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Seeing the Forest for the Trees: A Review-Based Framework for Better Harmonization of Timber Production, Biodiversity, and Recreation in Boreal Urban Forests

Lillehammer, Norsk institutt for naturforskning, Vormstuguvegen 40, 2624 Lillehammer, Norway
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Urban Sci. 2019, 3(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci3040113
Received: 29 August 2019 / Revised: 2 December 2019 / Accepted: 10 December 2019 / Published: 13 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature & Culture for Cities and Territories)
Forested lands serve multiple needs, and the priorities that go into balancing the competing demands can vary over time. In addition to being the source of timber and other natural resources, forested lands provide a number of other services such as biodiversity conservation and opportunities for outdoor recreation. While allocations that enhance conservation and recreation can involve expenses and lost revenue, mechanisms exist to provide landowners with incentives to make such contributions. Here, we review the literature and present a conceptual framework that can help landowners envision possible contributions towards bolstering outdoor recreation opportunities on their lands. The framework classifies forests within a simple conceptual space defined by two axes: (1) the spectrum of intensity of recreational use, and (2) the level of economic contribution required by landowners to meet recreational demands of visitors to their lands. The resulting matrix consists of four broad categories that can be used in forest management zoning as seen from an outdoor recreation perspective: general and special considerations for recreational opportunities and biodiversity, wilderness and nature reserves, and service areas. These categories have different tolerances for active silviculture and require shifting harvest practices spatially within the forest property. While timber revenues may decrease with shifting allocations, other sources of revenue may open up. With an increasingly urban population and rising demands for natural resources, it is prudent for landowners and land use planners to consider zoning their properties to better handle potential conflicts. The framework presented here provides a simple, structured approach to visualize future challenges and opportunities. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiversity; Fennoscandia; leisure time; recreation; visitor facilities; urban forests biodiversity; Fennoscandia; leisure time; recreation; visitor facilities; urban forests
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gundersen, V.; Köhler, B.; Myrvold, K.M. Seeing the Forest for the Trees: A Review-Based Framework for Better Harmonization of Timber Production, Biodiversity, and Recreation in Boreal Urban Forests. Urban Sci. 2019, 3, 113. https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci3040113

AMA Style

Gundersen V, Köhler B, Myrvold KM. Seeing the Forest for the Trees: A Review-Based Framework for Better Harmonization of Timber Production, Biodiversity, and Recreation in Boreal Urban Forests. Urban Science. 2019; 3(4):113. https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci3040113

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gundersen, Vegard; Köhler, Berit; Myrvold, Knut M. 2019. "Seeing the Forest for the Trees: A Review-Based Framework for Better Harmonization of Timber Production, Biodiversity, and Recreation in Boreal Urban Forests" Urban Sci. 3, no. 4: 113. https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci3040113

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