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Volume 17, RPRA 2019
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Proceedings, 2019, ISMO 2019

Innovations-Sustainability-Modernity-Openness Conference (ISMO’19)

Bialystok, Poland | 22–23 May 2019

Volume Editors:

Dorota Anna Krawczyk (Bialystok University of Technology)

Iwona Skoczko (Bialystok University of Technology)

Antonio Rodero Serrano (University of Cordoba)


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Cover Story (view full-size image) This volume of Proceedings aims to gather the papers presented at the Eighth International [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial
Preface: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference ISMO’19—Innovations-Sustainability-Modernity-Openness
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016015 - 13 Jun 2019
Viewed by 602
Abstract
The 8th International Conference ISMO’19—Innovations-Sustainability-Modernity-Openness
was held on 22–23 May 2019 in Bialystok (Poland). [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessProceedings
Valorization of Anaerobic Digestate from Biowaste to High-Value Bioproducts: A Review
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016001 - 11 Jun 2019
Viewed by 760
Abstract
Vital research has been carried out on the sustainable organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) stream management in the last five years. In addition to the traditional approach to reducing its environmental side effects, considering OFMSW as a feedstock to produce bioproducts, [...] Read more.
Vital research has been carried out on the sustainable organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) stream management in the last five years. In addition to the traditional approach to reducing its environmental side effects, considering OFMSW as a feedstock to produce bioproducts, such as enzymes, bioplastics, biopesticides, and other high-value products, represents a key component in the transformation of OFMSW treatment plants (biogas or mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plants) into biorefineries. This short review is intended to assess and analyze the current state of knowledge of OFMSW treatment technologies, suggest practical solution options, and identify future research and development needs to help promote more sustainable management of this underutilized and ever-growing waste stream. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Experimental Investigations of Energy and Exergy Efficiencies of an Evacuated Tube Solar Collector
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016002 - 11 Jun 2019
Viewed by 440
Abstract
The main purpose of the analysis is to determine the influence of the weather and operating conditions on the energy and exergy efficiencies of an evacuated tube solar collector, heat pipe type with a mixture of water and propylene glycol (50%/50%) as a [...] Read more.
The main purpose of the analysis is to determine the influence of the weather and operating conditions on the energy and exergy efficiencies of an evacuated tube solar collector, heat pipe type with a mixture of water and propylene glycol (50%/50%) as a working fluid under the Polish climate conditions (the geographical coordinates for Lublin: Latitude 51°15′ N and longitude 22°34′ E), according to the experimental data. The solar collector with an aperture area of 3.6 m2 is a main component of the solar hot water test installation located in the laboratory of the Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Lublin University of Technology. Studies have been presented for August. Based on the results, the average daily energy efficiency of the solar collector at the level of 34% (14.3–58.8%) and the average daily exergy efficiency of the solar collector at the level of 2.25% (0.86–3.75%) were established. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Experiments on Water Stabilization
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016003 - 11 Jun 2019
Viewed by 392
Abstract
The aim of the study was assessment of groundwater stabilization. Corrosive water effects on metals include complex electrochemical and biochemical processes. None of the water components remain indifferent to the metal and can accelerate or delay its corrosion. On the basis of the [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was assessment of groundwater stabilization. Corrosive water effects on metals include complex electrochemical and biochemical processes. None of the water components remain indifferent to the metal and can accelerate or delay its corrosion. On the basis of the conducted tests of water samples, the aggressiveness and corrosivity indicators were calculated. Conducted research included analyses of raw and treated water. Raw water was taken as groundwater. Then it was treated in individual and complex processes such as aeration, filtration and ion exchange. Water aggressiveness and corrosion level were introduced by the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI), the Ryznar Stability Index (RI), the Larsoni–Skold Index (LI) and the Singley Index (SI). Obtained results proved that used water treatment processes must be improved through additional aeration and filtration with a dolomite bed. A simple system typical for industrial water is not enough to reach stable water because of remaining aggressiveness and corrosion. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Effect of Moisture and Ash on the Calorific Value of Cow Dung Biomass
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016004 - 12 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 530
Abstract
Cow dung biomass was taken from December 2017 to April 2018. After drying and crushing, analytical moisture was determined, followed by the content of ash, total carbon, total sulfur, heat of combustion, and calorific value. Research has shown that the moisture of the [...] Read more.
Cow dung biomass was taken from December 2017 to April 2018. After drying and crushing, analytical moisture was determined, followed by the content of ash, total carbon, total sulfur, heat of combustion, and calorific value. Research has shown that the moisture of the biomass burned has a significant impact on both the ash content and its calorific value. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Electrochemical Corrosion Monitoring in Low Conductive Fluid: Pilot-Scale Study on Sulfolane Corrosion Potential
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016005 - 12 Jun 2019
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Solvents are a group of chemical compounds that are widely used in organic synthesis. Taking into account the chemical nature, solvents are divided into protic and aprotic ones. An attractive alternative to commonly used industrial extractive liquids is an anthropogenic, organosulfur medium—sulfolane. Sulfolane [...] Read more.
Solvents are a group of chemical compounds that are widely used in organic synthesis. Taking into account the chemical nature, solvents are divided into protic and aprotic ones. An attractive alternative to commonly used industrial extractive liquids is an anthropogenic, organosulfur medium—sulfolane. Sulfolane is a five-membered heterocyclic sulfur–organic compound from the group of sulfones (R-SO2-R’, where R/R’ is alkyl, alkenyl, or aryl), which contains an apolar hydrocarbon backbone and a polar functional group. It is a selective solvent in the liquid–liquid and liquid–vapor extraction processes used for the removal of close-boiling alkanes from cycloalkanes or for the separation of compounds with different degrees of saturation and polarity in the extractive rectification of arenes from non-aromatic saturated hydrocarbon mixtures. In standard conditions sulfolane is not an aggressive solvent for steel, but at higher temperature (170–180 °C) and oxygen availability, it may be decomposed and subsequently some corrosive (by-)products can be formed. The primary purpose of the presented pilot-case examination was to verify applicability of the industrial, multi-electrochemical technique for reliable detection of the corrosion processes in low conductive fluids. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Magnetic Field Usage for the Removal of Iron by Filtration-Assisted Different Filter Materials
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016006 - 12 Jun 2019
Viewed by 469
Abstract
The conducted research concerned the effect of a magnetic field (MF) on the removal of iron compounds. The tested process was filtration through a quartz sand bed with a grain size of 0.4–0.8 mm. Another examined material was activated alumina. The obtained results [...] Read more.
The conducted research concerned the effect of a magnetic field (MF) on the removal of iron compounds. The tested process was filtration through a quartz sand bed with a grain size of 0.4–0.8 mm. Another examined material was activated alumina. The obtained results proved that the MF had a significant impact on the efficiency of iron removal from a water filtrated trough than activated alumina. It was proven that the effect of the magnetic field on the filtration process using other filtration materials, was insignificant. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Agricultural Biogas Plant Location Selection Using MCDA Methods
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016007 - 12 Jun 2019
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Agricultural biogas plants are an investment that benefits both investors, inhabitants of a given region, as well as the natural environment. Such a project, despite many economic, environmental, and social advantages, is also associated with the emission of unpleasant odors or noise. That [...] Read more.
Agricultural biogas plants are an investment that benefits both investors, inhabitants of a given region, as well as the natural environment. Such a project, despite many economic, environmental, and social advantages, is also associated with the emission of unpleasant odors or noise. That is why selecting the location of an agricultural biogas plant is a particularly important task. The investment location was selected using multicriteria decision-making (MCDA or MCDM) methods. Of the three variants, the most favorable in terms of the adopted criteria was selected using both analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) methods. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Simultaneous Quantification of Chosen Organic Micropollutants in Drinking Water
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016008 - 12 Jun 2019
Viewed by 512
Abstract
An analytical method that can allow one to determine simultaneously chosen organic micropollutants has been developed to measure their concentrations in water. Standard mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was added to distilled water in a specific [...] Read more.
An analytical method that can allow one to determine simultaneously chosen organic micropollutants has been developed to measure their concentrations in water. Standard mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was added to distilled water in a specific amount. The solid phase extraction (SPE) method was applied. Isopropyl alcohol and methanol were used to precondition SPE extraction columns. PAH and PCB were eluted from the column fillings using dichloromethane. Extracts were condensed to a volume of 2 mL. Prepared samples were analyzed with the use of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The achieved percent recovery of PAH was from around 7% in the case of chrysene to 100% in the case of naphthalene. The achieved percent recovery of PCB was from about 51% in the case of PCB 101 to 92% in the case of PCB 156. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
An Evaluation of Primary Energy Factor Values of Wind Turbines
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016009 - 12 Jun 2019
Viewed by 526
Abstract
In order to fulfil the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requirements regarding the reduction of energy consumption in buildings, much attention has been paid to primary energy consumption. Wind energy is one type of primary energy. The analysis of the literature [...] Read more.
In order to fulfil the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requirements regarding the reduction of energy consumption in buildings, much attention has been paid to primary energy consumption. Wind energy is one type of primary energy. The analysis of the literature has revealed that wind energy is evaluated by different methods. Therefore, the aim of this article was to calculate the effect of the parameters of wind sources on the primary energy factor of wind turbines. In order to achieve this aim, the primary energy factor of 100 investigated wind turbines and 11 wind farms operating in Lithuania was calculated. Investigation results showed that the difference of the non-renewable primary energy factor between wind turbines due to capacity is 35%. This paper provides a recommendation with regard to EU energy efficiency and renewable energy directives and regulations: All EU member states should use the same or very similar methodology for the calculation of the primary energy factor of renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Arguments for the Need to Modernize Water Treatment Technology in Small Towns and Cities, Based on the Example of the Municipality of Puńsk
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016010 - 12 Jun 2019
Viewed by 457
Abstract
The goal of the research was to assess the pollution level of water in the existing real water treatment station in Pelele in the municipality of Punsk. The station needed to be rebuilt because the equipment in operation there had not been changed [...] Read more.
The goal of the research was to assess the pollution level of water in the existing real water treatment station in Pelele in the municipality of Punsk. The station needed to be rebuilt because the equipment in operation there had not been changed for years. As part of the research efforts, a new water purification system was designed. The technology of the station is based on a two-stage water treatment system. Water picked up directly from the intake (raw water) as well as purified water at the old and new stations were analyzed. Then, the results obtained from water tests before and after modernization of the station were compared. There were such parameters analyzed as: color, turbidity, pH, iron (Fe), and Manganese (Mn). Through the conducted research and the results of pollution parameters received, the levels of Fe and Mn in raw as well as treated water were revealed. Their concentrations have proven that water coming from the new station continues not to be appropriate for human consumption just after the modernization process. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Effect of the Metal Type on Luminescence and Photocatalytic Properties of Lanthanide–Organic Frameworks–Modified Titania
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016011 - 12 Jun 2019
Viewed by 501
Abstract
A series of lanthanide–naphthalenedicarboxylates–modified TiO2 (Ln(NDC)-TiO2) photocatalysts were prepared via simple hydrothermal method using Tm, Er, Nd, Ho, Eu, Tb, Yb, or La as metal and 2,6-naphthenedicarboxylic acid as ligand. The photocatalysts were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence [...] Read more.
A series of lanthanide–naphthalenedicarboxylates–modified TiO2 (Ln(NDC)-TiO2) photocatalysts were prepared via simple hydrothermal method using Tm, Er, Nd, Ho, Eu, Tb, Yb, or La as metal and 2,6-naphthenedicarboxylic acid as ligand. The photocatalysts were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic properties were investigated by employing the photodegradation of phenol in the aqueous phase as a model pollutant. To provide insight into the reactive individuals participating in the degradation mechanism, a test with scavengers was also performed. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Analysis of Expenditures for Sewage Management and Water Protection in Poland
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016012 - 12 Jun 2019
Viewed by 463
Abstract
The main aim of the research was to analyze expenditures for sewage management and water protection and to identify Polish commune types that are characterized by the highest expenses. The analyses were made using classification trees in Statistica software (Dell Statistica (data analysis [...] Read more.
The main aim of the research was to analyze expenditures for sewage management and water protection and to identify Polish commune types that are characterized by the highest expenses. The analyses were made using classification trees in Statistica software (Dell Statistica (data analysis software system), version 13, Dell Inc., Round Rock, TX, USA). For this purpose, a database consisting of seven independent variables was prepared. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Greenery Planning for Improvement of Urban Air Quality—A Review
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016013 - 12 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 515
Abstract
On the basis of Polish and foreign literature on the subject, the impact of vegetation on air pollution (e.g., particulate matter) was described, as well as what significance its proper arrangement has. Reviewing findings carried out by various researchers, the criteria of selecting [...] Read more.
On the basis of Polish and foreign literature on the subject, the impact of vegetation on air pollution (e.g., particulate matter) was described, as well as what significance its proper arrangement has. Reviewing findings carried out by various researchers, the criteria of selecting plants were collected and specified. Only those criteria that contribute to obtaining optimal results in the fight against air pollution were taken into consideration. Also, based on the collected data, a set of guidelines was developed that could eventually serve as a tool for more effective planning of urban greenery. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Application of Waste Polymers as a Raw Material for Ultrafiltration Membrane Preparation
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016014 - 12 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 465
Abstract
Currently, polymer membranes are widely used in water treatment processes. The polymers commonly used for their production are polysulphone, polyacrylonitrile, or polyethersulphone. However, there are many other raw materials from which membranes can be prepared. In this work, polystyrene membranes were obtained by [...] Read more.
Currently, polymer membranes are widely used in water treatment processes. The polymers commonly used for their production are polysulphone, polyacrylonitrile, or polyethersulphone. However, there are many other raw materials from which membranes can be prepared. In this work, polystyrene membranes were obtained by dissolving Styrofoam in dimethyleformamide. The surface properties of the obtained membranes differed slightly from those obtained for polymer membranes prepared from typical granulates. Retention testing in ultrafiltration conditions showed that membranes made form waste polystyrene have similar parameters to membranes made from pure polymers. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) Approach to Modelling of Selected Nitrogen Forms Removal from Oily Wastewater in Anaerobic and Aerobic GSBR Process Phases
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016016 - 13 Jun 2019
Viewed by 413
Abstract
The paper presents artificial neural network models approximating concentration of selected nitrogen forms in wastewater after sequence bath reactor with aerobic granular activated sludge (GSBR) anaerobic and aerobic phase. Developed models reflected all the changes in concentration of studied nitrogen forms (r = [...] Read more.
The paper presents artificial neural network models approximating concentration of selected nitrogen forms in wastewater after sequence bath reactor with aerobic granular activated sludge (GSBR) anaerobic and aerobic phase. Developed models reflected all the changes in concentration of studied nitrogen forms (r = 0.996–0.999). In models approximating Total N and N-NH4, variable most influencing calculations was nitrogen form at the beginning of anaerobic or aerobic phase. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Comparison of ΣLMW Utilization Rate from Saline Wastewater in SBR Reactors with Granular and Flocked Activated Sludge
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016017 - 13 Jun 2019
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Paper discuses changes in utilization rate of Low Molecular Weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs in sequencing bath reactors (SBR) operating with flocked and aerobic granular activated sludge. Studies were carried out in laboratory scale SBR reactors filled with model wastewater characterized by salinity [...] Read more.
Paper discuses changes in utilization rate of Low Molecular Weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs in sequencing bath reactors (SBR) operating with flocked and aerobic granular activated sludge. Studies were carried out in laboratory scale SBR reactors filled with model wastewater characterized by salinity at level 4.00 g·dm−3. Wastewater inflowing to laboratory reactors was characterized by varying biological oxygen demand (BOD) load in the range of 0.05–1.60 kg BOD·kg−1·d−1. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Risk Assessment Analysis in a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016018 - 13 Jun 2019
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Risk management, an aspect of which is risk assessment, is a process supporting the proper function of municipal sewage treatment plants. Many factors affect the quality of treated wastewater. Risk assessment, its analysis, and hierarchization permit the elimination of events with the most [...] Read more.
Risk management, an aspect of which is risk assessment, is a process supporting the proper function of municipal sewage treatment plants. Many factors affect the quality of treated wastewater. Risk assessment, its analysis, and hierarchization permit the elimination of events with the most destructive impacts on the purification process. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Life Cycle Analysis of Single Family Houses and Effects of Green Technologies on Environment
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016019 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 466
Abstract
Construction and using of buildings for many years produce long-lasting impacts on human health and the environment. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the rapidly evolving science of clarifying these impacts in terms of their quality, severity, and duration. LCA of three selected new [...] Read more.
Construction and using of buildings for many years produce long-lasting impacts on human health and the environment. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the rapidly evolving science of clarifying these impacts in terms of their quality, severity, and duration. LCA of three selected new family houses located in Eastern Slovakia is performed with the aim to compare them in terms of built-in materials as well as used technologies. The main goal of the analysis is to investigate and underline the foreseeable reduction rate of environmental impacts resulting from applied green materials and green technologies. LCA impact categories of global warming potential (GWP), ozone depletion potential (ODP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), and photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) are selected for this analysis. Investigated family houses are built from conventional materials, such as aerated concrete blocks, reinforced concrete, thermal insulation of silicate mineral slabs, and roofing mineral wool, as well as natural materials, such as clay, straw, wood, cellulose, and vegetation roofs. Product phase contributes greatly to the GWP for houses built of conventional materials. AP, EP, ODP, and POCP impact categories are considerable also in the product phase. Even an operational energy phase contributes a large share of the negative impact on the environment. Adoption of green design and technology in buildings, which can mitigate negative impacts on the environment, has been recognized as a key step towards global sustainable development. The main goal of this article is to make the case that green buildings are important for reducing negative effects on the environment and resources, while simultaneously enhancing positive effects throughout the building life cycle. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
An Attempt to Optimise the Process of Nanofiltration of Pool Water Enriched with Compounds Associated with Secretions of the Human Body
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016020 - 14 Jun 2019
Viewed by 398
Abstract
This paper discusses the possibilities of purifying pool water by the process of nanofiltration. The analysis was carried out in the presence of substances analogous to the secretions of the human body. The samples of water collected from the school swimming pool was [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the possibilities of purifying pool water by the process of nanofiltration. The analysis was carried out in the presence of substances analogous to the secretions of the human body. The samples of water collected from the school swimming pool was enriched with selected organic and inorganic compounds. The transport-separation properties of nanofiltration membranes were assessed. In the context of the removal of these organic compounds, the measurement of the total organic carbon concentration was of particular importance. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Use of Zeta Potential Measurement in Surface Water Coagulation Process Optimization
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016021 - 17 Jun 2019
Viewed by 479
Abstract
The object of the research was surface water taken directly from the Mała Panew river. Zeta potential was measured in dependence of the inflicted coagulant dose. Four types of aluminum-based coagulants were used in this research: aluminum sulfate (Alum), polyaluminum chloride (PAC), dialuminum [...] Read more.
The object of the research was surface water taken directly from the Mała Panew river. Zeta potential was measured in dependence of the inflicted coagulant dose. Four types of aluminum-based coagulants were used in this research: aluminum sulfate (Alum), polyaluminum chloride (PAC), dialuminum chloride pantahydroxide (PACl), and polyaluminum chloride hydroxide sulfate (PACS). Effective coagulant doses were selected on the basis of the zeta isoelectric point (IP) analysis. Coagulation efficiency analysis was based on the parameters of treated water (pH, turbidity, color, alkalinity), reduction of organic matter (Abs254, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Disolved Organic Carbon (DOC)), and residual aluminum contamination. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Improved Performance of a PV Integrated Ventilated Façade at an Existing nZEB
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016022 - 19 Jun 2019
Viewed by 573
Abstract
Ventilated façades are among the existing measures to reduce the energy demand in buildings. The combination of this passive heating and cooling strategy with photovoltaics (PV) can drive new buildings towards the current European targets for near or even net zero-energy buildings (nZEB). [...] Read more.
Ventilated façades are among the existing measures to reduce the energy demand in buildings. The combination of this passive heating and cooling strategy with photovoltaics (PV) can drive new buildings towards the current European targets for near or even net zero-energy buildings (nZEB). The present work aims at studying the PV integrated ventilated façade of the nZEB known as “LUCIA” at the University of Valladolid, Spain. First, the transmissivity of the PV façade is measured. Then, the monitoring of the available solar radiation is presented together with the air-dry bulb temperatures indoors, outdoors and inside the ventilated façade. The experimental results permit the validation of a mathematical model that describes the behaviour of the ventilated façade in its current operating modes. The results show that dampers should be closed during winter to let the façade act as a further insulation for outdoor temperatures below 18.4 C to improve energy efficiency. Indoor air recirculation would be helpful during 10% of the winter period. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Analysis of the Use of Radiant Floor Heating as a Cooling System
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016023 - 20 Jun 2019
Viewed by 465
Abstract
The aim of this paper was to analyze the operational parameters of a radiant floor heating system working as a cooling system, in order to determine the value of possible heat flux and the floor surface temperature that can be obtain on the [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper was to analyze the operational parameters of a radiant floor heating system working as a cooling system, in order to determine the value of possible heat flux and the floor surface temperature that can be obtain on the floor surface. The influence of variable air and water temperatures, pipe spacing, and thermal resistance of floor covering on surface heat flux and temperature was analyzed. The admissible values of water temperature that assure thermal comfort according to standard ISO 11855 were determined for the analyzed variables. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Carbon Dioxide Emissions from a Ground Heat Pump for a Detached House
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016024 - 20 Jun 2019
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Inasmuch as the European Union promotes only energetically viable heat pumps in a given location, the aim of the work is an assessment of whether a ground-to-water heat pump (ground source heat pump: GSHP) can be considered as an ecological heat generator in [...] Read more.
Inasmuch as the European Union promotes only energetically viable heat pumps in a given location, the aim of the work is an assessment of whether a ground-to-water heat pump (ground source heat pump: GSHP) can be considered as an ecological heat generator in Polish climatic conditions and those of the energy market. Here, as an estimator, the net seasonal coefficient of performance (SCOPnet) was selected. Estimation was done using 10-year temperature measurements. It was found that in heating mode SCOPnet value equaled 4.83, satisfying European Commission guidelines. According to the guidelines, the minimal SCOPnet value in Polish energy market conditions should exceed 3.5. CO2 emissions from the GSHP represented two-thirds of CO2 emissions of an air-to-water heat pump (air source heat pump: ASHP) in the same building. The ground heat pump thus meets the ecological heat generator conditions set by the European Commission. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Identification of Micropollutants Occurring in Swimming Pools
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016025 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 408
Abstract
The presented research assumes the implementation of experimental studies on the occurrence of organic micropollutants in the pool water environment. The main goal of this paper is to identify micropollutants in swimming pools and select the “priority substances” due to their frequency of [...] Read more.
The presented research assumes the implementation of experimental studies on the occurrence of organic micropollutants in the pool water environment. The main goal of this paper is to identify micropollutants in swimming pools and select the “priority substances” due to their frequency of occurrence, concentration levels and health effects. The presence of micropollutants in swimming pools showed in this research raises the question whether current methods of swimming pool water treatment provide such properties that do not pose a threat to the health of users. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Influence of Ionic Liquids Assisted Synthesis on Morphology and Photocatalytic Properties of Bi4O5Br2
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016026 - 25 Jun 2019
Viewed by 461
Abstract
A series of Bi4O5Br2 photocatalysts were prepared via an innovation method of synthesis with ionic liquids (ILs). The crystal structures were investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope [...] Read more.
A series of Bi4O5Br2 photocatalysts were prepared via an innovation method of synthesis with ionic liquids (ILs). The crystal structures were investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) images illustrated the unique structure of prepared photocatalysts. The photocatalysts were also characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis/DRS) and photoluminescence spectra (PL). The role of ILs in synthesis of Bi4O5Br2 on morphology and photocatalytic properties were investigated. Rhodamine B, 5-fluorouracil and chromium (VI) were used as the model micropollutants to evaluated adsorption capacity, photooxidation and photoreduction ability of prepared Bi4O5Br2 under artificial solar light. This work provided a new thought for enhanced photocatalytic activity of bismuth oxybromide photocatalysts. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Treatment of Wastewater from the Confectionery Industry Using Pressure Membrane Processes
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016027 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 413
Abstract
The aim of the research presented in this article was to present the possibilities of wastewater treatment coming from the confectionery plant using pressure membrane techniques. Nanofiltration was carried out in a pressure dead-end filtration set up (Osmonics type GH-100-400) with a cell [...] Read more.
The aim of the research presented in this article was to present the possibilities of wastewater treatment coming from the confectionery plant using pressure membrane techniques. Nanofiltration was carried out in a pressure dead-end filtration set up (Osmonics type GH-100-400) with a cell capacity of 350 cm3 equipped with a magnetic stirrer. Four flat nanofiltration membranes were used during the tests. The efficiency of the process was estimated by determining the purified wastewater volumetric stream and based on the removal degree of pollution load. The nanofiltration membrane, thanks to which the highest cleaning results were obtained, is a flat composite membrane, with the symbol NF-270, with the polyamide film layer of the Dow Filmtec company. The degree of removal of COD after nanofiltration in this membrane was 98.7%. It was found, that wastewater treated by pressure membrane techniques in the confectionery industry can be reused, for example, for irrigation of agricultural land or gardens, and for machines and equipment washing (closing water circuits). The use of NF processes enables wastewater treatment to such a degree that it can be drained to a natural receiver. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Studies of the Cationic Polyacrylamide Adsorption on the Montmorillonite Surface in the Presence of Lead(II) Ions
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016028 - 03 Jul 2019
Viewed by 429
Abstract
The phenomena of stabilization and flocculation through the addition of polymer is widely used in many branches of industry, e.g., agriculture. Due to the high strength of intermolecular bonding, the polymers are used as an additive to control the process of soil erosion. [...] Read more.
The phenomena of stabilization and flocculation through the addition of polymer is widely used in many branches of industry, e.g., agriculture. Due to the high strength of intermolecular bonding, the polymers are used as an additive to control the process of soil erosion. Flocculants strengthen the soil cohesion, which limits the transport of sediments and thus the process of soil structure degradation. Also, the presence of polymers affects the increase of water infiltration into the soil and dissolved substances, including toxic compounds. Therefore, the presence of soil flocculants may influence the occurrence of heavy metal accumulation. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of the presence of cationic polyacrylamide on lead(II) ion adsorption onto the surface of montmorillonite. The effect of cationic group content in the polymeric macromolecules, the addition order of individual adsorbates, and the lead(II) ion concentration were also determined. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Analysis of Various Ventilation Systems Due to the Quality of Indoor Air in Educational Buildings
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016029 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 438
Abstract
The quality of internal air is one of the factors that affect the pace and quality of knowledge acquisition. Therefore, it is important that the classrooms have high air quality. Using computer simulation, the effect of various building ventilation variants on air quality [...] Read more.
The quality of internal air is one of the factors that affect the pace and quality of knowledge acquisition. Therefore, it is important that the classrooms have high air quality. Using computer simulation, the effect of various building ventilation variants on air quality in classrooms was analyzed. As an indicator of air quality, the concentration of carbon dioxide in school halls was assumed. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Sources of Bathing Water Pollution in the West Coast of Tangier, Morocco: Effects of Industrial Zones
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016030 - 03 Jul 2019
Viewed by 564
Abstract
This study was carried out in the Boukhalef River which reaches the western coastal waters of Tangier, Morocco, loaded with wastewaters from two industrial zones: Tangier Free Zone and Gzenaya Zone. To understand the extensive impact of these industrial zones on Jbila and [...] Read more.
This study was carried out in the Boukhalef River which reaches the western coastal waters of Tangier, Morocco, loaded with wastewaters from two industrial zones: Tangier Free Zone and Gzenaya Zone. To understand the extensive impact of these industrial zones on Jbila and Sidikacem beaches located near the Boukhalef River mouth, water and sediment samples of the Boukhalef River were examined in terms of physical–chemical and heavy metal parameters, respectively. The results showed high values of conductivity (Cond), biochemical oxygen demand in five days (BOD5), and chemical oxygen demand (COD), which are the causes for the very bad quality status of the Boukhalef River waters. The application of principal component analysis on the heavy metal results of Boukhalef waters and sediments showed that samples were characterized by a load of heavy metals, seemingly of the same anthropogenic origin. This analytical survey demonstrated a relationship between the bathing water quality and industrial discharge. Indeed, industrial zones represent a strong source of pollution in the west coast of Tangier, Morocco. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Use of Sorbents in Removal of Selected Cations from Wastewater After Soda Ash Production
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016031 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 446
Abstract
Wastewater generated in the soda ash production process can be characterized by a strong alkaline reaction, high electrolytic conductivity and high concentration of chlorides, ammonia, sulphates, phosphates, calcium, potassium, sodium and magnesium. Protection of water against pollution should be not only connected with [...] Read more.
Wastewater generated in the soda ash production process can be characterized by a strong alkaline reaction, high electrolytic conductivity and high concentration of chlorides, ammonia, sulphates, phosphates, calcium, potassium, sodium and magnesium. Protection of water against pollution should be not only connected with rational management of water resources and the restoration of the water environment to the required state, but also with prevention of pollution. It is an increasingly important element of protective measures. The strict control of pollution at the source is important. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods of broadly defined waste disposal from industry. The article presents the results of research aimed at the removal of sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium and ammonium ions from wastewater from soda ash production using three sorbents: Halosorb, Compakt and Damsorb K. The ion removal process was carried out dynamically with different load on the deposit. The concentration of all these anions was reduced to some extent, which indicates the possibility of further, more accurate tests. It was found that the type of sorbent does not differentiate the results of the experiment. The load on the deposit, on the other hand, has an impact on the efficiency of sorbents in wastewater treatment. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Use of Ultrasounds in Improving the Sanitary Quality of Sewage Sludge
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016032 - 03 Jul 2019
Viewed by 436
Abstract
The aim of this article is to study the effect of low-frequency ultrasound on the disintegration of microorganisms present in mixed sewage sludge. Initial and excessive sewage sludge were used for examinations coming from the Bialystok Sewage Treatment Plant. They were exposed to [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to study the effect of low-frequency ultrasound on the disintegration of microorganisms present in mixed sewage sludge. Initial and excessive sewage sludge were used for examinations coming from the Bialystok Sewage Treatment Plant. They were exposed to ultrasound at 20 and 40 kHz, in varying sonification times and in the case of variable operation of the ultrasonic cleaner (continuous and pulsating work). Research showed that ultrasound was demonstrating effective action with the tested microorganisms. The 30-minute interaction of ultrasounds at 20 kHz on the bacteria present in sewage sludge resulted in a significant decrease in the number of these microorganisms. The obtained results, therefore, indicate the possibility of using this method to disintegrate microorganisms in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Experimental Research on the Air Gasification of Oily Sawdust
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016033 - 03 Jul 2019
Viewed by 388
Abstract
In this article were present experimental results of the air gasification of oily sawdust. In a laboratory-scale countercurrent gas generator, gas composition measurements were made. We evaluated the fuel properties of the selected material with variable technological parameters (i.e., fuel to air ratio). [...] Read more.
In this article were present experimental results of the air gasification of oily sawdust. In a laboratory-scale countercurrent gas generator, gas composition measurements were made. We evaluated the fuel properties of the selected material with variable technological parameters (i.e., fuel to air ratio). Additionally, we evaluated the methanization coefficients and the dependence of their value on fuel and gasification agent content delivered to the chamber of the reaction. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Possibilities of Paper Sludge Waste (PSw) Utilization in Cement Materials
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016034 - 04 Jul 2019
Viewed by 387
Abstract
The paper production is developed throughout the world, therefore, more paper sludge waste (PSw) is accumulating. The aim of this work was to determine the properties of PSw burned at 900 °C and its impact on physical–mechanical properties of cementitious matrix and evaluate [...] Read more.
The paper production is developed throughout the world, therefore, more paper sludge waste (PSw) is accumulating. The aim of this work was to determine the properties of PSw burned at 900 °C and its impact on physical–mechanical properties of cementitious matrix and evaluate its usage/utilization possibilities in cementitious materials. For the implementation of the aim, cement-based specimens were prepared and their –mechanical properties were determined. Specimens from five compositions were formed, with 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% of the cement by weight replaced with PSw. When 5% of the cement was replaced with PSw, the compressive strength increased by approximately 7%, although density and ultrasound velocity slightly decreased (up to 1.5%). When 7.5% PSw was added, the compressive strength of the specimens decreased. To summarize, it can be stated that up to 5% PSw may be utilized/used for the preparation of cementitious mixtures. The usage of the waste allows environment conservation, reduced amount of cement in mixtures, and improvement of properties of cementitious materials. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Methods of Calculating the Individual Heating Costs in Multi-Family Buildings in Selected Countries
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016035 - 05 Jul 2019
Viewed by 371
Abstract
This paper presents the methods used to determine individual heating costs in Germany, Austria, Poland, and Ukraine, as well as EU arrangements for the settlement of individual heating costs. Also presented is the original method, which significantly eliminates excessive inequalities in individual charges [...] Read more.
This paper presents the methods used to determine individual heating costs in Germany, Austria, Poland, and Ukraine, as well as EU arrangements for the settlement of individual heating costs. Also presented is the original method, which significantly eliminates excessive inequalities in individual charges for central heating—so-called chimneys in the settlements of individual costs for flats heating. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
On the Use of Residential Thermal Stations in Different Types of Buildings
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016036 - 05 Jul 2019
Viewed by 354
Abstract
The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the energy consumption and the efficiency of heating systems in two multi-family buildings and one collective residence equipped with residential thermal stations (RTSs) that are used for supplying individual dwellings with heat as well [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the energy consumption and the efficiency of heating systems in two multi-family buildings and one collective residence equipped with residential thermal stations (RTSs) that are used for supplying individual dwellings with heat as well as hot and cold water. An additional aspect of the analysis is a presentation of the structure of total energy consumption for particular purposes in the analyzed buildings. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Pressure Agglomeration Process of Bakery Industry Waste
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016037 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 376
Abstract
The research aim of this study was to assess the suitability for pellet production of bakery industry waste in the form of “sponge flour” in a mix with peanut postproduction sweepings (20%, 30%, 40%, 50%). An increase in the content of peanuts (from [...] Read more.
The research aim of this study was to assess the suitability for pellet production of bakery industry waste in the form of “sponge flour” in a mix with peanut postproduction sweepings (20%, 30%, 40%, 50%). An increase in the content of peanuts (from 20% to 50%) in the mix was shown to increase the power demand of the pelleting system and the physical density of the obtained granules but caused a decrease in their kinetic durability. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Indoor Air Quality in the Bedroom of a Single-Family House—A Case Study
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016038 - 08 Jul 2019
Viewed by 443
Abstract
People spend nearly 1/3 of their lives in bedrooms. Moreover, the greatest part of this time is spent in lack of awareness, so it is important to maintain suitable conditions in these areas, including air quality. In non-ventilated bedrooms, people may have trouble [...] Read more.
People spend nearly 1/3 of their lives in bedrooms. Moreover, the greatest part of this time is spent in lack of awareness, so it is important to maintain suitable conditions in these areas, including air quality. In non-ventilated bedrooms, people may have trouble falling asleep, may not be resting enough during sleep, and they can wake up tired. This affects their well-being and behavior throughout the next day. Indoor air quality measurements were carried out in a single-family home bedroom. The measurements were made in unsealed windows. In the bedroom under examination, where people stay only during the night and where the door is always open and air is constantly being renewed, the carbon dioxide concentration during the night exceeded the permissible standard—1000 ppm. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A New Method to Determine the Annual Energy Output of Liquid-Based Solar Collectors
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016039 - 15 Jul 2019
Viewed by 352
Abstract
This article presents a new way of determining the annual energy output of solar thermal collectors. The proposed method, in the first stage, assumes the creation of a database that contains energy gains QSC from the solar collectors, the average annual solar irradiance [...] Read more.
This article presents a new way of determining the annual energy output of solar thermal collectors. The proposed method, in the first stage, assumes the creation of a database that contains energy gains QSC from the solar collectors, the average annual solar irradiance intensity IS, and the average temperature of the outside air θO. It can be made on the basis of detailed computer simulations. In the current case, EnergyPlus software was used to create this database. Next, mathematical relations for flat plate and evacuated tube collectors were developed using the linear regression analysis (multiple regression method). Based on these equations, one can calculate the value of QSC as a function of IS and O. In addition, two graphs for the estimation of the annual energy gains for the entire area of Poland and for the conditions of a typical meteorological year were prepared. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Investment Costs of Heating in Poland and Spain—A Case Study
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016040 - 16 Jul 2019
Viewed by 405
Abstract
Heating a room or a building is a basic annual operating cost. This paper presents typical heating systems in Poland and Spain. Based on the calculations made for lecture rooms located in different climate zones in Poland and Spain, the design heat loss [...] Read more.
Heating a room or a building is a basic annual operating cost. This paper presents typical heating systems in Poland and Spain. Based on the calculations made for lecture rooms located in different climate zones in Poland and Spain, the design heat loss and energy demand for heating are compared and analyzed. Additionally, the paper includes a statement about selected radiators and a comparison of their purchase costs for individual locations. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Advisability of Employment of Renewable Energy Sources in DHW Systems in the Kindergarten
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016041 - 16 Jul 2019
Viewed by 381
Abstract
This research aims to show the advisability of usage of selected renewable energy sources for domestic hot water (DHW) installations in buildings located in Poland and Spain. The analysis was conducted for a typical kindergarten, an example of buildings with high density of [...] Read more.
This research aims to show the advisability of usage of selected renewable energy sources for domestic hot water (DHW) installations in buildings located in Poland and Spain. The analysis was conducted for a typical kindergarten, an example of buildings with high density of people and stable profile of usage, as opposed to schools which are closed during summer holidays. We took into account national regulations to estimate heat demand. Then applying solar collectors and heat pumps to use as a monovalent energy sources were considered. The total cost of the system with solar collectors in Poland was found to be 1.4 times higher than in Spain, whereas the difference in a case of air heat pumps was 18%. Moreover efficiency of solar collector and heat pump systems were found as 49.56% for Warsaw, 52.29% for Madrid with coefficient of performance (COP) 2.2 and 2.55 respectively, therefore simple payback time (SPBT) of investment was estimated in a range between 6–12 years for solar collectors and 5–6 years for heat pumps. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Using the MultiRAEPro Gas Detector to Monitor Odour Emissions from Biogas Plants Processing Municipal Waste
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016042 - 16 Jul 2019
Viewed by 373
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyse the work of the MultiRAEPro gas detector in terms of its application in monitoring odour emissions from biogas plants processing municipal waste constituting part of a mechanical–biological waste treatment plant. The obtained results provided the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyse the work of the MultiRAEPro gas detector in terms of its application in monitoring odour emissions from biogas plants processing municipal waste constituting part of a mechanical–biological waste treatment plant. The obtained results provided the basis for formulating conclusions concerning the use of a gas detector in monitoring odour emissions from biogas plants processing municipal waste. The study results can be applied in practice in biogas plants processing municipal waste as well as in other municipal facilities. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Relative Humidity during Antenatal Classes—A Case Study
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016043 - 17 Jul 2019
Viewed by 410
Abstract
The quality of air inside buildings is considered in terms of health and comfort of the occupants. The whole study included experimental research of selected parameters of indoor air in the room of the birth school located in Bialystok. This paper examines the [...] Read more.
The quality of air inside buildings is considered in terms of health and comfort of the occupants. The whole study included experimental research of selected parameters of indoor air in the room of the birth school located in Bialystok. This paper examines the effects of low relative humidity, during gym classes, while the air conditioning unit was working. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Use of Sodium Carbonate—Hydrogen Peroxide (2/3) in the Modified Fenton Reaction to Degradation PAHs in Coke Wastewater
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016044 - 17 Jul 2019
Viewed by 443
Abstract
The aim of the research was to determine the effectiveness of removing micro-organic pollutants, including PAHs, using the modified Fenton method. The tested material was pretreated coke wastewater, in which the initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) value and initial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) [...] Read more.
The aim of the research was to determine the effectiveness of removing micro-organic pollutants, including PAHs, using the modified Fenton method. The tested material was pretreated coke wastewater, in which the initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) value and initial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration were determined. The samples were then subjected to an oxidation procedure. Before the process, the pH was adjusted to 3.5–3.8. Next, the following doses of sodium carbonate—hydrogen peroxide (2/3): 1.2 g/L, 1.5 g/L and 2 g/L, and a constant dose of iron sulphate were added. The next step was exposing the samples to UV light for 6 min and separating the organic matrix from the samples of wastewater. After the tests, the final value of the COD and the final PAHs concentration were determined. The average content of organic pollutants in pretreated coke wastewater determined by the COD index was 538 mg/L, and after the oxidation process, the COD index decreased in the range from 9 to 29%. The efficiency of the degradation of the sum of 16 PAHs was varied and was in the range of 94–97.6%. The research results show that sodium carbonate—hydrogen peroxide (2/3) can be used for the degradation of organic pollutants, such as PAHs, in the modified Fenton process. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Comparison of the Chemical Composition of Natural Fertilizers and Organic Waste
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016045 - 18 Jul 2019
Viewed by 387
Abstract
This research concerns the comparison of chemical compositions and the content of basic nutrients, heavy metals, and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), found in manure, sewage sludge, and digestate. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Influence of Color Temperature of White LED Diodes and Illumination Intensity on the Content of Photosynthetic Pigments in Chlorella vulgaris Algae Cells
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016046 - 18 Jul 2019
Viewed by 455
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of color temperature of Light Emitting Diode (LED) diodes and illumination intensity on the content of photosynthetic pigments of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids in Chlorella vulgaris algae cells. Choosing the right [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of color temperature of Light Emitting Diode (LED) diodes and illumination intensity on the content of photosynthetic pigments of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids in Chlorella vulgaris algae cells. Choosing the right color temperature and intensity of illumination can favorably affect the growth of algae. In particular, it can contribute to the efficiency of the photosynthesis process and the amount of produced biomass from Chlorella vulgaris algae. In the spectrophotometric studies, the highest content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids was found in cultures illuminated with very cold white light (8500 K) with an intensity of 500 μmol/m2s. The highest measured content of chlorophyll a (Chl a) pigments was 48.29 mg/L, Chl b pigment was 23.25 mg/L and carotenoids pigment was 12.65 mg/L; the smallest content of pigments for Chl a (11.48 mg/L), Chl b (4.69 mg/L) and carotenoids (3.03 mg/L) was found in the sample illuminated with warm white light (3200 K) with an intensity of 50 μmol/m2s. The highest amount of dry organic matter amounting to 2.0 g/L was found in a sample illuminated with warm white light (3200 K) with an intensity of 250 μmol/m2s, then 1.91 g dry organic mass (DOM)/L for very cold white light with an intensity of 250 μmol/m2s, and 1.48 g DOM/L for very cold white light with an intensity of 50 μmol/m2s. The obtained results show that a higher content of photosynthetic pigments does not directly affect the increase of the amount of dry organic matter. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Analysis of the Structure of Water Demand with the Example of Selected Buildings
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016047 - 18 Jul 2019
Viewed by 346
Abstract
The basis for the desing of water supply devices is knowledge of the distribution of water demand. The purpose of this work was to determine the structure of water demand for selected building objects. Differences between real and literature values of water flow [...] Read more.
The basis for the desing of water supply devices is knowledge of the distribution of water demand. The purpose of this work was to determine the structure of water demand for selected building objects. Differences between real and literature values of water flow and water demand were determined. On the basis of the analysis, water meters were selected and peak factors were determined. The analysis was performed based on current legal acts, technical literature, and data obtained from Dabrowskie Wodociagi Sp. z o.o. in Dabrowa Gornicza, Poland. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Optimization of Solar Shading for a NZEB Kindergarten in Florence
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016048 - 19 Jul 2019
Viewed by 384
Abstract
For the realization of a near-zero energy building (NZEB) school, it is important to define during the preliminary phase of the design process the type of solar shading to be used for each orientation (south, east, and west), as it strongly determines the [...] Read more.
For the realization of a near-zero energy building (NZEB) school, it is important to define during the preliminary phase of the design process the type of solar shading to be used for each orientation (south, east, and west), as it strongly determines the appearance of the façade of the building. Given that this choice is also strictly linked to the energy balance of the building and to the thermal-hygrometric and visual wellbeing of occupants, it is necessary to combine both aspects. This study aims to analyze and optimize the solar shadings system of one of the new typological models for kindergarten in order to minimize the energy needs of the building. The proposed analysis in the paper is part of a broader work aimed at defining qualitative and quantitative guidelines for the design of NZEB kindergartens and elementary schools in the Mediterranean area. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Examination of PM10 and PM2.5 Concentration in an Apartment in a Multifamily Building
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016049 - 22 Jul 2019
Viewed by 383
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to analyze the level of air pollution by particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 in an apartment in a multifamily building. Also, there is a comparison between pollution level caused by particulate matters in indoor and outdoor air [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to analyze the level of air pollution by particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 in an apartment in a multifamily building. Also, there is a comparison between pollution level caused by particulate matters in indoor and outdoor air at the same time. An attempt was made to define a correlation between concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in indoor and atmospheric air. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Using Recycled Materials in Packagings to Meet the Goals of Circular Economy
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016050 - 24 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 343
Abstract
Packaging waste that is not recycled or reused has a negative environmental effects and presents serious concern. At the same time, various secondary raw materials, which were used to produce packaging from recycled materials, can affect human health and the environment because they [...] Read more.
Packaging waste that is not recycled or reused has a negative environmental effects and presents serious concern. At the same time, various secondary raw materials, which were used to produce packaging from recycled materials, can affect human health and the environment because they can contain harmful chemical substances. For this reason, it is necessary to investigate the existence of hazardous chemicals in recycled materials. This paper analyzes issues related to the production of packaging by using materials from recycled packaging waste with a focus on the influence of the hazardous substances that the waste may contain. This paper presents the results of a survey interviewing packaging manufacturers who use recycled materials in packaging, revealing problems that packaging manufacturers face in the manufacturing of packaging from recycled materials. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Influence of UV Irradiation Spectra on the Formation of Micropollutant Decomposition By-Products during Heterogeneous Photocatalysis
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016051 - 24 Jul 2019
Viewed by 374
Abstract
This paper presents a short overview of the removal rates of selected organic micropollutants and the formation of their intermediates in water solutions during the processes of photolysis and photocaltalysis. Both processes were carried out using four UV lamps with different irradiation spectra. [...] Read more.
This paper presents a short overview of the removal rates of selected organic micropollutants and the formation of their intermediates in water solutions during the processes of photolysis and photocaltalysis. Both processes were carried out using four UV lamps with different irradiation spectra. It was proven that the distribution of radiation intensity at given wavelengths had a strong impact on the decomposition of compounds. The most commonly used TQ mercury UV lamp led to the formation of a larger number of intermediates during photochemical processes compared to other UV lamps with the same power of 150 watts. Toxicological analysis indicated the toxic nature of some of the newly formed by-products. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Removal of Copper from Water Solutions by Adsorption on Spruce Sawdust
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016052 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 487
Abstract
Pollution of water by toxic elements is one of the major factors of concern for human health, as well as for environmental quality, and draws a large amount of scientific attention. New and cheaper methods of wastewater treatment are increasing the quality of [...] Read more.
Pollution of water by toxic elements is one of the major factors of concern for human health, as well as for environmental quality, and draws a large amount of scientific attention. New and cheaper methods of wastewater treatment are increasing the quality of the environment and reducing the negative impacts on fauna, flora, and human beings. The sorption technique is considered a cost effective method for effectively removing heavy metals. During the past few years, there have been increasing studies dedicated to using low-cost adsorbents like bark, tannin-rich materials, lignin, chitosan peat moss, and sawdust. The presented paper describes the adsorption behavior of spruce wood sawdust. In order to determine its applicability for wastewater treatment, copper removal from model solutions was studied. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Assessment of Building Energy Functionality in the Integrated Building Design
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016053 - 25 Jul 2019
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Buildings are significant contributors to energy-related sustainability challenges and a sustainable future. Practice shows—that the traditional building design process is becoming ineffective and will no longer be able to meet the determined requirements and standards of low energy architecture. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Buildings are significant contributors to energy-related sustainability challenges and a sustainable future. Practice shows—that the traditional building design process is becoming ineffective and will no longer be able to meet the determined requirements and standards of low energy architecture. The aim of this research is to introduce and validate the newly developed technology of building design concept, which integrates Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Axiomatic Design (AD) methods. The proposed technology eliminates the traditional building design problems, ensures a smooth Integrated Building Design (IBD) process and matches the needs of the customer and the whole building design team. The new technology also provides a quicker and more effective way to find a sustainable and customer-orientated solution. Validation of the technology on the case study has shown that the energy functionality of the building proved to be superior to buildings, created during traditional building design process. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
The Method of Spatial Suitability Assessment for Photovoltaic Development at the Municipality Scale
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016054 - 31 Jul 2019
Viewed by 381
Abstract
The aim of the study was to develop a nationally universal method for estimating the solar resources and to assess, at the municipality scale, the suitability for photovoltaic development based on the implementation of GIS&T (Geographic Information Science and Technology), multi-criteria analyses, and [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to develop a nationally universal method for estimating the solar resources and to assess, at the municipality scale, the suitability for photovoltaic development based on the implementation of GIS&T (Geographic Information Science and Technology), multi-criteria analyses, and spatial data gathered from the National Geodetic and Cartographic Resources. The developed method is based on the use of digital topographic data and data gathered by means of modern remote sensing methods as a point cloud from airborne laser scanning. Based on studies in the literature, the formal and legal conditions applicable in Poland were discussed. The sets of constraints and factor criteria have been created as a base for evaluating the suitability of a chosen municipality for photovoltaic farms’ emplacement. Weight calculations in a multi-criteria method—an AHP method (analytic hierarchy process)—were applied. In the multi-criteria analysis, 27 constraints and 13 factors were included. Undoubtedly, a utilitarian feature of the developed method is the calculation models allowing full automation of the process of spatial assessment of municipality territories for photovoltaic farms’ development. Furthermore, calculation models can be easily adapted to some specific conditions that occur in the analyzed municipality territories. The results obtained confirm the significant usefulness of the implemented approach in the context of the spatial suitability assessment of photovoltaic development at the municipality scale. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Indoor Air Quality in an Auto Repair Shop: A Case Study
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016055 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 454
Abstract
The aim of the paper was to conduct an indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment in an auto repair shop, measuring CO2 and CO concentrations. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide concentrations were measured for a week. Two Testo 435-4 gauges were located at [...] Read more.
The aim of the paper was to conduct an indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment in an auto repair shop, measuring CO2 and CO concentrations. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide concentrations were measured for a week. Two Testo 435-4 gauges were located at head height of an adult person (ca. 170 cm above the floor) in a room. The CO2 concentration was measured with an IAQ probe, which measures dew point temperature, psychrometer temperature and absolute pressure in indoor air. The second gauge was connected to a CO probe. Measurements were taken every 5 min and were averaged across an hour. Uncertainties were estimated using square-root combinations of fixed errors and random errors at a 0.05 level of statistical significance. The measurements were conducted from 17 November to 23 November 2018. The following graphs were plotted for carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide: hourly averaged concentration and 8 h averaged concentration. The results were discussed and compared to Polish, foreign and international standards and recommendations. It was found that the auto shop was in danger of negligence according to Polish law as well as nonfulfillment of healthy recommendations. An exhaust extraction system should be installed. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Purification of Colored Aqueous Solutions in the Adsorption Process on Magnetite Modified with Polymers
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016056 - 05 Aug 2019
Viewed by 417
Abstract
Colored industrial wastewater is a threat in many environmental aspects. As such, there is a need to find more effective methods for its purification. This article presents a brief overview of available methods for removing dyes from aqueous solutions, among them the adsorption [...] Read more.
Colored industrial wastewater is a threat in many environmental aspects. As such, there is a need to find more effective methods for its purification. This article presents a brief overview of available methods for removing dyes from aqueous solutions, among them the adsorption process, which is the subject of this study. The course of preliminary tests on the process of cleaning dye solutions in the adsorption process is presented. Unmodified magnetite and magnetite modified with polymers were used as adsorbents. The synthesis of particular types of magnetite, the adsorption process, as well as the methods of further analyzes are described. As part of the work, the focus was put on a comparison of the effectiveness of the purification process for different types of adsorbents in relation to selected dyes. The varied conditions of the process were also analyzed. It has been shown that magnetite is an adsorbent that is easy to use, allowing effective separation of dyes of various chemical structures from aqueous solutions. The effectiveness of the process depends on the type of dye and on the pH value and can be increased in relation to some dyes by using magnetite modification with selected polymers. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Determination of Organic Micropollutants in Water Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016057 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 434
Abstract
In this study a determination method has been developed for seven different micropollutants, that were selected to represent different compound groups. The selected compounds were: 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), 4-octylphenol (4-OP), anthracene (Ant), alachlor (Ac), heptachlor (Hc), heptachlor epoxide (Hce), and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Chromatographic separation [...] Read more.
In this study a determination method has been developed for seven different micropollutants, that were selected to represent different compound groups. The selected compounds were: 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), 4-octylphenol (4-OP), anthracene (Ant), alachlor (Ac), heptachlor (Hc), heptachlor epoxide (Hce), and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Chromatographic separation and mass spectrometer detection conditions were optimized to achieve the best micropollutants separation and the best detection sensitivity. A calibration curves were created at different calibration levels suited of each type of detection mode (Full Scan and Selected Ion Monitoring) and limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were calculated. Furthermore, recovery values were determined for each compound in spiked water samples at levels equal to 10%, 50%, and 90% of the calibration curve range and compared to other studies in which similar methods of determination were used. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Single-Use Paper Cups Circularity Improvement and Environmental Impact Mitigation Measures for Lappeenranta University of Technology Campus
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016058 - 03 Sep 2019
Viewed by 503
Abstract
This study examines the generation and treatment of disposable single-use paper cups at Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) campus located in Finland. The study was carried out within the LUT campus considering take-away venues and the waste collection system, with the intersection of [...] Read more.
This study examines the generation and treatment of disposable single-use paper cups at Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) campus located in Finland. The study was carried out within the LUT campus considering take-away venues and the waste collection system, with the intersection of the local waste treatment system. The University was considered as a closed system where different activities and services are taking place. This work contributes to a better understanding of newly adopted circularity measures and application possibilities. The research attempted to evaluate the environmental impacts, and reduction options of disposable single-use paper cups within the Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) campus, and measured the circularity indicator of single-use paper cups. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Three-Dimensional Analysis of Flow Velocities through a Large Pool Fish Pass in the Trzebuńka Stream
Proceedings 2019, 16(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019016059 - 29 Nov 2019
Viewed by 246
Abstract
This paper presents the hydrodynamic parameter values of a large pool fish pass joined with block ramps in the Trzebuńka stream. The aim of this work is to evaluate the large pool fish pass patency in terms of fish and to answer the [...] Read more.
This paper presents the hydrodynamic parameter values of a large pool fish pass joined with block ramps in the Trzebuńka stream. The aim of this work is to evaluate the large pool fish pass patency in terms of fish and to answer the question of whether fish migration upstream is possible. The assessment of hydrodynamic parameters was carried out on the basis of water flow velocity measurements using a flow tracker device and by calculating the following parameters: Water depth, shear stresses, and Froude’s and Reynold’s numbers. Velocity measurements were carried out in 23–30 hydrometric points which were determined in each of the pools. A survey was done using the Topcon GTS-226 (Topcon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) total station. The data were processed in order to obtain the results of hydrodynamic parameters prevailing in flowing water. The graphs were prepared using the Grapher 11 software, showing the distribution of individual hydrodynamic parameters for fish pass chambers and overflows in the fish passage. We concluded that the fish pass in Stróża was designed and constructed correctly. However, from a technical point of view, some deficiencies could be found. Full article
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