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Proceedings, Volume 16, ISMO’19

Innovations-Sustainability-Modernity-Openness Conference (ISMO’19)

Bialystok, Poland | 22–23 May 2019

Volume Editors:

Dorota Anna Krawczyk (Bialystok University of Technology)

Iwona Skoczko (Bialystok University of Technology)

Antonio Rodero Serrano (University of Cordoba)


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Cover Story (view full-size image) This volume of Proceedings aims to gather the papers presented at the Eighth International [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial
Preface: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference ISMO’19—Innovations-Sustainability-Modernity-Openness
Published: 13 June 2019
Viewed by 199 | PDF Full-text (150 KB)
Abstract
The 8th International Conference ISMO’19—Innovations-Sustainability-Modernity-Openness
was held on 22–23 May 2019 in Bialystok (Poland). [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

Open AccessProceedings
Valorization of Anaerobic Digestate from Biowaste to High-Value Bioproducts: A Review
Published: 11 June 2019
Viewed by 210 | PDF Full-text (233 KB)
Abstract
Vital research has been carried out on the sustainable organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) stream management in the last five years. In addition to the traditional approach to reducing its environmental side effects, considering OFMSW as a feedstock to produce bioproducts, [...] Read more.
Vital research has been carried out on the sustainable organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) stream management in the last five years. In addition to the traditional approach to reducing its environmental side effects, considering OFMSW as a feedstock to produce bioproducts, such as enzymes, bioplastics, biopesticides, and other high-value products, represents a key component in the transformation of OFMSW treatment plants (biogas or mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plants) into biorefineries. This short review is intended to assess and analyze the current state of knowledge of OFMSW treatment technologies, suggest practical solution options, and identify future research and development needs to help promote more sustainable management of this underutilized and ever-growing waste stream. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Experimental Investigations of Energy and Exergy Efficiencies of an Evacuated Tube Solar Collector
Published: 11 June 2019
Viewed by 174 | PDF Full-text (236 KB)
Abstract
The main purpose of the analysis is to determine the influence of the weather and operating conditions on the energy and exergy efficiencies of an evacuated tube solar collector, heat pipe type with a mixture of water and propylene glycol (50%/50%) as a [...] Read more.
The main purpose of the analysis is to determine the influence of the weather and operating conditions on the energy and exergy efficiencies of an evacuated tube solar collector, heat pipe type with a mixture of water and propylene glycol (50%/50%) as a working fluid under the Polish climate conditions (the geographical coordinates for Lublin: Latitude 51°15′ N and longitude 22°34′ E), according to the experimental data. The solar collector with an aperture area of 3.6 m2 is a main component of the solar hot water test installation located in the laboratory of the Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Lublin University of Technology. Studies have been presented for August. Based on the results, the average daily energy efficiency of the solar collector at the level of 34% (14.3–58.8%) and the average daily exergy efficiency of the solar collector at the level of 2.25% (0.86–3.75%) were established. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Experiments on Water Stabilization
Published: 11 June 2019
Viewed by 138 | PDF Full-text (193 KB)
Abstract
The aim of the study was assessment of groundwater stabilization. Corrosive water effects on metals include complex electrochemical and biochemical processes. None of the water components remain indifferent to the metal and can accelerate or delay its corrosion. On the basis of the [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was assessment of groundwater stabilization. Corrosive water effects on metals include complex electrochemical and biochemical processes. None of the water components remain indifferent to the metal and can accelerate or delay its corrosion. On the basis of the conducted tests of water samples, the aggressiveness and corrosivity indicators were calculated. Conducted research included analyses of raw and treated water. Raw water was taken as groundwater. Then it was treated in individual and complex processes such as aeration, filtration and ion exchange. Water aggressiveness and corrosion level were introduced by the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI), the Ryznar Stability Index (RI), the Larsoni–Skold Index (LI) and the Singley Index (SI). Obtained results proved that used water treatment processes must be improved through additional aeration and filtration with a dolomite bed. A simple system typical for industrial water is not enough to reach stable water because of remaining aggressiveness and corrosion. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Effect of Moisture and Ash on the Calorific Value of Cow Dung Biomass
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 222 | PDF Full-text (226 KB)
Abstract
Cow dung biomass was taken from December 2017 to April 2018. After drying and crushing, analytical moisture was determined, followed by the content of ash, total carbon, total sulfur, heat of combustion, and calorific value. Research has shown that the moisture of the [...] Read more.
Cow dung biomass was taken from December 2017 to April 2018. After drying and crushing, analytical moisture was determined, followed by the content of ash, total carbon, total sulfur, heat of combustion, and calorific value. Research has shown that the moisture of the biomass burned has a significant impact on both the ash content and its calorific value. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Electrochemical Corrosion Monitoring in Low Conductive Fluid: Pilot-Scale Study on Sulfolane Corrosion Potential
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 218 | PDF Full-text (1256 KB)
Abstract
Solvents are a group of chemical compounds that are widely used in organic synthesis. Taking into account the chemical nature, solvents are divided into protic and aprotic ones. An attractive alternative to commonly used industrial extractive liquids is an anthropogenic, organosulfur medium—sulfolane. Sulfolane [...] Read more.
Solvents are a group of chemical compounds that are widely used in organic synthesis. Taking into account the chemical nature, solvents are divided into protic and aprotic ones. An attractive alternative to commonly used industrial extractive liquids is an anthropogenic, organosulfur medium—sulfolane. Sulfolane is a five-membered heterocyclic sulfur–organic compound from the group of sulfones (R-SO2-R’, where R/R’ is alkyl, alkenyl, or aryl), which contains an apolar hydrocarbon backbone and a polar functional group. It is a selective solvent in the liquid–liquid and liquid–vapor extraction processes used for the removal of close-boiling alkanes from cycloalkanes or for the separation of compounds with different degrees of saturation and polarity in the extractive rectification of arenes from non-aromatic saturated hydrocarbon mixtures. In standard conditions sulfolane is not an aggressive solvent for steel, but at higher temperature (170–180 °C) and oxygen availability, it may be decomposed and subsequently some corrosive (by-)products can be formed. The primary purpose of the presented pilot-case examination was to verify applicability of the industrial, multi-electrochemical technique for reliable detection of the corrosion processes in low conductive fluids. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Magnetic Field Usage for the Removal of Iron by Filtration-Assisted Different Filter Materials
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 198 | PDF Full-text (196 KB)
Abstract
The conducted research concerned the effect of a magnetic field (MF) on the removal of iron compounds. The tested process was filtration through a quartz sand bed with a grain size of 0.4–0.8 mm. Another examined material was activated alumina. The obtained results [...] Read more.
The conducted research concerned the effect of a magnetic field (MF) on the removal of iron compounds. The tested process was filtration through a quartz sand bed with a grain size of 0.4–0.8 mm. Another examined material was activated alumina. The obtained results proved that the MF had a significant impact on the efficiency of iron removal from a water filtrated trough than activated alumina. It was proven that the effect of the magnetic field on the filtration process using other filtration materials, was insignificant. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Agricultural Biogas Plant Location Selection Using MCDA Methods
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 219 | PDF Full-text (281 KB)
Abstract
Agricultural biogas plants are an investment that benefits both investors, inhabitants of a given region, as well as the natural environment. Such a project, despite many economic, environmental, and social advantages, is also associated with the emission of unpleasant odors or noise. That [...] Read more.
Agricultural biogas plants are an investment that benefits both investors, inhabitants of a given region, as well as the natural environment. Such a project, despite many economic, environmental, and social advantages, is also associated with the emission of unpleasant odors or noise. That is why selecting the location of an agricultural biogas plant is a particularly important task. The investment location was selected using multicriteria decision-making (MCDA or MCDM) methods. Of the three variants, the most favorable in terms of the adopted criteria was selected using both analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) methods. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Simultaneous Quantification of Chosen Organic Micropollutants in Drinking Water
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 217 | PDF Full-text (320 KB)
Abstract
An analytical method that can allow one to determine simultaneously chosen organic micropollutants has been developed to measure their concentrations in water. Standard mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was added to distilled water in a specific [...] Read more.
An analytical method that can allow one to determine simultaneously chosen organic micropollutants has been developed to measure their concentrations in water. Standard mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was added to distilled water in a specific amount. The solid phase extraction (SPE) method was applied. Isopropyl alcohol and methanol were used to precondition SPE extraction columns. PAH and PCB were eluted from the column fillings using dichloromethane. Extracts were condensed to a volume of 2 mL. Prepared samples were analyzed with the use of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The achieved percent recovery of PAH was from around 7% in the case of chrysene to 100% in the case of naphthalene. The achieved percent recovery of PCB was from about 51% in the case of PCB 101 to 92% in the case of PCB 156. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
An Evaluation of Primary Energy Factor Values of Wind Turbines
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 246 | PDF Full-text (251 KB)
Abstract
In order to fulfil the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requirements regarding the reduction of energy consumption in buildings, much attention has been paid to primary energy consumption. Wind energy is one type of primary energy. The analysis of the literature [...] Read more.
In order to fulfil the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requirements regarding the reduction of energy consumption in buildings, much attention has been paid to primary energy consumption. Wind energy is one type of primary energy. The analysis of the literature has revealed that wind energy is evaluated by different methods. Therefore, the aim of this article was to calculate the effect of the parameters of wind sources on the primary energy factor of wind turbines. In order to achieve this aim, the primary energy factor of 100 investigated wind turbines and 11 wind farms operating in Lithuania was calculated. Investigation results showed that the difference of the non-renewable primary energy factor between wind turbines due to capacity is 35%. This paper provides a recommendation with regard to EU energy efficiency and renewable energy directives and regulations: All EU member states should use the same or very similar methodology for the calculation of the primary energy factor of renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Arguments for the Need to Modernize Water Treatment Technology in Small Towns and Cities, Based on the Example of the Municipality of Puńsk
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 204 | PDF Full-text (209 KB)
Abstract
The goal of the research was to assess the pollution level of water in the existing real water treatment station in Pelele in the municipality of Punsk. The station needed to be rebuilt because the equipment in operation there had not been changed [...] Read more.
The goal of the research was to assess the pollution level of water in the existing real water treatment station in Pelele in the municipality of Punsk. The station needed to be rebuilt because the equipment in operation there had not been changed for years. As part of the research efforts, a new water purification system was designed. The technology of the station is based on a two-stage water treatment system. Water picked up directly from the intake (raw water) as well as purified water at the old and new stations were analyzed. Then, the results obtained from water tests before and after modernization of the station were compared. There were such parameters analyzed as: color, turbidity, pH, iron (Fe), and Manganese (Mn). Through the conducted research and the results of pollution parameters received, the levels of Fe and Mn in raw as well as treated water were revealed. Their concentrations have proven that water coming from the new station continues not to be appropriate for human consumption just after the modernization process. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Effect of the Metal Type on Luminescence and Photocatalytic Properties of Lanthanide–Organic Frameworks–Modified Titania
Published: 12 June 2019
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Abstract
A series of lanthanide–naphthalenedicarboxylates–modified TiO2 (Ln(NDC)-TiO2) photocatalysts were prepared via simple hydrothermal method using Tm, Er, Nd, Ho, Eu, Tb, Yb, or La as metal and 2,6-naphthenedicarboxylic acid as ligand. The photocatalysts were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence [...] Read more.
A series of lanthanide–naphthalenedicarboxylates–modified TiO2 (Ln(NDC)-TiO2) photocatalysts were prepared via simple hydrothermal method using Tm, Er, Nd, Ho, Eu, Tb, Yb, or La as metal and 2,6-naphthenedicarboxylic acid as ligand. The photocatalysts were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic properties were investigated by employing the photodegradation of phenol in the aqueous phase as a model pollutant. To provide insight into the reactive individuals participating in the degradation mechanism, a test with scavengers was also performed. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Analysis of Expenditures for Sewage Management and Water Protection in Poland
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 201 | PDF Full-text (223 KB)
Abstract
The main aim of the research was to analyze expenditures for sewage management and water protection and to identify Polish commune types that are characterized by the highest expenses. The analyses were made using classification trees in Statistica software (Dell Statistica (data analysis [...] Read more.
The main aim of the research was to analyze expenditures for sewage management and water protection and to identify Polish commune types that are characterized by the highest expenses. The analyses were made using classification trees in Statistica software (Dell Statistica (data analysis software system), version 13, Dell Inc., Round Rock, TX, USA). For this purpose, a database consisting of seven independent variables was prepared. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Greenery Planning for Improvement of Urban Air Quality—A Review
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 193 | PDF Full-text (221 KB)
Abstract
On the basis of Polish and foreign literature on the subject, the impact of vegetation on air pollution (e.g., particulate matter) was described, as well as what significance its proper arrangement has. Reviewing findings carried out by various researchers, the criteria of selecting [...] Read more.
On the basis of Polish and foreign literature on the subject, the impact of vegetation on air pollution (e.g., particulate matter) was described, as well as what significance its proper arrangement has. Reviewing findings carried out by various researchers, the criteria of selecting plants were collected and specified. Only those criteria that contribute to obtaining optimal results in the fight against air pollution were taken into consideration. Also, based on the collected data, a set of guidelines was developed that could eventually serve as a tool for more effective planning of urban greenery. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Application of Waste Polymers as a Raw Material for Ultrafiltration Membrane Preparation
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 209 | PDF Full-text (313 KB)
Abstract
Currently, polymer membranes are widely used in water treatment processes. The polymers commonly used for their production are polysulphone, polyacrylonitrile, or polyethersulphone. However, there are many other raw materials from which membranes can be prepared. In this work, polystyrene membranes were obtained by [...] Read more.
Currently, polymer membranes are widely used in water treatment processes. The polymers commonly used for their production are polysulphone, polyacrylonitrile, or polyethersulphone. However, there are many other raw materials from which membranes can be prepared. In this work, polystyrene membranes were obtained by dissolving Styrofoam in dimethyleformamide. The surface properties of the obtained membranes differed slightly from those obtained for polymer membranes prepared from typical granulates. Retention testing in ultrafiltration conditions showed that membranes made form waste polystyrene have similar parameters to membranes made from pure polymers. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) Approach to Modelling of Selected Nitrogen Forms Removal from Oily Wastewater in Anaerobic and Aerobic GSBR Process Phases
Published: 13 June 2019
Viewed by 145 | PDF Full-text (271 KB)
Abstract
The paper presents artificial neural network models approximating concentration of selected nitrogen forms in wastewater after sequence bath reactor with aerobic granular activated sludge (GSBR) anaerobic and aerobic phase. Developed models reflected all the changes in concentration of studied nitrogen forms (r = [...] Read more.
The paper presents artificial neural network models approximating concentration of selected nitrogen forms in wastewater after sequence bath reactor with aerobic granular activated sludge (GSBR) anaerobic and aerobic phase. Developed models reflected all the changes in concentration of studied nitrogen forms (r = 0.996–0.999). In models approximating Total N and N-NH4, variable most influencing calculations was nitrogen form at the beginning of anaerobic or aerobic phase. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Comparison of ΣLMW Utilization Rate from Saline Wastewater in SBR Reactors with Granular and Flocked Activated Sludge
Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
Paper discuses changes in utilization rate of Low Molecular Weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs in sequencing bath reactors (SBR) operating with flocked and aerobic granular activated sludge. Studies were carried out in laboratory scale SBR reactors filled with model wastewater characterized by salinity [...] Read more.
Paper discuses changes in utilization rate of Low Molecular Weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs in sequencing bath reactors (SBR) operating with flocked and aerobic granular activated sludge. Studies were carried out in laboratory scale SBR reactors filled with model wastewater characterized by salinity at level 4.00 g·dm−3. Wastewater inflowing to laboratory reactors was characterized by varying biological oxygen demand (BOD) load in the range of 0.05–1.60 kg BOD·kg−1·d−1. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Risk Assessment Analysis in a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant
Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
Risk management, an aspect of which is risk assessment, is a process supporting the proper function of municipal sewage treatment plants. Many factors affect the quality of treated wastewater. Risk assessment, its analysis, and hierarchization permit the elimination of events with the most [...] Read more.
Risk management, an aspect of which is risk assessment, is a process supporting the proper function of municipal sewage treatment plants. Many factors affect the quality of treated wastewater. Risk assessment, its analysis, and hierarchization permit the elimination of events with the most destructive impacts on the purification process. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Life Cycle Analysis of Single Family Houses and Effects of Green Technologies on Environment
Published: 13 June 2019
Viewed by 192 | PDF Full-text (742 KB)
Abstract
Construction and using of buildings for many years produce long-lasting impacts on human health and the environment. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the rapidly evolving science of clarifying these impacts in terms of their quality, severity, and duration. LCA of three selected new [...] Read more.
Construction and using of buildings for many years produce long-lasting impacts on human health and the environment. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the rapidly evolving science of clarifying these impacts in terms of their quality, severity, and duration. LCA of three selected new family houses located in Eastern Slovakia is performed with the aim to compare them in terms of built-in materials as well as used technologies. The main goal of the analysis is to investigate and underline the foreseeable reduction rate of environmental impacts resulting from applied green materials and green technologies. LCA impact categories of global warming potential (GWP), ozone depletion potential (ODP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), and photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) are selected for this analysis. Investigated family houses are built from conventional materials, such as aerated concrete blocks, reinforced concrete, thermal insulation of silicate mineral slabs, and roofing mineral wool, as well as natural materials, such as clay, straw, wood, cellulose, and vegetation roofs. Product phase contributes greatly to the GWP for houses built of conventional materials. AP, EP, ODP, and POCP impact categories are considerable also in the product phase. Even an operational energy phase contributes a large share of the negative impact on the environment. Adoption of green design and technology in buildings, which can mitigate negative impacts on the environment, has been recognized as a key step towards global sustainable development. The main goal of this article is to make the case that green buildings are important for reducing negative effects on the environment and resources, while simultaneously enhancing positive effects throughout the building life cycle. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
An Attempt to Optimise the Process of Nanofiltration of Pool Water Enriched with Compounds Associated with Secretions of the Human Body
Published: 14 June 2019
Viewed by 180 | PDF Full-text (233 KB)
Abstract
This paper discusses the possibilities of purifying pool water by the process of nanofiltration. The analysis was carried out in the presence of substances analogous to the secretions of the human body. The samples of water collected from the school swimming pool was [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the possibilities of purifying pool water by the process of nanofiltration. The analysis was carried out in the presence of substances analogous to the secretions of the human body. The samples of water collected from the school swimming pool was enriched with selected organic and inorganic compounds. The transport-separation properties of nanofiltration membranes were assessed. In the context of the removal of these organic compounds, the measurement of the total organic carbon concentration was of particular importance. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Use of Zeta Potential Measurement in Surface Water Coagulation Process Optimization
Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
The object of the research was surface water taken directly from the Mała Panew river. Zeta potential was measured in dependence of the inflicted coagulant dose. Four types of aluminum-based coagulants were used in this research: aluminum sulfate (Alum), polyaluminum chloride (PAC), dialuminum [...] Read more.
The object of the research was surface water taken directly from the Mała Panew river. Zeta potential was measured in dependence of the inflicted coagulant dose. Four types of aluminum-based coagulants were used in this research: aluminum sulfate (Alum), polyaluminum chloride (PAC), dialuminum chloride pantahydroxide (PACl), and polyaluminum chloride hydroxide sulfate (PACS). Effective coagulant doses were selected on the basis of the zeta isoelectric point (IP) analysis. Coagulation efficiency analysis was based on the parameters of treated water (pH, turbidity, color, alkalinity), reduction of organic matter (Abs254, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Disolved Organic Carbon (DOC)), and residual aluminum contamination. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Improved Performance of a PV Integrated Ventilated Façade at an Existing nZEB
Published: 19 June 2019
Viewed by 191 | PDF Full-text (795 KB)
Abstract
Ventilated façades are among the existing measures to reduce the energy demand in buildings. The combination of this passive heating and cooling strategy with photovoltaics (PV) can drive new buildings towards the current European targets for near or even net zero-energy buildings (nZEB). [...] Read more.
Ventilated façades are among the existing measures to reduce the energy demand in buildings. The combination of this passive heating and cooling strategy with photovoltaics (PV) can drive new buildings towards the current European targets for near or even net zero-energy buildings (nZEB). The present work aims at studying the PV integrated ventilated façade of the nZEB known as “LUCIA” at the University of Valladolid, Spain. First, the transmissivity of the PV façade is measured. Then, the monitoring of the available solar radiation is presented together with the air-dry bulb temperatures indoors, outdoors and inside the ventilated façade. The experimental results permit the validation of a mathematical model that describes the behaviour of the ventilated façade in its current operating modes. The results show that dampers should be closed during winter to let the façade act as a further insulation for outdoor temperatures below 18.4 C to improve energy efficiency. Indoor air recirculation would be helpful during 10% of the winter period. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Analysis of the Use of Radiant Floor Heating as a Cooling System
Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this paper was to analyze the operational parameters of a radiant floor heating system working as a cooling system, in order to determine the value of possible heat flux and the floor surface temperature that can be obtain on the [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper was to analyze the operational parameters of a radiant floor heating system working as a cooling system, in order to determine the value of possible heat flux and the floor surface temperature that can be obtain on the floor surface. The influence of variable air and water temperatures, pipe spacing, and thermal resistance of floor covering on surface heat flux and temperature was analyzed. The admissible values of water temperature that assure thermal comfort according to standard ISO 11855 were determined for the analyzed variables. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Carbon Dioxide Emissions from a Ground Heat Pump for a Detached House
Published: 20 June 2019
Viewed by 177 | PDF Full-text (323 KB)
Abstract
Inasmuch as the European Union promotes only energetically viable heat pumps in a given location, the aim of the work is an assessment of whether a ground-to-water heat pump (ground source heat pump: GSHP) can be considered as an ecological heat generator in [...] Read more.
Inasmuch as the European Union promotes only energetically viable heat pumps in a given location, the aim of the work is an assessment of whether a ground-to-water heat pump (ground source heat pump: GSHP) can be considered as an ecological heat generator in Polish climatic conditions and those of the energy market. Here, as an estimator, the net seasonal coefficient of performance (SCOPnet) was selected. Estimation was done using 10-year temperature measurements. It was found that in heating mode SCOPnet value equaled 4.83, satisfying European Commission guidelines. According to the guidelines, the minimal SCOPnet value in Polish energy market conditions should exceed 3.5. CO2 emissions from the GSHP represented two-thirds of CO2 emissions of an air-to-water heat pump (air source heat pump: ASHP) in the same building. The ground heat pump thus meets the ecological heat generator conditions set by the European Commission. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Identification of Micropollutants Occurring in Swimming Pools
Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
The presented research assumes the implementation of experimental studies on the occurrence of organic micropollutants in the pool water environment. The main goal of this paper is to identify micropollutants in swimming pools and select the “priority substances” due to their frequency of [...] Read more.
The presented research assumes the implementation of experimental studies on the occurrence of organic micropollutants in the pool water environment. The main goal of this paper is to identify micropollutants in swimming pools and select the “priority substances” due to their frequency of occurrence, concentration levels and health effects. The presence of micropollutants in swimming pools showed in this research raises the question whether current methods of swimming pool water treatment provide such properties that do not pose a threat to the health of users. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Treatment of Wastewater from the Confectionery Industry Using Pressure Membrane Processes
Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
The aim of the research presented in this article was to present the possibilities of wastewater treatment coming from the confectionery plant using pressure membrane techniques. Nanofiltration was carried out in a pressure dead-end filtration set up (Osmonics type GH-100-400) with a cell [...] Read more.
The aim of the research presented in this article was to present the possibilities of wastewater treatment coming from the confectionery plant using pressure membrane techniques. Nanofiltration was carried out in a pressure dead-end filtration set up (Osmonics type GH-100-400) with a cell capacity of 350 cm3 equipped with a magnetic stirrer. Four flat nanofiltration membranes were used during the tests. The efficiency of the process was estimated by determining the purified wastewater volumetric stream and based on the removal degree of pollution load. The nanofiltration membrane, thanks to which the highest cleaning results were obtained, is a flat composite membrane, with the symbol NF-270, with the polyamide film layer of the Dow Filmtec company. The degree of removal of COD after nanofiltration in this membrane was 98.7%. It was found, that wastewater treated by pressure membrane techniques in the confectionery industry can be reused, for example, for irrigation of agricultural land or gardens, and for machines and equipment washing (closing water circuits). The use of NF processes enables wastewater treatment to such a degree that it can be drained to a natural receiver. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Studies of the Cationic Polyacrylamide Adsorption on the Montmorillonite Surface in the Presence of Lead(II) Ions
Published: 3 July 2019
Viewed by 177 | PDF Full-text (244 KB)
Abstract
The phenomena of stabilization and flocculation through the addition of polymer is widely used in many branches of industry, e.g., agriculture. Due to the high strength of intermolecular bonding, the polymers are used as an additive to control the process of soil erosion. [...] Read more.
The phenomena of stabilization and flocculation through the addition of polymer is widely used in many branches of industry, e.g., agriculture. Due to the high strength of intermolecular bonding, the polymers are used as an additive to control the process of soil erosion. Flocculants strengthen the soil cohesion, which limits the transport of sediments and thus the process of soil structure degradation. Also, the presence of polymers affects the increase of water infiltration into the soil and dissolved substances, including toxic compounds. Therefore, the presence of soil flocculants may influence the occurrence of heavy metal accumulation. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of the presence of cationic polyacrylamide on lead(II) ion adsorption onto the surface of montmorillonite. The effect of cationic group content in the polymeric macromolecules, the addition order of individual adsorbates, and the lead(II) ion concentration were also determined. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Analysis of Various Ventilation Systems Due to the Quality of Indoor Air in Educational Buildings
Published: 3 July 2019
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Abstract
The quality of internal air is one of the factors that affect the pace and quality of knowledge acquisition. Therefore, it is important that the classrooms have high air quality. Using computer simulation, the effect of various building ventilation variants on air quality [...] Read more.
The quality of internal air is one of the factors that affect the pace and quality of knowledge acquisition. Therefore, it is important that the classrooms have high air quality. Using computer simulation, the effect of various building ventilation variants on air quality in classrooms was analyzed. As an indicator of air quality, the concentration of carbon dioxide in school halls was assumed. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Sources of Bathing Water Pollution in the West Coast of Tangier, Morocco: Effects of Industrial Zones
Published: 3 July 2019
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Abstract
This study was carried out in the Boukhalef River which reaches the western coastal waters of Tangier, Morocco, loaded with wastewaters from two industrial zones: Tangier Free Zone and Gzenaya Zone. To understand the extensive impact of these industrial zones on Jbila and [...] Read more.
This study was carried out in the Boukhalef River which reaches the western coastal waters of Tangier, Morocco, loaded with wastewaters from two industrial zones: Tangier Free Zone and Gzenaya Zone. To understand the extensive impact of these industrial zones on Jbila and Sidikacem beaches located near the Boukhalef River mouth, water and sediment samples of the Boukhalef River were examined in terms of physical–chemical and heavy metal parameters, respectively. The results showed high values of conductivity (Cond), biochemical oxygen demand in five days (BOD5), and chemical oxygen demand (COD), which are the causes for the very bad quality status of the Boukhalef River waters. The application of principal component analysis on the heavy metal results of Boukhalef waters and sediments showed that samples were characterized by a load of heavy metals, seemingly of the same anthropogenic origin. This analytical survey demonstrated a relationship between the bathing water quality and industrial discharge. Indeed, industrial zones represent a strong source of pollution in the west coast of Tangier, Morocco. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Use of Sorbents in Removal of Selected Cations from Wastewater After Soda Ash Production
Published: 3 July 2019
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Abstract
Wastewater generated in the soda ash production process can be characterized by a strong alkaline reaction, high electrolytic conductivity and high concentration of chlorides, ammonia, sulphates, phosphates, calcium, potassium, sodium and magnesium. Protection of water against pollution should be not only connected with [...] Read more.
Wastewater generated in the soda ash production process can be characterized by a strong alkaline reaction, high electrolytic conductivity and high concentration of chlorides, ammonia, sulphates, phosphates, calcium, potassium, sodium and magnesium. Protection of water against pollution should be not only connected with rational management of water resources and the restoration of the water environment to the required state, but also with prevention of pollution. It is an increasingly important element of protective measures. The strict control of pollution at the source is important. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods of broadly defined waste disposal from industry. The article presents the results of research aimed at the removal of sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium and ammonium ions from wastewater from soda ash production using three sorbents: Halosorb, Compakt and Damsorb K. The ion removal process was carried out dynamically with different load on the deposit. The concentration of all these anions was reduced to some extent, which indicates the possibility of further, more accurate tests. It was found that the type of sorbent does not differentiate the results of the experiment. The load on the deposit, on the other hand, has an impact on the efficiency of sorbents in wastewater treatment. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Use of Ultrasounds in Improving the Sanitary Quality of Sewage Sludge
Published: 3 July 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this article is to study the effect of low-frequency ultrasound on the disintegration of microorganisms present in mixed sewage sludge. Initial and excessive sewage sludge were used for examinations coming from the Bialystok Sewage Treatment Plant. They were exposed to [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to study the effect of low-frequency ultrasound on the disintegration of microorganisms present in mixed sewage sludge. Initial and excessive sewage sludge were used for examinations coming from the Bialystok Sewage Treatment Plant. They were exposed to ultrasound at 20 and 40 kHz, in varying sonification times and in the case of variable operation of the ultrasonic cleaner (continuous and pulsating work). Research showed that ultrasound was demonstrating effective action with the tested microorganisms. The 30-minute interaction of ultrasounds at 20 kHz on the bacteria present in sewage sludge resulted in a significant decrease in the number of these microorganisms. The obtained results, therefore, indicate the possibility of using this method to disintegrate microorganisms in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Experimental Research on the Air Gasification of Oily Sawdust
Published: 3 July 2019
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Abstract
In this article were present experimental results of the air gasification of oily sawdust. In a laboratory-scale countercurrent gas generator, gas composition measurements were made. We evaluated the fuel properties of the selected material with variable technological parameters (i.e., fuel to air ratio). [...] Read more.
In this article were present experimental results of the air gasification of oily sawdust. In a laboratory-scale countercurrent gas generator, gas composition measurements were made. We evaluated the fuel properties of the selected material with variable technological parameters (i.e., fuel to air ratio). Additionally, we evaluated the methanization coefficients and the dependence of their value on fuel and gasification agent content delivered to the chamber of the reaction. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Possibilities of Paper Sludge Waste (PSw) Utilization in Cement Materials
Published: 4 July 2019
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Abstract
The paper production is developed throughout the world, therefore, more paper sludge waste (PSw) is accumulating. The aim of this work was to determine the properties of PSw burned at 900 °C and its impact on physical–mechanical properties of cementitious matrix and evaluate [...] Read more.
The paper production is developed throughout the world, therefore, more paper sludge waste (PSw) is accumulating. The aim of this work was to determine the properties of PSw burned at 900 °C and its impact on physical–mechanical properties of cementitious matrix and evaluate its usage/utilization possibilities in cementitious materials. For the implementation of the aim, cement-based specimens were prepared and their –mechanical properties were determined. Specimens from five compositions were formed, with 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% of the cement by weight replaced with PSw. When 5% of the cement was replaced with PSw, the compressive strength increased by approximately 7%, although density and ultrasound velocity slightly decreased (up to 1.5%). When 7.5% PSw was added, the compressive strength of the specimens decreased. To summarize, it can be stated that up to 5% PSw may be utilized/used for the preparation of cementitious mixtures. The usage of the waste allows environment conservation, reduced amount of cement in mixtures, and improvement of properties of cementitious materials. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Methods of Calculating the Individual Heating Costs in Multi-Family Buildings in Selected Countries
Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents the methods used to determine individual heating costs in Germany, Austria, Poland, and Ukraine, as well as EU arrangements for the settlement of individual heating costs. Also presented is the original method, which significantly eliminates excessive inequalities in individual charges [...] Read more.
This paper presents the methods used to determine individual heating costs in Germany, Austria, Poland, and Ukraine, as well as EU arrangements for the settlement of individual heating costs. Also presented is the original method, which significantly eliminates excessive inequalities in individual charges for central heating—so-called chimneys in the settlements of individual costs for flats heating. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
On the Use of Residential Thermal Stations in Different Types of Buildings
Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the energy consumption and the efficiency of heating systems in two multi-family buildings and one collective residence equipped with residential thermal stations (RTSs) that are used for supplying individual dwellings with heat as well [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the energy consumption and the efficiency of heating systems in two multi-family buildings and one collective residence equipped with residential thermal stations (RTSs) that are used for supplying individual dwellings with heat as well as hot and cold water. An additional aspect of the analysis is a presentation of the structure of total energy consumption for particular purposes in the analyzed buildings. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Pressure Agglomeration Process of Bakery Industry Waste
Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
The research aim of this study was to assess the suitability for pellet production of bakery industry waste in the form of “sponge flour” in a mix with peanut postproduction sweepings (20%, 30%, 40%, 50%). An increase in the content of peanuts (from [...] Read more.
The research aim of this study was to assess the suitability for pellet production of bakery industry waste in the form of “sponge flour” in a mix with peanut postproduction sweepings (20%, 30%, 40%, 50%). An increase in the content of peanuts (from 20% to 50%) in the mix was shown to increase the power demand of the pelleting system and the physical density of the obtained granules but caused a decrease in their kinetic durability. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Indoor Air Quality in the Bedroom of a Single-Family House—A Case Study
Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
People spend nearly 1/3 of their lives in bedrooms. Moreover, the greatest part of this time is spent in lack of awareness, so it is important to maintain suitable conditions in these areas, including air quality. In non-ventilated bedrooms, people may have trouble [...] Read more.
People spend nearly 1/3 of their lives in bedrooms. Moreover, the greatest part of this time is spent in lack of awareness, so it is important to maintain suitable conditions in these areas, including air quality. In non-ventilated bedrooms, people may have trouble falling asleep, may not be resting enough during sleep, and they can wake up tired. This affects their well-being and behavior throughout the next day. Indoor air quality measurements were carried out in a single-family home bedroom. The measurements were made in unsealed windows. In the bedroom under examination, where people stay only during the night and where the door is always open and air is constantly being renewed, the carbon dioxide concentration during the night exceeded the permissible standard—1000 ppm. Full article

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Open AccessExtended Abstract
Influence of Ionic Liquids Assisted Synthesis on Morphology and Photocatalytic Properties of Bi4O5Br2
Published: 25 June 2019
Viewed by 158 | PDF Full-text (348 KB)
Abstract
A series of Bi4O5Br2 photocatalysts were prepared via an innovation method of synthesis with ionic liquids (ILs). The crystal structures were investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope [...] Read more.
A series of Bi4O5Br2 photocatalysts were prepared via an innovation method of synthesis with ionic liquids (ILs). The crystal structures were investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) images illustrated the unique structure of prepared photocatalysts. The photocatalysts were also characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis/DRS) and photoluminescence spectra (PL). The role of ILs in synthesis of Bi4O5Br2 on morphology and photocatalytic properties were investigated. Rhodamine B, 5-fluorouracil and chromium (VI) were used as the model micropollutants to evaluated adsorption capacity, photooxidation and photoreduction ability of prepared Bi4O5Br2 under artificial solar light. This work provided a new thought for enhanced photocatalytic activity of bismuth oxybromide photocatalysts. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
A New Method to Determine the Annual Energy Output of Liquid-Based Solar Collectors
Published: 15 July 2019
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Abstract
This article presents a new way of determining the annual energy output of solar thermal collectors. The proposed method, in the first stage, assumes the creation of a database that contains energy gains QSC from the solar collectors, the average annual solar irradiance [...] Read more.
This article presents a new way of determining the annual energy output of solar thermal collectors. The proposed method, in the first stage, assumes the creation of a database that contains energy gains QSC from the solar collectors, the average annual solar irradiance intensity IS, and the average temperature of the outside air θO. It can be made on the basis of detailed computer simulations. In the current case, EnergyPlus software was used to create this database. Next, mathematical relations for flat plate and evacuated tube collectors were developed using the linear regression analysis (multiple regression method). Based on these equations, one can calculate the value of QSC as a function of IS and O. In addition, two graphs for the estimation of the annual energy gains for the entire area of Poland and for the conditions of a typical meteorological year were prepared. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Investment Costs of Heating in Poland and Spain—A Case Study
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016040 (registering DOI)
Published: 16 July 2019
PDF Full-text (602 KB)
Abstract
Heating a room or a building is a basic annual operating cost. This paper presents typical heating systems in Poland and Spain. Based on the calculations made for lecture rooms located in different climate zones in Poland and Spain, the design heat loss [...] Read more.
Heating a room or a building is a basic annual operating cost. This paper presents typical heating systems in Poland and Spain. Based on the calculations made for lecture rooms located in different climate zones in Poland and Spain, the design heat loss and energy demand for heating are compared and analyzed. Additionally, the paper includes a statement about selected radiators and a comparison of their purchase costs for individual locations. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
The Advisability of Employment of Renewable Energy Sources in DHW Systems in the Kindergarten
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016041 (registering DOI)
Published: 16 July 2019
PDF Full-text (284 KB)
Abstract
This research aims to show the advisability of usage of selected renewable energy sources for domestic hot water (DHW) installations in buildings located in Poland and Spain. The analysis was conducted for a typical kindergarten, an example of buildings with high density of [...] Read more.
This research aims to show the advisability of usage of selected renewable energy sources for domestic hot water (DHW) installations in buildings located in Poland and Spain. The analysis was conducted for a typical kindergarten, an example of buildings with high density of people and stable profile of usage, as opposed to schools which are closed during summer holidays. We took into account national regulations to estimate heat demand. Then applying solar collectors and heat pumps to use as a monovalent energy sources were considered. The total cost of the system with solar collectors in Poland was found to be 1.4 times higher than in Spain, whereas the difference in a case of air heat pumps was 18%. Moreover efficiency of solar collector and heat pump systems were found as 49.56% for Warsaw, 52.29% for Madrid with coefficient of performance (COP) 2.2 and 2.55 respectively, therefore simple payback time (SPBT) of investment was estimated in a range between 6–12 years for solar collectors and 5–6 years for heat pumps. Full article
Open AccessExtended Abstract
Using the MultiRAEPro Gas Detector to Monitor Odour Emissions from Biogas Plants Processing Municipal Waste
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016042 (registering DOI)
Published: 16 July 2019
PDF Full-text (220 KB)
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyse the work of the MultiRAEPro gas detector in terms of its application in monitoring odour emissions from biogas plants processing municipal waste constituting part of a mechanical–biological waste treatment plant. The obtained results provided the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyse the work of the MultiRAEPro gas detector in terms of its application in monitoring odour emissions from biogas plants processing municipal waste constituting part of a mechanical–biological waste treatment plant. The obtained results provided the basis for formulating conclusions concerning the use of a gas detector in monitoring odour emissions from biogas plants processing municipal waste. The study results can be applied in practice in biogas plants processing municipal waste as well as in other municipal facilities. Full article
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