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Colloids Interfaces, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 7 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Deposition of Synthetic and Bio-Based Polycations onto Negatively Charged Solid Surfaces: Effect of the Polymer Cationicity, Ionic Strength, and the Addition of an Anionic Surfactant
Colloids Interfaces 2020, 4(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids4030033 (registering DOI) - 05 Aug 2020
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Abstract
The deposition of layers of different polycations (synthetic or derived from natural, renewable resources) onto oppositely charged surfaces has been studied using ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Information about the thickness of the deposited layers and their water content [...] Read more.
The deposition of layers of different polycations (synthetic or derived from natural, renewable resources) onto oppositely charged surfaces has been studied using ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Information about the thickness of the deposited layers and their water content was ascertained. The adsorption of the different polycations onto negatively charged surfaces was found to be a complex process, which is influenced by the chemical nature of the polymer chains, ionic strength, polymer concentration and the addition of additives such as surfactants. The experimental picture shows a good agreement with theoretical calculations performed using the Self-Consistent Mean Field (SCF) approach. The results show that the electrostatically-driven deposition can be tuned by modifying the physico-chemical properties of the solutions and the chemical nature of the adsorbed polymer. This versatile approach is a big step forward in aiding the design of new polymers for many industrial applications and, in particular, the design of sustainable washing formulations for cosmetic applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Oil Removal of Polymer Flooding Produced Sewerage Using Super-Hydrophobic Mesh Filtration Method
Colloids Interfaces 2020, 4(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids4030032 - 02 Aug 2020
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Abstract
During the past 20 years, polymer flooding has become a successful enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique for mature reservoirs with high water cut and recovery percent around the world. However, the high bulk viscosity of polymer solutions could slow down the separation rate [...] Read more.
During the past 20 years, polymer flooding has become a successful enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique for mature reservoirs with high water cut and recovery percent around the world. However, the high bulk viscosity of polymer solutions could slow down the separation rate of the crude oil emulsion and make it difficult to treat the produced fluid. Consequently, the efficient removal of oil from the polymer flooding produced sewerage has still drawn significant concern. In this research, a high flux super-hydrophobic copper mesh was prepared using two-stage processes to treat the sewerage from polymer flooding. The surface of the super-hydrophobic mesh was characterized using various techniques including scanning electron microscope (SEM), OCA 20-contact angle goniometer, etc. Accordingly, the static contact angle of the super-hydrophobic copper mesh reached up to 165°. Moreover, the performances of the mesh were systematically evaluated under different internal and external factors such as oil to water volume ratio, polymer concentration, shear rate, and pH. The corresponding configuration and separation mechanisms are further explained in detail. The prepared superhydrophobic mesh can be a potential candidate for sewerage with both a polymer solution and crude oil. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Foam Formation by Compression/Decompression Cycle of Soft Porous Media
Colloids Interfaces 2020, 4(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids4030031 - 31 Jul 2020
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Abstract
A theory of the amount of foam produced by compression/decompression cycles of a soft porous media is developed. The amount of foam produced was found to be dependent on both the amount of surfactant within the media and the minimum separation between the [...] Read more.
A theory of the amount of foam produced by compression/decompression cycles of a soft porous media is developed. The amount of foam produced was found to be dependent on both the amount of surfactant within the media and the minimum separation between the plates of the compression device. The latter is determined by the mechanical properties of the soft media. The theory also shows the importance of the decompression of the media as this is the mechanism of where the air penetrates into the soft porous material. The accumulated air is used during the compression stage for foam formation. The theoretically predicted values of foam mass are found to have good agreement with experimental observations, which validates the theory predictions. The theory also predicts independence of the foam produced in terms of the frequency of compression/decompression cycles, which agrees with our experimental observations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Diffusiophoresis in Suspensions of Charged Soft Particles
Colloids Interfaces 2020, 4(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids4030030 - 29 Jul 2020
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Abstract
The diffusiophoresis in a suspension of charged soft particles in electrolyte solution is analyzed. Each soft particle is composed of a hard core of radius r0 and surface charge density σ and an adsorbed fluid-penetrable porous shell of thickness ar [...] Read more.
The diffusiophoresis in a suspension of charged soft particles in electrolyte solution is analyzed. Each soft particle is composed of a hard core of radius r0 and surface charge density σ and an adsorbed fluid-penetrable porous shell of thickness ar0 and fixed charge density Q. The effect of particle interactions is considered by using a unit cell model. The ionic concentration, electric potential, and fluid velocity distributions in a unit cell are solved as power expansions in σ and Q, and an explicit formula for the diffusiophoretic velocity of the soft particle is derived from a balance between the hydrodynamic and electrostatic forces exerted on it. This formula is correct to the second orders of σ and Q and valid for arbitrary values of κa, λa, r0/a, and the particle volume fraction of the suspension, where κ is the Debye screening parameter and λ is the reciprocal of a length featuring the flow penetration into the porous shell. The effects of the physical characteristics and particle interactions on the diffusiophoresis (including electrophoresis and chemiphoresis) in a suspension of charged soft particles, which become those of hard particles and porous particles in the limits r0=a and r0=0, respectively, are significant and complicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloids and Colloidal Stability)
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Open AccessArticle
Drop Size Dependence of the Apparent Surface Tension of Aqueous Solutions in Hexane Vapor as Studied by Drop Profile Analysis Tensiometry
Colloids Interfaces 2020, 4(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids4030029 - 27 Jul 2020
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Abstract
Surface tension experiments were performed using the drop profile analysis tensiometry method. The hexane was injected into the measuring cell at certain times before the formation of the solution drop. The influence of the capillary diameter and solution drop size on the measured [...] Read more.
Surface tension experiments were performed using the drop profile analysis tensiometry method. The hexane was injected into the measuring cell at certain times before the formation of the solution drop. The influence of the capillary diameter and solution drop size on the measured apparent dynamic surface tension was studied. The amount of hexane transferred from the vapor phase to the drop was estimated. For large pure water drops, it was shown that the ageing of the drop in the hexane vapor during a long time resulted in the formation of a liquid hexane phase covering the drop, but the volume of this phase did not exceed 0.5 mm3. On the contrary, for surfactant solution drops the volume of the hexane phase covering the drop was essentially larger. Experiments with solution drops were performed to measure the surface tension within a wide range of surfactant concentration. It was found that the dependencies of dynamic surface tension on the C13DMPO and C14EO8 solutions concentration exhibit maxima at concentrations of about 1–2 μmol/L for C14EO8 and 2–5 μmol/L for C13DMPO at ageing times of 100 to 1000 s; these maxima were shown to exist also at equilibrium. This phenomenon is presumably ascribed to the competitive character of simultaneous adsorption of hexane and surfactant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Nanoparticles Using DSPE-PEG2000 and Soluplus
Colloids Interfaces 2020, 4(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids4030028 - 17 Jul 2020
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the characterized hydration method to prepare nanoparticles using Soluplus, a block copolymer with amphipathic properties, and distearoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DSPE)-PEG2000 owing to particle size distribution, zeta potential, particle stability, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observed [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the characterized hydration method to prepare nanoparticles using Soluplus, a block copolymer with amphipathic properties, and distearoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DSPE)-PEG2000 owing to particle size distribution, zeta potential, particle stability, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observed and 31P-NMR spectra. The results showed that, in a suspension of DSPE-PEG2000 and Soluplus at a ratio of 1/1, the prepared microparticles were stable for five days in the dark and at 25 °C. It was also confirmed that the 1/1 suspension of DSPE-PEG2000/Soluplus was stable for five days under the same conditions with the magnesium chloride solution. TEM measurements confirmed the presence of micelle-like particles of 50 to 150 nm in the 1/1 ratio mix of DSPE-PEG2000/Soluplus. 31P-NMR spectral data confirmed that DPSE-PEG2000/Soluplus at mixing ratio of 1/1 has a strong intermolecular with the phosphate group, indicated by the fact that the peak shift and the full width at half maximum were the largest compared with DSPE-PEG2000 with the intermolecular interaction. On the basis of the findings of this study, we conclude that microparticles can be formed using DSPE-PEG2000 and Soluplus via the hydration method, and that the optimum weight ratio of DSPE-PEG2000 to Soluplus is 1/1. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Temperature on the Dynamic Properties of Mixed Surfactant Adsorbed Layers at the Water/Hexane Interface under Low-Gravity Conditions
Colloids Interfaces 2020, 4(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids4030027 - 02 Jul 2020
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Abstract
An increase in temperature typically leads to a decrease in the interfacial tension of a water/oil interface. The addition of surfactants to the system can complicate the situation significantly, i.e., the interfacial tension can increase or decrease with an increasing temperature. For most [...] Read more.
An increase in temperature typically leads to a decrease in the interfacial tension of a water/oil interface. The addition of surfactants to the system can complicate the situation significantly, i.e., the interfacial tension can increase or decrease with an increasing temperature. For most concentrations of the two studied surfactants, the cationic tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (TTAB) and the nonionic tridecyl dimethyl phosphine oxide (C13DMPO), the measured interfacial tension of the aqueous mixed surfactant solutions against hexane increases when the temperature decreases between 30 °C and 20 °C. However, with a further temperature decrease between 20 °C and 15 °C, the reverse effect has also been observed at some concentrations, i.e., a decrease of interfacial tension. Additionally, the corresponding dilational interfacial visco-elasticity shows some discrepant temperature effects, depending on the bulk concentration and oscillation frequency. The experiments have been performed with a capillary pressure tensiometer under the conditions of micro-gravity. The reason for the positive and negative interfacial tension and visco-elasticity gradients, respectively, within certain ranges of the temperature, concentration and mixing ratios, are discussed on the basis of all available parameters, such as the solubility and partitioning of the surfactants in the two liquid phases and the oscillation frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Scientists in Colloids and Interfaces: Emil Chibowski)
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