challenges and opportunities in this important and growing field.

Dr. Alessio Cascardi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Eng is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • composites
  • strengthening
  • retrofitting
  • structural analysis
  • testing
  • design-oriented model

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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28 pages, 11995 KiB  
Article
Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites Integrated Beam–Column Joints with Improved Strength Performance against Seismic Events: Numerical Model Simulation
by Noor Alhuda Sami Aljabbri, Abdulamir Atalla Karim and Fareed Hameed Majeed
Eng 2024, 5(2), 1112-1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng5020061 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 187
Abstract
Strength enhancement of non-seismic concrete beam–column joints (NSCBCJs) via carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRPCs) integration has become a viable strategy. However, the implementation of these NSCBCJs without transverse reinforcement shows poor performance during earthquakes in seismic locations. Thus, strengthening the anti-seismic performance of [...] Read more.
Strength enhancement of non-seismic concrete beam–column joints (NSCBCJs) via carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRPCs) integration has become a viable strategy. However, the implementation of these NSCBCJs without transverse reinforcement shows poor performance during earthquakes in seismic locations. Thus, strengthening the anti-seismic performance of NSCBCJs to meet the acceptance criteria of ACI 374.1-05 is fundamentally significant. Yet, in addition to limited experimental results, only a few numerical studies based on the finite element model have been performed to determine the anti-seismic behavior of NSCBCJs. Consequently, the stress contribution of CFRPCs to NSCBCJs is not clearly understood. Therefore, we used a finite element model to examine the strength contribution of CFRPCs to NSCBCJs. The performance of the proposed finite element model was validated using the experimental results, demonstrating a good agreement between them. It was shown that the strength of NSCBCJs was improved due to CFRPC incorporation, thereby achieving compliance with the seismic requirements of ACI 374.1-05. In addition, CFRPCs presence could enhance the confinement, reduce the deformation of the NSCBCJs and, thus, decrease their stiffness and strength degradation, while simultaneously improving the energy dissipation. Full article
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24 pages, 9062 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation of Self-Compacting Glass Fiber Concrete Incorporating Silica Fume at Elevated Temperatures
by Hussein Kareem Sultan, Abbas Abdulhssein Abd Noor and Ghasan Fahim Huseien
Eng 2024, 5(2), 1043-1066; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng5020057 - 1 Jun 2024
Viewed by 221
Abstract
In this work, the properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) and SCC containing 0.5 and 1% glass fibers (with lengths of 6 and 13 mm) were experimentally investigated, as well as their performance at high temperatures. With a heating rate of 5 °C/min, high-temperature [...] Read more.
In this work, the properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) and SCC containing 0.5 and 1% glass fibers (with lengths of 6 and 13 mm) were experimentally investigated, as well as their performance at high temperatures. With a heating rate of 5 °C/min, high-temperature experiments were conducted at 200, 400, 600, and 800 °C to examine mass loss, spalling, and the remaining mechanical properties of SCC with and without glass fibers. According to the results of the flowability and passing ability tests, adding glass fibers does not affect how workable and self-compacting SCCs were. These findings also demonstrated that the mechanical properties of samples with and without glass fibers rose up to 200 °C but then decreased at 400 °C, whereas the mixture containing 0.5% glass fibers of a length of 13 mm displayed better mechanical properties. Both SCC samples with and without glass fibers remained intact at 200 °C. Some SCC samples displayed some corner and edge spalling when the temperature reached about 400 °C. Above 400 °C, a significant number of microcracks started to form. SCC samples quickly spalled and were completely destroyed between 600 and 800 °C. According to the results, glass fibers cannot stop SCC from spalling during a fire. Between 200 and 400 °C, there was no discernible mass loss. At 600 °C, mass loss starts to accelerate quickly, and it increased more than ten times beyond 200 °C. The ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of SCC samples with glass fibers increased between room temperature and 200 °C, and the mixture containing 0.5% glass fibers of a length of 13 mm showed a somewhat higher UPV than other SCC mixtures until it started to decline at about 400 °C. Full article
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18 pages, 2340 KiB  
Article
Minimum Shear Reinforcement for Reactive Powder Concrete Beams
by Hussein Kareem Sultan and Ghasan Fahim Huseien
Eng 2024, 5(2), 801-818; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng5020043 - 8 May 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 490
Abstract
The aim of this research was to determine the minimal requirements for shear reinforcement for reactive powder concrete (RPC) rectangular cross-sectional beams with a compressive strength of 157 MPa and a steel fiber volume content of 2.0% that remained constant for all the [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to determine the minimal requirements for shear reinforcement for reactive powder concrete (RPC) rectangular cross-sectional beams with a compressive strength of 157 MPa and a steel fiber volume content of 2.0% that remained constant for all the tested beams. Additionally, the recommendations of KCI-2012 and AFGC-2013 for the design of RPC beams as well as the shear design requirements of ACI 314-2014 when applied to RPC beams were studied. Utilizing a three-dimensional finite element program, a computational model was designed for forecasting the deformations and shear strength of the examined RPC beams. Both the shear-span-to-depth relationship (a/d) and the minimal reinforcement web ratio, represented by the distance between stirrups and the diameter of the stirrup bars, are the key study parameters in this regard. According to this study’s experimental findings, increasing the given reinforcement of the web ratio has little influence on both the ultimate shear strength as well as the diagonal cracking strength of the beams. Additionally, the findings demonstrated that the ACI 318-2014 maximum stirrup spacing requirement of 0.5 d can safely be extended to 0.75 d for beams that are relatively short. Compared to what ACI 318-2014 mandates, the suggestions of AFGC-2013 and KCI-2012 are more cautious and safe. According to the AFGC-2013 criteria, the mean proportion of Vfb to projected Vu,AFGC is roughly 58.3%, whereas the mean proportion of vs. and Vc is just 41.7%. The deformation response and ultimate shear strength of the examined RPC beams were well predicted by the designed model using finite elements when metal fibers were taken into account. Full article
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13 pages, 4168 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of the Seismic Performance of an Innovative Type of Buckling-Restrained Brace (BRB)
by Ali Naghshineh, Oliver Fischer, Nasreen B. Pathan, Logan Couch and Fariborz M. Tehrani
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2978-2990; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040167 - 1 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1220
Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated that the inclusion of tire-derived aggregate (TDA) enhances the damping, ductility, and toughness of concrete mixtures. The effectiveness of tire-derived aggregate as a ductile material with a higher damping ratio and lower density in buckling-restrained braces has been examined [...] Read more.
Previous studies have demonstrated that the inclusion of tire-derived aggregate (TDA) enhances the damping, ductility, and toughness of concrete mixtures. The effectiveness of tire-derived aggregate as a ductile material with a higher damping ratio and lower density in buckling-restrained braces has been examined at California State University’s Structures Laboratory (CSU). Through experimental and theoretical investigations, this study compares the structural application of buckling-restrained braces with TDA and with conventional concrete infill subjected to various ground motions as well as artificial excitations. The evaluations include modeling a full-scale experimental setup equipped with a single-leg BRB utilizing ETABS 2016 and OpenSees 2000 software. The effectiveness of the application is demonstrated through a comparison of accelerations, displacements, stiffness, and damping ratios between TDA and concrete filling. Additionally, a design guideline for TDA-filled buckling-restrained braced frames is provided. Full article
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16 pages, 2951 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Groundwater Contamination in the Southeastern Coast of Brazil: A Potential Threat to Human Health in Marica Municipality
by Maria Cristina M. Publio, Jessica F. Delgado, Bruno S. Pierri, Leonardo da S. Lima, Christine C. Gaylarde, José Antônio Baptista Neto, Charles V. Neves and Estefan M. Fonseca
Eng 2023, 4(4), 2640-2655; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4040151 - 17 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1113
Abstract
Groundwater pollution is a current issue that may result in considerable negative effects on human health and the ecological balance. In the present study, the authors evaluated pollutants in groundwater in Maricá Municipality, located on the east side of Rio de Janeiro state [...] Read more.
Groundwater pollution is a current issue that may result in considerable negative effects on human health and the ecological balance. In the present study, the authors evaluated pollutants in groundwater in Maricá Municipality, located on the east side of Rio de Janeiro state in Brazil. The evaluated parameters were temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, Eh, dissolved oxygen, chlorides, nitrates, dissolved organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, phosphates, and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Due to the large number of evaluated points, they were divided into zones according to the respective hydrographic basin. The local accelerated urbanization accompanying income from oil production has led to uncontrolled population growth and associated groundwater pollution. The results of the present study suggest that sewage pollution of Maricá groundwater is already a significant issue. The lack of investment in basic sanitation has led to an imbalance in the local groundwater reservoir. In certain locations of the municipality, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nutrient, and bacteria concentrations increase and spread in the aquifers because of domestic waste disposal. As aquifers are the main source of freshwater for the residents, contamination of them represents a potential threat to local public health. Full article
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28 pages, 11267 KiB  
Article
A Parametric Study on the LDB Strength of Steel-Concrete Composite Beams
by Alexandre Rossi, Adriano Silva de Carvalho, Vinicius Moura de Oliveira, Alex Sander Clemente de Souza and Carlos Humberto Martins
Eng 2023, 4(3), 2226-2253; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4030128 - 27 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 840
Abstract
Lateral distortional buckling (LDB) is an instability phenomenon characteristic of steel-concrete composite beams (SCCB) that occurs in the presence of hogging moments in regions close to internal supports. The LDB behavior in SCCB is not yet fully understood. The procedures for determining the [...] Read more.
Lateral distortional buckling (LDB) is an instability phenomenon characteristic of steel-concrete composite beams (SCCB) that occurs in the presence of hogging moments in regions close to internal supports. The LDB behavior in SCCB is not yet fully understood. The procedures for determining the LDB strength are based on the classic lateral torsional buckling theory or on the inverted U-frame model. In addition, the standard procedures make use of the classic design curves of the SSRC (Structural Stability Research Council) and ECCS (European Convention for Constructional Steelwork) developed to analyze the stability behavior of steel elements. However, studies indicate that the use of the same empirical curves obtained for the analysis of steel elements leads to the conservative results of the LDB strength in SCCB. Therefore, this article aims to assess the LDB strength in SCCB through the development of post-buckling numerical analysis using the ABAQUS software. In the parametric study, four types of steel with different mechanical properties were analyzed. In addition, the I-section, the unrestrained length, and the reinforcement rate in the concrete slab were varied. The results showed the influence of the steel type on the LDB strength and deviations from the standard procedures. A small influence of the longitudinal reinforcement area variation was verified in the LDB strength in the FE analyses; however, this factor is significantly important in the standard procedures, causing considerable divergences. These results can provide a reference for future research and specification reviews. Full article
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15 pages, 6721 KiB  
Article
Insight into the Optimization of Implementation Time in Cob Construction: Field Test and Compressive Strength Versus Drying Kinetics
by Karim Touati, Baraa Al Sahmarany, Malo Le Guern, Yassine El Mendili, François Streiff and Steve Goodhew
Eng 2023, 4(3), 2075-2089; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4030117 - 25 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1454
Abstract
Mastering construction times is of paramount importance in making vernacular earth construction techniques attractive to modern clients. The work presented here is a contribution towards the optimization of the construction time of cob buildings. Therefore, this paper follows the evolution of a cob’s [...] Read more.
Mastering construction times is of paramount importance in making vernacular earth construction techniques attractive to modern clients. The work presented here is a contribution towards the optimization of the construction time of cob buildings. Therefore, this paper follows the evolution of a cob’s mechanical properties during its drying process in the case of a double-walling CobBauge system. Laboratory tests and in situ measurements were performed, and further results were described. Volumetric water content sensors were immersed in the walls of a CobBauge prototype building during its construction. The evolution of the cob layer’s compressive strength and Clegg Impact Value (CIV) as a function of its water content has been experimentally studied and discussed. These studies showed that compressive strength and CIV are correlated with water content, and both properties decrease exponentially with time. In this study, a new tool to evaluate cob’s mechanical performances in situ has been proposed, Clegg Impact Soil Tester. This was linked to compressive strength, and a linear relationship between these two properties was found. Finally, appropriate values of compressive strength and CIV to satisfy before formwork stripping and re-lifting were proposed. For this study’s conditions, these values are reached after approximately 27 days. Full article
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19 pages, 7570 KiB  
Article
Seismic Resilience and Design Factors of Inline Seismic Friction Dampers (ISFDs)
by Ali Naghshineh, Ashutosh Bagchi and Fariborz M. Tehrani
Eng 2023, 4(3), 2015-2033; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4030114 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1328
Abstract
While damping devices can provide supplemental damping to mitigate building vibration due to wind or earthquake effects, integrating them into the design is more complex. For example, the Canadian code does not provide building designs with inline friction dampers. The objective of this [...] Read more.
While damping devices can provide supplemental damping to mitigate building vibration due to wind or earthquake effects, integrating them into the design is more complex. For example, the Canadian code does not provide building designs with inline friction dampers. The objective of this present article was to study the overstrength, ductility, and response modification factors of concrete frame buildings with inline friction dampers in the Canadian context. For that purpose, a set of four-, eight-, and fourteen-story ductile concrete frames with inline seismic friction dampers, designed based on the 2015 National Building Code of Canada (NBCC), was considered. The analyses included pushover analysis in determining seismic characteristics and dynamic response history analysis using twenty-five ground motion records to assess the seismic performance of the buildings equipped with inline seismic friction dampers. The methodology considered diagonal braces, including different 6 m and 8 m span lengths. The discussion covers the prescribed design values for overstrength, ductility, and response modification factors, as well as the performance assessment of the buildings. The results revealed that increasing the height of the structure and reducing the span length increases the response modification factors. Full article
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19 pages, 3466 KiB  
Article
Improved Structural Health Monitoring Using Mode Shapes: An Enhanced Framework for Damage Detection in 2D and 3D Structures
by Marzieh Zamani Kouhpangi, Shaghayegh Yaghoubi and Ahmadreza Torabipour
Eng 2023, 4(2), 1742-1760; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4020099 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is crucial for ensuring the safety and performance of offshore platforms. SHM uses advanced sensor systems to detect and respond to negative changes in structures, improving their reliability and extending their life cycle. Model updating methods are also useful [...] Read more.
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is crucial for ensuring the safety and performance of offshore platforms. SHM uses advanced sensor systems to detect and respond to negative changes in structures, improving their reliability and extending their life cycle. Model updating methods are also useful for sensitivity analysis. It is feasible to discuss and introduce established techniques for detecting damage in structures by utilizing their mode shapes. In this research, by considering reducing the stiffness of elements in the damage scenarios, we conducted simulations of the models in MATLAB, including both two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures, to update the method suggested by Wang. Wang’s method was improved to produce a sensitivity equation for the damaged structures. The sensitivity equation solution using a subset of mode shapes data was found to evaluate structural parameter changes. Comparing the updated results for Wang’s method and the suggested method in the two- and three-dimensional frames showed a noticeable modification in damage recognition. Furthermore, the suggested method can update a model containing measurement errors. Since Wang’s damage detection formulation is suitable only for 2D structures, this modified framework provides a more accurate decision-making tool for damage detection of structures, regardless of whether a 2D or 3D formulation is used. Full article
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25 pages, 9354 KiB  
Article
Chemo-Thermo-Mechanical FEA as a Support Tool for Damage Diagnostic of a Cracked Concrete Arch Dam: A Case Study
by Noemi Schclar Leitão and Eloísa Castilho
Eng 2023, 4(2), 1265-1289; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4020074 - 22 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1297
Abstract
Most of the larger hydropower plants in Western Europe, the former Soviet Union, North America and Japan were constructed between the 1940s and 1970s. This implies that the rehabilitation or repair of existing dams is a top priority, which entails new challenges for [...] Read more.
Most of the larger hydropower plants in Western Europe, the former Soviet Union, North America and Japan were constructed between the 1940s and 1970s. This implies that the rehabilitation or repair of existing dams is a top priority, which entails new challenges for the dam engineering community. Since no two dams are the same, in cases in which abnormal behavior is suspected, an in-depth diagnosis of the state of the dam to define the causes and consequences of the damage is required. To illustrate the diagnostic process, an old concrete arch dam is presented which showed signs of reservoir water seepage through some construction joints, resulting in a buildup of calcium carbonate on the downstream face. After analyzing the available data, we put forward a hypothesis that the high temperature gradient promoted the opening of some construction joints on the upstream face during the first filling of the reservoir. Over time, water penetration expanded the cracks, reaching the downstream face. To prove our diagnosis, a chemo-thermo-mechanical finite element analysis was carried out in order to simulate the behavior of the dam during its construction and initial impoundment. Full article
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Review

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20 pages, 6998 KiB  
Review
Surface Waterproofing Techniques: A Case Study in Nova Lima, Brazil
by Lorena Carias de Freitas Gomes, Henrique Comba Gomes and Elvys Dias Reis
Eng 2023, 4(3), 1871-1890; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng4030106 - 4 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3200
Abstract
Considering the various problems caused by infiltration in civil construction, this study aimed to identify the most appropriate waterproofing methods for different types of surfaces. A study was conducted on the mechanisms of water infiltration on surfaces and the waterproofing methods available on [...] Read more.
Considering the various problems caused by infiltration in civil construction, this study aimed to identify the most appropriate waterproofing methods for different types of surfaces. A study was conducted on the mechanisms of water infiltration on surfaces and the waterproofing methods available on the market, focusing on asphalt blankets, in addition to a literature review highlighting state-of-the-art methods on this topic. A case study was also conducted in a residence in Nova Lima, Brazil, analyzing different waterproofing techniques, including their characteristics and stages. Among the conclusions, it is highlighted that the implementation of adequate project, installation, inspection, and maintenance techniques can significantly reduce the waterproofing failure rate and repair costs, and that the excellent choice of materials, along with the skill of the labor force in the application, is fundamental to guarantee the adequate performance of these materials in buildings. Full article
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