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Urban Sci., Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Prioritizing Sustainable City Indicators for Cambodia
Urban Sci. 2019, 3(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci3040104 - 22 Oct 2019
Abstract
This research is based on our previous research that developed consensus sustainable city indicators for Cambodia through three-round Delphi panel surveys. That research developed indicators in the first round based on UN sustainable development goal 11, ASEAN environmentally sustainable city, Korean case study, [...] Read more.
This research is based on our previous research that developed consensus sustainable city indicators for Cambodia through three-round Delphi panel surveys. That research developed indicators in the first round based on UN sustainable development goal 11, ASEAN environmentally sustainable city, Korean case study, and domestic green and clean city indicators, and validated the developed indicators in the last two rounds. After consensus analysis, that research obtained 32 assessment indicators categorized by nine criteria. However, these indicators are not prioritized yet due to the limitation of the Delphi technique. Hence, this research aims to prioritize these indicators by applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique and to confirm whether the levels of importance verified by Delphi can be used for prioritizing or ranking the indicators. This research surveyed potential respondents experienced and working in relevant fields both offline and online. Online surveys were processed through E-mail, Facebook, and LinkedIn. A total of 118 questionnaires were gathered from the surveys, and 16 were inconsistent (consistency ratio > 0.1). The results showed that the highest and lowest weights are 0.0557 and 0.086. The top ten indicators are slum population (0.0557), unemployment (0.0516), crime prevention (0.0470), water supply (0.0469), city’s migration (0.0462), low-income housing (0.0445), solid waste collection (0.0437), labor-force (0.0421), construction safety (0.0400), and traffic congestion (0.0398). The rank of all indicators based on their levels of importance is completely different from the rank of their weights. Therefore, this research confirms that the levels of importance verified by Delphi cannot be used for ranking or prioritizing the consensus indicators. The priority weights in this research would be useful to policymaking, strategic direction, and budget allocation for the development and management of sustainable cities in Cambodia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancing Biodiversity in Urban Green Space; An Exploration of the IAD Framework Applied to Ecologically Mature Trees
Urban Sci. 2019, 3(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci3040103 - 22 Oct 2019
Abstract
This paper investigates how institutions in urban settings potentially identify, frame, and operationalise biodiversity conservation policies. It adopts the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework (IAD) to analyse a case study regarding the retention of ecologically mature trees in urban green space in Canberra, [...] Read more.
This paper investigates how institutions in urban settings potentially identify, frame, and operationalise biodiversity conservation policies. It adopts the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework (IAD) to analyse a case study regarding the retention of ecologically mature trees in urban green space in Canberra, Australia. The research investigates; what are the structural and institutional arrangements that catalyze or inhibit biodiversity conservation in urban green space? Specifically, the IAD framework is applied to explore the institutional structures and the role of key decision-makers in the conservation and management of ecologically mature trees in urban green space. Ecologically mature trees represent an exclusive habitat for many species and are key structures for conserving biodiversity in urban settings. The results suggest the application of the IAD ‘rules-in-use’ analysis reveals that ecologically mature trees are inconsistently managed in Canberra, leading to conflicting approaches between institutions in managing urban biodiversity. It suggests that a more structured and replicable institutional analysis will help practitioners to empirically derive a more comprehensive understanding of the roles of institutions in supporting or inhibiting biodiversity conservation in urban settings. The research finds that developers, asset managers, and other stakeholders could benefit from explicitly mapping out the defined rules, norms and strategies required to negotiate economically, socially and environmentally achievable outcomes for biodiversity conservation in urban green space. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Issues of Strategic Digital City
Urban Sci. 2019, 3(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci3040102 - 03 Oct 2019
Viewed by 275
Abstract
In the contemporary era of information, it is a critical challenge for city managers to meet the demands of their citizens at the same pace as the development of its information technology resources. Guarapuava is an example of a centennial town that has [...] Read more.
In the contemporary era of information, it is a critical challenge for city managers to meet the demands of their citizens at the same pace as the development of its information technology resources. Guarapuava is an example of a centennial town that has been predominantly agricultural and now seeks to adjust to the population density and the new information age. Much like Guarapuava, many cities in Brazil and around the world are in a similar condition. The new reality of many towns is challenging for municipal managers. Strategic digital city is the application of information technology resources in the management of the city. The objective of this paper is to analyse the decision-making processes, strategies, public services, information technologies, and relationships with strategic digital city issues in the city of Guarapuava, Parana, Brazil. Using a survey methodology based on the research variables, we showed that the municipality has informal characteristics of the concept of a strategic digital city. Based on the results, the evidence domain types in the city are predominant for internet and colleagues inside the organization on a daily base. Google scholar is the most consulted research source of evidence. Respondents well know the term methodology. Their attitudes towards scientific research show that it is essential for managers and that managers are aware of how to use that technology. Related to evidence-based management the respondents, in general, agreed that using by evidence-based practices, managers can improve the quality of their work, and that this should be part of their formal education. Citizens should be utilised more as a source of evidence as well, as they are the users of the institutions. The strategies are more focused on the government and its administration, however, these strategies could include areas like science and technology. The city offers electronic public services to improve citizens lives, and to be more transparent in sharing information through these alternative channels. The analysis revealed the effort of the town to include citizens in the digital era, and its attempt to connect with them. The research serves as a reference for other municipalities with an interest in analysing projects related to the decision-making process, strategies, information, public services, and use of its IT resources. The study is also a contribution to academic knowledge in relation to the study of public policies related to urban management. Finally, the study contributes to the field of research related to the study of strategic digital city, serving as a basis for future studies in this discipline. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Integrating Satellite-Derived Data as Spatial Predictors in Multiple Regression Models to Enhance the Knowledge of Air Temperature Patterns
Urban Sci. 2019, 3(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci3040101 - 21 Sep 2019
Viewed by 401
Abstract
With the phenomenon of urban heat island and thermal discomfort felt in urban areas, exacerbated by climate change, it is necessary to best estimate the air temperature in every part of an area, especially in the context of the on-going rationalization weather stations [...] Read more.
With the phenomenon of urban heat island and thermal discomfort felt in urban areas, exacerbated by climate change, it is necessary to best estimate the air temperature in every part of an area, especially in the context of the on-going rationalization weather stations network. In addition, the comprehension of air temperature patterns is essential for multiple applications in the fields of agriculture, hydrology, land development or public health. Thus, this study proposes to estimate the air temperature from 28 explanatory variables, using multiple linear regressions. The innovation of this study is to integrate variables from remote sensing into the model in addition to the variables traditionally used like the ones from the Land Use Land Cover. The contribution of spectral indices is significant and makes it possible to improve the quality of the prediction model. However, modeling errors are still present. Their locations and magnitudes are analyzed. However, although the results provided by modelling are of good quality in most cases, particularly thanks to the introduction of explanatory variables from remote sensing, this can never replace dense networks of ground-based measurements. Nevertheless, the methodology presented, applicable to any territory and not requiring specific computer resources, can be highly useful in many fields, particularly for urban planners. Full article
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