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Proceedings, Volume 16, ISMO’19

Innovations-Sustainability-Modernity-Openness Conference (ISMO’19)

Bialystok, Poland | 22–23 May 2019

Volume Editors:

Dorota Anna Krawczyk (Bialystok University of Technology)

Iwona Skoczko (Bialystok University of Technology)

Antonio Rodero Serrano (University of Cordoba)


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Cover Story (view full-size image) This volume of Proceedings aims to gather the papers presented at the Eighth International [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial
Preface: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference ISMO’19—Innovations-Sustainability-Modernity-Openness
Published: 13 June 2019
Viewed by 113 | PDF Full-text (150 KB)
Abstract
The 8th International Conference ISMO’19—Innovations-Sustainability-Modernity-Openness
was held on 22–23 May 2019 in Bialystok (Poland). [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessProceedings
Valorization of Anaerobic Digestate from Biowaste to High-Value Bioproducts: A Review
Published: 11 June 2019
Viewed by 150 | PDF Full-text (233 KB)
Abstract
Vital research has been carried out on the sustainable organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) stream management in the last five years. In addition to the traditional approach to reducing its environmental side effects, considering OFMSW as a feedstock to produce bioproducts, [...] Read more.
Vital research has been carried out on the sustainable organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) stream management in the last five years. In addition to the traditional approach to reducing its environmental side effects, considering OFMSW as a feedstock to produce bioproducts, such as enzymes, bioplastics, biopesticides, and other high-value products, represents a key component in the transformation of OFMSW treatment plants (biogas or mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plants) into biorefineries. This short review is intended to assess and analyze the current state of knowledge of OFMSW treatment technologies, suggest practical solution options, and identify future research and development needs to help promote more sustainable management of this underutilized and ever-growing waste stream. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Experimental Investigations of Energy and Exergy Efficiencies of an Evacuated Tube Solar Collector
Published: 11 June 2019
Viewed by 109 | PDF Full-text (236 KB)
Abstract
The main purpose of the analysis is to determine the influence of the weather and operating conditions on the energy and exergy efficiencies of an evacuated tube solar collector, heat pipe type with a mixture of water and propylene glycol (50%/50%) as a [...] Read more.
The main purpose of the analysis is to determine the influence of the weather and operating conditions on the energy and exergy efficiencies of an evacuated tube solar collector, heat pipe type with a mixture of water and propylene glycol (50%/50%) as a working fluid under the Polish climate conditions (the geographical coordinates for Lublin: Latitude 51°15′ N and longitude 22°34′ E), according to the experimental data. The solar collector with an aperture area of 3.6 m2 is a main component of the solar hot water test installation located in the laboratory of the Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Lublin University of Technology. Studies have been presented for August. Based on the results, the average daily energy efficiency of the solar collector at the level of 34% (14.3–58.8%) and the average daily exergy efficiency of the solar collector at the level of 2.25% (0.86–3.75%) were established. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Experiments on Water Stabilization
Published: 11 June 2019
Viewed by 87 | PDF Full-text (193 KB)
Abstract
The aim of the study was assessment of groundwater stabilization. Corrosive water effects on metals include complex electrochemical and biochemical processes. None of the water components remain indifferent to the metal and can accelerate or delay its corrosion. On the basis of the [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was assessment of groundwater stabilization. Corrosive water effects on metals include complex electrochemical and biochemical processes. None of the water components remain indifferent to the metal and can accelerate or delay its corrosion. On the basis of the conducted tests of water samples, the aggressiveness and corrosivity indicators were calculated. Conducted research included analyses of raw and treated water. Raw water was taken as groundwater. Then it was treated in individual and complex processes such as aeration, filtration and ion exchange. Water aggressiveness and corrosion level were introduced by the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI), the Ryznar Stability Index (RI), the Larsoni–Skold Index (LI) and the Singley Index (SI). Obtained results proved that used water treatment processes must be improved through additional aeration and filtration with a dolomite bed. A simple system typical for industrial water is not enough to reach stable water because of remaining aggressiveness and corrosion. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Effect of Moisture and Ash on the Calorific Value of Cow Dung Biomass
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 156 | PDF Full-text (226 KB)
Abstract
Cow dung biomass was taken from December 2017 to April 2018. After drying and crushing, analytical moisture was determined, followed by the content of ash, total carbon, total sulfur, heat of combustion, and calorific value. Research has shown that the moisture of the [...] Read more.
Cow dung biomass was taken from December 2017 to April 2018. After drying and crushing, analytical moisture was determined, followed by the content of ash, total carbon, total sulfur, heat of combustion, and calorific value. Research has shown that the moisture of the biomass burned has a significant impact on both the ash content and its calorific value. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Electrochemical Corrosion Monitoring in Low Conductive Fluid: Pilot-Scale Study on Sulfolane Corrosion Potential
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 155 | PDF Full-text (1256 KB)
Abstract
Solvents are a group of chemical compounds that are widely used in organic synthesis. Taking into account the chemical nature, solvents are divided into protic and aprotic ones. An attractive alternative to commonly used industrial extractive liquids is an anthropogenic, organosulfur medium—sulfolane. Sulfolane [...] Read more.
Solvents are a group of chemical compounds that are widely used in organic synthesis. Taking into account the chemical nature, solvents are divided into protic and aprotic ones. An attractive alternative to commonly used industrial extractive liquids is an anthropogenic, organosulfur medium—sulfolane. Sulfolane is a five-membered heterocyclic sulfur–organic compound from the group of sulfones (R-SO2-R’, where R/R’ is alkyl, alkenyl, or aryl), which contains an apolar hydrocarbon backbone and a polar functional group. It is a selective solvent in the liquid–liquid and liquid–vapor extraction processes used for the removal of close-boiling alkanes from cycloalkanes or for the separation of compounds with different degrees of saturation and polarity in the extractive rectification of arenes from non-aromatic saturated hydrocarbon mixtures. In standard conditions sulfolane is not an aggressive solvent for steel, but at higher temperature (170–180 °C) and oxygen availability, it may be decomposed and subsequently some corrosive (by-)products can be formed. The primary purpose of the presented pilot-case examination was to verify applicability of the industrial, multi-electrochemical technique for reliable detection of the corrosion processes in low conductive fluids. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Magnetic Field Usage for the Removal of Iron by Filtration-Assisted Different Filter Materials
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 145 | PDF Full-text (196 KB)
Abstract
The conducted research concerned the effect of a magnetic field (MF) on the removal of iron compounds. The tested process was filtration through a quartz sand bed with a grain size of 0.4–0.8 mm. Another examined material was activated alumina. The obtained results [...] Read more.
The conducted research concerned the effect of a magnetic field (MF) on the removal of iron compounds. The tested process was filtration through a quartz sand bed with a grain size of 0.4–0.8 mm. Another examined material was activated alumina. The obtained results proved that the MF had a significant impact on the efficiency of iron removal from a water filtrated trough than activated alumina. It was proven that the effect of the magnetic field on the filtration process using other filtration materials, was insignificant. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Agricultural Biogas Plant Location Selection Using MCDA Methods
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 145 | PDF Full-text (281 KB)
Abstract
Agricultural biogas plants are an investment that benefits both investors, inhabitants of a given region, as well as the natural environment. Such a project, despite many economic, environmental, and social advantages, is also associated with the emission of unpleasant odors or noise. That [...] Read more.
Agricultural biogas plants are an investment that benefits both investors, inhabitants of a given region, as well as the natural environment. Such a project, despite many economic, environmental, and social advantages, is also associated with the emission of unpleasant odors or noise. That is why selecting the location of an agricultural biogas plant is a particularly important task. The investment location was selected using multicriteria decision-making (MCDA or MCDM) methods. Of the three variants, the most favorable in terms of the adopted criteria was selected using both analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) methods. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Simultaneous Quantification of Chosen Organic Micropollutants in Drinking Water
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 150 | PDF Full-text (320 KB)
Abstract
An analytical method that can allow one to determine simultaneously chosen organic micropollutants has been developed to measure their concentrations in water. Standard mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was added to distilled water in a specific [...] Read more.
An analytical method that can allow one to determine simultaneously chosen organic micropollutants has been developed to measure their concentrations in water. Standard mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was added to distilled water in a specific amount. The solid phase extraction (SPE) method was applied. Isopropyl alcohol and methanol were used to precondition SPE extraction columns. PAH and PCB were eluted from the column fillings using dichloromethane. Extracts were condensed to a volume of 2 mL. Prepared samples were analyzed with the use of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The achieved percent recovery of PAH was from around 7% in the case of chrysene to 100% in the case of naphthalene. The achieved percent recovery of PCB was from about 51% in the case of PCB 101 to 92% in the case of PCB 156. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
An Evaluation of Primary Energy Factor Values of Wind Turbines
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 174 | PDF Full-text (251 KB)
Abstract
In order to fulfil the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requirements regarding the reduction of energy consumption in buildings, much attention has been paid to primary energy consumption. Wind energy is one type of primary energy. The analysis of the literature [...] Read more.
In order to fulfil the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requirements regarding the reduction of energy consumption in buildings, much attention has been paid to primary energy consumption. Wind energy is one type of primary energy. The analysis of the literature has revealed that wind energy is evaluated by different methods. Therefore, the aim of this article was to calculate the effect of the parameters of wind sources on the primary energy factor of wind turbines. In order to achieve this aim, the primary energy factor of 100 investigated wind turbines and 11 wind farms operating in Lithuania was calculated. Investigation results showed that the difference of the non-renewable primary energy factor between wind turbines due to capacity is 35%. This paper provides a recommendation with regard to EU energy efficiency and renewable energy directives and regulations: All EU member states should use the same or very similar methodology for the calculation of the primary energy factor of renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Arguments for the Need to Modernize Water Treatment Technology in Small Towns and Cities, Based on the Example of the Municipality of Puńsk
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 143 | PDF Full-text (209 KB)
Abstract
The goal of the research was to assess the pollution level of water in the existing real water treatment station in Pelele in the municipality of Punsk. The station needed to be rebuilt because the equipment in operation there had not been changed [...] Read more.
The goal of the research was to assess the pollution level of water in the existing real water treatment station in Pelele in the municipality of Punsk. The station needed to be rebuilt because the equipment in operation there had not been changed for years. As part of the research efforts, a new water purification system was designed. The technology of the station is based on a two-stage water treatment system. Water picked up directly from the intake (raw water) as well as purified water at the old and new stations were analyzed. Then, the results obtained from water tests before and after modernization of the station were compared. There were such parameters analyzed as: color, turbidity, pH, iron (Fe), and Manganese (Mn). Through the conducted research and the results of pollution parameters received, the levels of Fe and Mn in raw as well as treated water were revealed. Their concentrations have proven that water coming from the new station continues not to be appropriate for human consumption just after the modernization process. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Effect of the Metal Type on Luminescence and Photocatalytic Properties of Lanthanide–Organic Frameworks–Modified Titania
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 149 | PDF Full-text (204 KB)
Abstract
A series of lanthanide–naphthalenedicarboxylates–modified TiO2 (Ln(NDC)-TiO2) photocatalysts were prepared via simple hydrothermal method using Tm, Er, Nd, Ho, Eu, Tb, Yb, or La as metal and 2,6-naphthenedicarboxylic acid as ligand. The photocatalysts were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence [...] Read more.
A series of lanthanide–naphthalenedicarboxylates–modified TiO2 (Ln(NDC)-TiO2) photocatalysts were prepared via simple hydrothermal method using Tm, Er, Nd, Ho, Eu, Tb, Yb, or La as metal and 2,6-naphthenedicarboxylic acid as ligand. The photocatalysts were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic properties were investigated by employing the photodegradation of phenol in the aqueous phase as a model pollutant. To provide insight into the reactive individuals participating in the degradation mechanism, a test with scavengers was also performed. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Analysis of Expenditures for Sewage Management and Water Protection in Poland
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 137 | PDF Full-text (223 KB)
Abstract
The main aim of the research was to analyze expenditures for sewage management and water protection and to identify Polish commune types that are characterized by the highest expenses. The analyses were made using classification trees in Statistica software (Dell Statistica (data analysis [...] Read more.
The main aim of the research was to analyze expenditures for sewage management and water protection and to identify Polish commune types that are characterized by the highest expenses. The analyses were made using classification trees in Statistica software (Dell Statistica (data analysis software system), version 13, Dell Inc., Round Rock, TX, USA). For this purpose, a database consisting of seven independent variables was prepared. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Greenery Planning for Improvement of Urban Air Quality—A Review
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 134 | PDF Full-text (221 KB)
Abstract
On the basis of Polish and foreign literature on the subject, the impact of vegetation on air pollution (e.g., particulate matter) was described, as well as what significance its proper arrangement has. Reviewing findings carried out by various researchers, the criteria of selecting [...] Read more.
On the basis of Polish and foreign literature on the subject, the impact of vegetation on air pollution (e.g., particulate matter) was described, as well as what significance its proper arrangement has. Reviewing findings carried out by various researchers, the criteria of selecting plants were collected and specified. Only those criteria that contribute to obtaining optimal results in the fight against air pollution were taken into consideration. Also, based on the collected data, a set of guidelines was developed that could eventually serve as a tool for more effective planning of urban greenery. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Application of Waste Polymers as a Raw Material for Ultrafiltration Membrane Preparation
Published: 12 June 2019
Viewed by 140 | PDF Full-text (313 KB)
Abstract
Currently, polymer membranes are widely used in water treatment processes. The polymers commonly used for their production are polysulphone, polyacrylonitrile, or polyethersulphone. However, there are many other raw materials from which membranes can be prepared. In this work, polystyrene membranes were obtained by [...] Read more.
Currently, polymer membranes are widely used in water treatment processes. The polymers commonly used for their production are polysulphone, polyacrylonitrile, or polyethersulphone. However, there are many other raw materials from which membranes can be prepared. In this work, polystyrene membranes were obtained by dissolving Styrofoam in dimethyleformamide. The surface properties of the obtained membranes differed slightly from those obtained for polymer membranes prepared from typical granulates. Retention testing in ultrafiltration conditions showed that membranes made form waste polystyrene have similar parameters to membranes made from pure polymers. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) Approach to Modelling of Selected Nitrogen Forms Removal from Oily Wastewater in Anaerobic and Aerobic GSBR Process Phases
Published: 13 June 2019
Viewed by 80 | PDF Full-text (271 KB)
Abstract
The paper presents artificial neural network models approximating concentration of selected nitrogen forms in wastewater after sequence bath reactor with aerobic granular activated sludge (GSBR) anaerobic and aerobic phase. Developed models reflected all the changes in concentration of studied nitrogen forms (r = [...] Read more.
The paper presents artificial neural network models approximating concentration of selected nitrogen forms in wastewater after sequence bath reactor with aerobic granular activated sludge (GSBR) anaerobic and aerobic phase. Developed models reflected all the changes in concentration of studied nitrogen forms (r = 0.996–0.999). In models approximating Total N and N-NH4, variable most influencing calculations was nitrogen form at the beginning of anaerobic or aerobic phase. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Comparison of ΣLMW Utilization Rate from Saline Wastewater in SBR Reactors with Granular and Flocked Activated Sludge
Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
Paper discuses changes in utilization rate of Low Molecular Weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs in sequencing bath reactors (SBR) operating with flocked and aerobic granular activated sludge. Studies were carried out in laboratory scale SBR reactors filled with model wastewater characterized by salinity [...] Read more.
Paper discuses changes in utilization rate of Low Molecular Weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs in sequencing bath reactors (SBR) operating with flocked and aerobic granular activated sludge. Studies were carried out in laboratory scale SBR reactors filled with model wastewater characterized by salinity at level 4.00 g·dm−3. Wastewater inflowing to laboratory reactors was characterized by varying biological oxygen demand (BOD) load in the range of 0.05–1.60 kg BOD·kg−1·d−1. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Risk Assessment Analysis in a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant
Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
Risk management, an aspect of which is risk assessment, is a process supporting the proper function of municipal sewage treatment plants. Many factors affect the quality of treated wastewater. Risk assessment, its analysis, and hierarchization permit the elimination of events with the most [...] Read more.
Risk management, an aspect of which is risk assessment, is a process supporting the proper function of municipal sewage treatment plants. Many factors affect the quality of treated wastewater. Risk assessment, its analysis, and hierarchization permit the elimination of events with the most destructive impacts on the purification process. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Life Cycle Analysis of Single Family Houses and Effects of Green Technologies on Environment
Published: 13 June 2019
Viewed by 126 | PDF Full-text (742 KB)
Abstract
Construction and using of buildings for many years produce long-lasting impacts on human health and the environment. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the rapidly evolving science of clarifying these impacts in terms of their quality, severity, and duration. LCA of three selected new [...] Read more.
Construction and using of buildings for many years produce long-lasting impacts on human health and the environment. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the rapidly evolving science of clarifying these impacts in terms of their quality, severity, and duration. LCA of three selected new family houses located in Eastern Slovakia is performed with the aim to compare them in terms of built-in materials as well as used technologies. The main goal of the analysis is to investigate and underline the foreseeable reduction rate of environmental impacts resulting from applied green materials and green technologies. LCA impact categories of global warming potential (GWP), ozone depletion potential (ODP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), and photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) are selected for this analysis. Investigated family houses are built from conventional materials, such as aerated concrete blocks, reinforced concrete, thermal insulation of silicate mineral slabs, and roofing mineral wool, as well as natural materials, such as clay, straw, wood, cellulose, and vegetation roofs. Product phase contributes greatly to the GWP for houses built of conventional materials. AP, EP, ODP, and POCP impact categories are considerable also in the product phase. Even an operational energy phase contributes a large share of the negative impact on the environment. Adoption of green design and technology in buildings, which can mitigate negative impacts on the environment, has been recognized as a key step towards global sustainable development. The main goal of this article is to make the case that green buildings are important for reducing negative effects on the environment and resources, while simultaneously enhancing positive effects throughout the building life cycle. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
An Attempt to Optimise the Process of Nanofiltration of Pool Water Enriched with Compounds Associated with Secretions of the Human Body
Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
This paper discusses the possibilities of purifying pool water by the process of nanofiltration. The analysis was carried out in the presence of substances analogous to the secretions of the human body. The samples of water collected from the school swimming pool was [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the possibilities of purifying pool water by the process of nanofiltration. The analysis was carried out in the presence of substances analogous to the secretions of the human body. The samples of water collected from the school swimming pool was enriched with selected organic and inorganic compounds. The transport-separation properties of nanofiltration membranes were assessed. In the context of the removal of these organic compounds, the measurement of the total organic carbon concentration was of particular importance. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Use of Zeta Potential Measurement in Surface Water Coagulation Process Optimization
Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
The object of the research was surface water taken directly from the Mała Panew river. Zeta potential was measured in dependence of the inflicted coagulant dose. Four types of aluminum-based coagulants were used in this research: aluminum sulfate (Alum), polyaluminum chloride (PAC), dialuminum [...] Read more.
The object of the research was surface water taken directly from the Mała Panew river. Zeta potential was measured in dependence of the inflicted coagulant dose. Four types of aluminum-based coagulants were used in this research: aluminum sulfate (Alum), polyaluminum chloride (PAC), dialuminum chloride pantahydroxide (PACl), and polyaluminum chloride hydroxide sulfate (PACS). Effective coagulant doses were selected on the basis of the zeta isoelectric point (IP) analysis. Coagulation efficiency analysis was based on the parameters of treated water (pH, turbidity, color, alkalinity), reduction of organic matter (Abs254, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Disolved Organic Carbon (DOC)), and residual aluminum contamination. Full article
Proceedings EISSN 2504-3900 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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