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Batteries, Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2023) – 39 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Can several lithium-ion battery cells be characterized simultaneously, and if so, which aspects should be considered? The detection of defects in quality assurance motivates the development of innovative characterization methods. In this work, the influence of one cell with deviating impedance characteristics on five remaining interconnected cells in eight combinatorially varied topologies using galvanostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is investigated, revealing regularities related to the interconnection position and thus serving as a basis for the evaluation and design of multi-cell setups. View this paper
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14 pages, 6405 KiB  
Article
Boosting the Capacitance of Aqueous Zinc-Ion Hybrid Capacitors by Engineering Hierarchical Porous Carbon Architecture
by Yanzhen Li, Xin Zhang, Tong Lu, Ying Zhang, Xue Li, Dengfeng Yu and Gongyuan Zhao
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080429 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
With the merits of having excellent safety, being low cost and being environmentally friendly, zinc-ion hybrid supercapacitors (ZHSCs) are expected to be widely used in large-scale energy storage and flexible wearable devices. However, limited by their sluggish kinetic process, ZHSCs suffer from low-specific [...] Read more.
With the merits of having excellent safety, being low cost and being environmentally friendly, zinc-ion hybrid supercapacitors (ZHSCs) are expected to be widely used in large-scale energy storage and flexible wearable devices. However, limited by their sluggish kinetic process, ZHSCs suffer from low-specific capacity and poor cycling stability at high cathode mass loading. Herein, a novel designed oxygen-rich hierarchical porous carbon (HPOC) is obtained by a one-step strategy of synchronous activation and templated for high-performance ZHSCs. The fabricated ZHSCs with HPOCs show significant improvement in Zn-ion storage capability, with a capacity of 209.4 mAh g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 and 108.3 mAh g−1 at 10 A g−1. Additionally, the cycling stability is excellent, with 92.3% retention after 4000 cycles. Furthermore, an impressive areal capacity of 1.7 mAh cm−2 is achieved, even with a high mass loading of 12.5 mg cm−2. More importantly, the flexible quasi-solid state ZHSCs also show a considerable capability (183.5 mAh g−1 at 0.1 A g−1) and a high energy density of 178.0 Wh kg−1. This promising result suggests a valuable route to produce functional nanocarbon materials for zinc storage applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrolytes for Solid State Batteries)
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16 pages, 8412 KiB  
Article
Boosting the Power of Na0.44MnO2: Unlocking Its Potential for Aqueous Sodium-Ion Storage through Nanostructuring and Hybridization
by Mehdi Soleimanzade, Mariano Radaelli, Jacopo Manidi, Maksim Bahdanchyk and Antonello Vicenzo
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080428 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1495
Abstract
We report an effective processing route, combining nanostructure formation and hybridization, to improve the rate performance of the tunnel-structure sodium manganese oxide Na0.44MnO2 (NMO) as a cathode material for aqueous sodium ion storage. We use hydrothermal synthesis to prepare an [...] Read more.
We report an effective processing route, combining nanostructure formation and hybridization, to improve the rate performance of the tunnel-structure sodium manganese oxide Na0.44MnO2 (NMO) as a cathode material for aqueous sodium ion storage. We use hydrothermal synthesis to prepare an NMO/CNF (Carbon NanoFiber) hybrid, consisting of uniform oxide nanowires with an average width of 70 nm and length in the range of several tenths of µm. The highly dispersed CNFs impart high conductivity to the NMO/CNF electrode, allowing high-rate performance at a C-rate of up to 20 C, with a delivered capacity of more than half the theoretical value in a 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. Moreover, the NMO/CNF hybrid shows good electrochemical stability under several hundred cycles at a high C-rate. However, the NMO nanowire electrodes reveal a lower-than-expected capacity, probably as a result of the tendency of nanowires to form bundles, which prevents direct contact with conductive fibers and induce the under-utilization of active material. With this study, we demonstrate a strong improvement of the otherwise inherently low-rate performance of NMO through oxide nanostructuring and hybridization with carbon fibers, paving the way for further research on NMO-based materials for aqueous sodium ion storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Aqueous Rechargeable Batteries)
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15 pages, 2415 KiB  
Article
Evolution of Safety Behavior of High-Power and High-Energy Commercial Li-Ion Cells after Electric Vehicle Aging
by Pierre Kuntz, Loïc Lonardoni, Sylvie Genies, Olivier Raccurt and Philippe Azaïs
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080427 - 16 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
The Li-ion battery is one of the key components in electric car development due to its performance in terms of energy density, power density and cyclability. However, this technology is likely to present safety problems with the appearance of cell thermal runaway, which [...] Read more.
The Li-ion battery is one of the key components in electric car development due to its performance in terms of energy density, power density and cyclability. However, this technology is likely to present safety problems with the appearance of cell thermal runaway, which can cause a car fire in the case of propagation in the battery pack. Today, standards describing safety compliance tests, which are a prerequisite for marketing Li-ion cells, are carried out on fresh cells only. It is therefore important to carry out research into the impact of cell aging on battery safety behavior in order to ensure security throughout the life of the battery, from manufacturing to recycling. In this article, the impact of Li-ion cell aging on safety is studied. Three commercial 18,650 cells with high-power and high-energy designs were aged using a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) aging profile in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission standard IEC 62-660. Several thermal (Accelerating Rate Calorimetry—ARC) and standardized safety (short-circuit, overcharge) tests were performed on fresh and aged cells. This study highlights the impact of aging on safety by comparing the safety behavior of fresh and aged cells with their aging conditions and the degradation mechanisms involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Safety of Lithium Ion Batteries)
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11 pages, 3211 KiB  
Article
Flexible and Stable N-Isopropylacrylamide/Sodium Alginate Gel Electrolytes for Aqueous Zn-MNO2 Batteries
by Kehuang Wang, Mingliang Shangguan, Yibo Zhao, Haoran Tian, Fu Wang, Jinliang Yuan and Lan Xia
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080426 - 15 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Rechargeable aqueous Zn-ion batteries (ZIBs) have attracted considerable attention owing to their high theoretical capacity of 820 mA h g−1, low cost and intrinsic safety. However, the electrolyte leakage and the instability issues of Zn negative electrodes originating from side reactions [...] Read more.
Rechargeable aqueous Zn-ion batteries (ZIBs) have attracted considerable attention owing to their high theoretical capacity of 820 mA h g−1, low cost and intrinsic safety. However, the electrolyte leakage and the instability issues of Zn negative electrodes originating from side reactions between the aqueous electrolyte and Zn negative electrode not only restrict the battery stability, but also result in the short circuit of aqueous ZIBs. Herein, we report a flexible and stable N-isopropylacrylamide/sodium alginate (N-SA) gel electrolyte, which possesses high mechanical strength and high ionic conductivity of 2.96 × 10−2 S cm−1, and enables the Zn metal negative electrode and MnO2 positive electrode to reversibly and stably cycle. Compared to the liquid electrolyte, the N-SA hydrogel electrolyte can effectively form a uniform Zn deposition and suppress the generation of irreversible by-products. The assembled symmetric Zn/Zn cells at a current density of 1 mA cm−2 (capacity: 1 mAh cm−2) show a stable voltage profile, which maintains a low level of about 100 mV over 2600 h without an obvious short circuit or any overpotential increasing. Specially, the assembled Zn/N-SA/MnO2 batteries can deliver a high specific capacity of 182 mAh g−1 and maintain 98% capacity retention after 650 cycles at 0.5 A g−1. This work provides a simple method to fabricate high-performance SA-based hydrogel electrolytes, which illustrates their potential for flexible batteries for wearable electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rechargeable Multivalent Metal-Ion Batteries)
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16 pages, 8164 KiB  
Article
AdaBoost.Rt-LSTM Based Joint SOC and SOH Estimation Method for Retired Batteries
by Ran Li, Pengdong Liu, Kexin Li and Xiaoyu Zhang
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080425 - 15 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
Achieving accurate retired battery state of health (SOH) and state of charge (SOC) estimation is a safe prerequisite for securing the battery secondary utilization and thus effectively improving the energy utilization efficiency. The data-driven approach is efficient and accurate, and does not rely [...] Read more.
Achieving accurate retired battery state of health (SOH) and state of charge (SOC) estimation is a safe prerequisite for securing the battery secondary utilization and thus effectively improving the energy utilization efficiency. The data-driven approach is efficient and accurate, and does not rely on accurate battery models, which is a hot direction in battery state estimation research. However, the huge number of retired batteries and obvious consistency differences bring bottleneck problems such as long learning time and low model updating efficiency to the traditional data-driven algorithm. In view of this, this paper proposes an integrated learning algorithm based on AdaBoost. Rt-LSTM to realize the joint estimation of SOC and SOH of retired lithium batteries, which relies on the LSTM neural network model and completes the correlation adaption in the spatio-temporal dimension of the whole life cycle sample data. The LSTM model is used as the base learner to construct the AdaBoost. Rt-LSTM strong learning model. The LSTM weak predictor is combined with weights to form a strong predictor, which greatly solves the problem of low accuracy of state estimation due to the large number and variability of retired batteries. Simulation and experimental comparison show that the integrated algorithm proposed in this paper is suitable for improving the SOC and SOH prediction accuracy and the generalization performance of the model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Energy Storage in Advanced Power Systems)
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13 pages, 4561 KiB  
Article
Rapid Estimation of Battery Storage Capacity through Multiple Linear Regression
by Chulwon Jung and Woongchul Choi
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080424 - 12 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1415
Abstract
Due to global warming issues, the rapid growth of electric vehicle sales is fully expected to result in a dramatic increase in returned batteries after the first use. Naturally, industries have shown great interest in establishing business models for retired battery reuse and [...] Read more.
Due to global warming issues, the rapid growth of electric vehicle sales is fully expected to result in a dramatic increase in returned batteries after the first use. Naturally, industries have shown great interest in establishing business models for retired battery reuse and recycling. However, they still have many challenges, such as high costs from the logistics of returned batteries and evaluating returned battery quality. One of the most important characteristics of a returned battery is the battery storage capacity. Conventionally, the battery’s energy capacity is measured through the low current full charging and discharging process. While this traditional measurement procedure gives a reliable estimate of battery storage capacity, the time required for a reliable estimate is unacceptably long to support profitable business models. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to estimate battery storage capacity that can dramatically reduce the time for estimation through the partial discharging process. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed algorithm, cylindrical and prismatic cells were used in the experiments. Initially, five indicators were selected from the voltage response curves that can identify battery storage capacity. Then, the five indicators were applied to principal component analysis (PCA) to extract dominant factors. The extracted factors were applied to a multiple linear regression model to produce a reliable estimation of battery storage capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Modelling, Simulation, Management and Application)
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16 pages, 7195 KiB  
Article
The Investigation of Triple-Lithiated Transition Metal Oxides Synthesized from the Spent LiCoO2
by Alexandra Kosenko, Konstantin Pushnitsa, Vladislav Chernyavsky, Pavel Novikov and Anatoliy A. Popovich
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080423 - 12 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1124
Abstract
The environmentally friendly closed cycle of the regeneration process of spent LiCoO2 was successfully developed and the following synthesis of triple-lithiated transition metal oxides was carried out. A hydrometallurgy recycling route with the usage of 1.5 mol/L of malic acid and 3 [...] Read more.
The environmentally friendly closed cycle of the regeneration process of spent LiCoO2 was successfully developed and the following synthesis of triple-lithiated transition metal oxides was carried out. A hydrometallurgy recycling route with the usage of 1.5 mol/L of malic acid and 3 vol.% of H2O2 as a leaching solution for cobalt extraction was chosen. The efficiency of the cobalt extraction reached 95%. The obtained material was investigated using an X-ray diffraction analysis and the EDX and SEM methods. The electrochemical behavior of the synthesized NCM111 was analyzed and compared to the commercially available material of the same type. The material demonstrated a specific discharge capacity on the first cycle of 163.7 mAh/g. The cyclic resource of the material turned out to be unsatisfactory. In addition, perspective cathode materials, such as NCM622 and NCM811, were obtained. The synthesized materials were analyzed using XRD, SEM, EDX, charge–discharge and cycle life tests, and the CVA and EIS methods. The initial specific discharge capacities of the NCM622 and NCM811 were 168 and 187 mAh/g, respectively. On the fifth cycle, the NCM622 demonstrated an increasing capacity—to 179 mAh/g, unlike NCM811, as the capacity of this material decreased to 141 mAh/g. Full article
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13 pages, 5849 KiB  
Article
Electroforming as a Novel One-Step Manufacturing Method of Structured Aluminum Foil Current Collectors for Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Phillip Scherzl, Michael Kaupp, Wassima El Mofid and Timo Sörgel
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080422 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
Conventionally, cathode current collectors for lithium-ion batteries (LIB) consist of an aluminum foil generally manufactured by a rolling process. In the present work, a novel one-step manufacturing method of structured aluminum foil current collectors for lithium-ion batteries by electroforming is introduced. For this, [...] Read more.
Conventionally, cathode current collectors for lithium-ion batteries (LIB) consist of an aluminum foil generally manufactured by a rolling process. In the present work, a novel one-step manufacturing method of structured aluminum foil current collectors for lithium-ion batteries by electroforming is introduced. For this, a low-temperature chloride-based ionic liquid was used as an electrolyte and a rotating cylinder out of stainless steel as a temporary substrate. It was shown that the structure of the aluminum foils can be adjusted from dense and flat to three-dimensional by choosing an appropriate substrate rotation speed and current density. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and white light interferometry (WLI) were utilized to analyze the foils’ surface morphology, structure and topography. The SEM analysis of the aluminum foils showed that the rolling process produced a foil with small grains, while electrodeposition resulted in foils with different degrees of grain growth and seed formation. This was in total agreement with WLI results that revealed significant differences in terms of roughness parameters, including the peak-to-valley difference Rpv, the root-mean-square roughness Rq and the arithmetic mean roughness Ra. These were, respectively, equal to 6.8 µm, 0.35 µm and 0.279 µm for the state-of-the-art foil and up to 96.6 µm, 10.92 µm and 8.783 µm for the structured electroformed foil. Additionally, cyclic voltammetry (CV) of the aluminum foils was used to investigate their passivation behavior within the typical LIB cathode potential operation window. The strong decrease in the current density during the second cycle compared to the first cycle, where an anodic peak appeared between 4.0 and 4.4 V vs. Li/Li+, demonstrated that passivation occurs in the same manner as observed for commercial Al current collectors. Full article
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19 pages, 7216 KiB  
Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of the Application of CoZn Nanostructures as Anode Materials
by Ainur M. Zikirina, Assem Temirtassova, Artem L. Kozlovskiy, Inesh E. Kenzhina and Meiram Begentayev
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080421 - 11 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1118
Abstract
This study aims to obtain CoZn nanostructures using the electrochemical deposition method and to estimate the applicability of the resulting nanostructures as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive and X-ray phase analysis were used as the main methods for [...] Read more.
This study aims to obtain CoZn nanostructures using the electrochemical deposition method and to estimate the applicability of the resulting nanostructures as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive and X-ray phase analysis were used as the main methods for characterizing the obtained nanostructures. A study of the morphological properties of the synthesized nanostructures revealed that the variation of the synthesis conditions results in the formation of structures with different degrees of structural ordering and morphology. During the evaluation of the phase composition of the synthesized CoZn nanostructures with variation in the applied potential differences, the phase transformations’ dynamics were established, which can be written as follows: X-ray amorphous structures → Zn/CoO2 → Co2Zn11/Co/CoO2 → Co2Zn11/ZnO. Using the methods of phase analysis and mapping, an isotropic distribution of phases in the composition of nanostructures was established. In such a case, the formation of the Co2Zn11 phase occurs with an elevation in the concentration of cobalt from 8.9 to 29.3–31.1 at. % leads to the partial substitution of zinc ions by cobalt ions, followed by the formation of a cubic phase. The study of the morphological properties of the synthesized CoZn nanostructures afterlife tests showed differences in the degradation processes of nanowires triggered by the phase composition alteration. Full article
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12 pages, 5160 KiB  
Article
High-Rate Capability of LiNi0.9Mn0.1−xAlxO2 (NMA) (x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) as Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Lukman Noerochim, Elsanti Anggraini Gunawan, Sungging Pintowantoro, Haniffudin Nurdiansah, Ariiq Dzurriat Adam and Nurul Hayati Idris
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080420 - 11 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1476
Abstract
LiNi0.9Mn0.1−xAlxO2 (NMA) (x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) cathodes were synthesized via the co-precipitation method and continued with the calcination process in a tube furnace at 750 °C under flowing oxygen gas for 12 h. X-ray diffraction [...] Read more.
LiNi0.9Mn0.1−xAlxO2 (NMA) (x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) cathodes were synthesized via the co-precipitation method and continued with the calcination process in a tube furnace at 750 °C under flowing oxygen gas for 12 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed a well-formed and high-purity phase with a hexagonal structure. LiNi0.9Mn0.07Al0.03O2 (NMA 973) had the best electrochemical performance with the lowest redox peak separation, the smallest charge transfer resistance (71.58 Ω cm−2), the highest initial specific discharge capacity of 172 mAh g−1 at 0.1C, and a capacity retention of 98% after 100 cycles. Under high current density at 1 C, NMA 973 had excellent specific discharge capacity compared to the other samples. The optimal content of Mn and Al elements is a crucial factor to obtain the best electrochemical performance of NMA. Therefore, NMA 973 is a promising candidate as a cathode for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. Full article
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22 pages, 6773 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Energy Efficiency of a Hybrid Energy Storage System for an Electric Vehicle
by Florin Mariasiu and Edmond A. Kelemen
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080419 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2446
Abstract
The large-scale introduction of electric vehicles into traffic has appeared as an immediate necessity to reduce the pollution caused by the transport sector. The major problem of replacing propulsion systems based on internal combustion engines with electric ones is the energy storage capacity [...] Read more.
The large-scale introduction of electric vehicles into traffic has appeared as an immediate necessity to reduce the pollution caused by the transport sector. The major problem of replacing propulsion systems based on internal combustion engines with electric ones is the energy storage capacity of batteries, which defines the autonomy of the electric vehicle. Furthermore, considering the high cost of the battery, it is necessary to consider the implementation of command-and-control systems that extend the life of a battery for as long as possible. The topic covered in this article refers to the analysis by modeling and simulation of the efficiency of a hybrid energy storage system (battery–supercapacitor) adapted for an electric vehicle (e-Golf). Based on the simulations carried out, considering that the operating mode corresponds to the WLTP test cycle, the major conclusion was reached that the use of such a system leads to a decrease in energy consumption by 2.95% per 100 km. Simulations of the model were also carried out to obtain the variation in electricity consumption and vehicle autonomy depending on the number of passengers. Electricity consumption if the vehicle is equipped with a hybrid energy storage system increases by 0.67% on average for each passenger (of 75 kg) added and by 0.73% on average if the vehicle is not equipped with supercapacitors. Moreover, the use of the supercapacitor’s properties leads to the reduction in the peaks in energy taken/given by the battery with a direct effect on extending its life. Full article
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22 pages, 4440 KiB  
Article
Economic Analysis of a Redox Flow Batteries-Based Energy Storage System for Energy Savings in Factory Energy Management System
by Seon Hyeog Kim, Yoonmee Doh, Tae-Wook Heo and Il Woo Lee
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080418 - 10 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2426
Abstract
Renewable energy systems are essential for carbon neutrality and energy savings in industrial facilities. Factories use a lot of electrical and thermal energy to manufacture products, but only a small percentage is recycled. Utilizing energy storage systems in industrial facilities is being applied [...] Read more.
Renewable energy systems are essential for carbon neutrality and energy savings in industrial facilities. Factories use a lot of electrical and thermal energy to manufacture products, but only a small percentage is recycled. Utilizing energy storage systems in industrial facilities is being applied as a way to cut energy costs and reduce carbon emissions. However, lithium-based batteries, which are predominantly used in traditional industries, face challenges in terms of affordability and reliability. Redox flow batteries, on the other hand, offer high power output and reliability, and are economical to manufacture for installations with high capacity. Although redox flow batteries are difficult to use in general electrical systems due to their small volume-to-capacity ratio, they can be easily utilized as energy storage devices in industrial parks or renewable energy parks with relatively little space constraints. In addition, since factories use a lot of heat energy in addition to electricity, utilizing combined heat and power can further reduce heat energy. In this study, we analyzed the cost estimation and economic feasibility of utilizing photovoltaics, redox flow cells, and combined heat and power to save energy in a factory’s energy management system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Redox Flow Battery Research and Development)
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15 pages, 2963 KiB  
Article
Implementing Reversible Swelling into the Numerical Model of a Lithium-Ion Pouch Cell for Short Circuit Prediction
by Patrick Höschele and Christian Ellersdorfer
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080417 - 9 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1467
Abstract
Mechanical simulation models have become crucial for understanding Li-ion battery failure and degradation mechanisms. However, existing safety assessment models lack the implementation of SOC-dependent thickness variations referred to as reversible swelling. Reversible swelling affects the applied preload force on a constrained pouch cell, [...] Read more.
Mechanical simulation models have become crucial for understanding Li-ion battery failure and degradation mechanisms. However, existing safety assessment models lack the implementation of SOC-dependent thickness variations referred to as reversible swelling. Reversible swelling affects the applied preload force on a constrained pouch cell, potentially impacting its safety. To investigate this, a finite element RVE model was developed in LS-Dyna. Two swelling models, simplified homogenous expansion (HE) and locally resolved expansion (LE), were implemented along with a reference basis model (BM) without expansion. Six different stress- or strain-based short circuit criteria were calibrated with abuse test simulations at different SOCs and preload forces. Short circuit prognosis improved on average by 0.8% and 0.7% for the LE and HE model compared to the BM, with minimum principal stress being the most suitable criterion. The LE model exhibited a softer mechanical response than the HE model or BM, accounting for the pouch cell surface unevenness at small indentations. This study demonstrated the feasibility and usefulness of implementing an expansion model in a commercial FE solver for improved short circuit predictions. An expansion model is crucial for simulating aged battery cells with significant geometry changes strongly affecting the preload force of a constrained battery cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Modelling, Simulation, Management and Application)
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16 pages, 2127 KiB  
Article
Using Reinforcement Learning to Solve a Dynamic Orienteering Problem with Random Rewards Affected by the Battery Status
by Angel A. Juan, Carolina A. Marugan, Yusef Ahsini, Rafael Fornes, Javier Panadero and Xabier A. Martin
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080416 - 9 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1337
Abstract
This paper discusses an orienteering optimization problem where a vehicle using electric batteries must travel from an origin depot to a destination depot while maximizing the total reward collected along its route. The vehicle must cross several consecutive regions, with each region containing [...] Read more.
This paper discusses an orienteering optimization problem where a vehicle using electric batteries must travel from an origin depot to a destination depot while maximizing the total reward collected along its route. The vehicle must cross several consecutive regions, with each region containing different types of charging nodes. A charging node has to be selected in each region, and the reward for visiting each node—in terms of a ‘satisfactory’ charging process—is a binary random variable that depends upon dynamic factors such as the type of charging node, weather conditions, congestion, battery status, etc. To learn how to efficiently operate in this dynamic environment, a hybrid methodology combining simulation with reinforcement learning is proposed. The reinforcement learning component is able to make informed decisions at each stage, while the simulation component is employed to validate the learning process. The computational experiments show how the proposed methodology is capable of design routing plans that are significantly better than non-informed decisions, thus allowing for an efficient management of the vehicle’s battery under such dynamic conditions. Full article
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14 pages, 1089 KiB  
Article
Multi-Cell Testing Topologies for Defect Detection Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy: A Combinatorial Experiment-Based Analysis
by Manuel Ank, Jonas Göhmann and Markus Lienkamp
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080415 - 8 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1620
Abstract
Given the increasing use of lithium-ion batteries, which is driven in particular by electromobility, the characterization of cells in production and application plays a decisive role in quality assurance. The detection of defects particularly motivates the optimization and development of innovative characterization methods, [...] Read more.
Given the increasing use of lithium-ion batteries, which is driven in particular by electromobility, the characterization of cells in production and application plays a decisive role in quality assurance. The detection of defects particularly motivates the optimization and development of innovative characterization methods, with simultaneous testing of multiple cells in the context of multi-cell setups having been researched to economize on the number of cell test channels required. In this work, an experimental study is presented demonstrating the influence of a defect type in one cell on five remaining interconnected cells in eight combinatorially varied topologies using galvanostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that regularities related to the interconnection position are revealed when considering the change in the specific resistance ZIM,min at the transition from the charge transfer to the diffusion region between the reference and fault measurements, allowing it to function as a defect identifier in the present scenario. These results and the extensive measurement data provided can serve as a basis for the evaluation and design of multi-cell setups used for simultaneous impedance-based lithium-ion cell characterizations. Full article
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20 pages, 1257 KiB  
Article
A Novel Sequence-to-Sequence Prediction Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Capacity Degradation Based on Improved Particle Swarm Optimization
by Dinghong Chen, Weige Zhang, Caiping Zhang, Bingxiang Sun, Haoze Chen, Sijia Yang and Xinwei Cong
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080414 - 8 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1430
Abstract
The state of health (SOH) evaluation and remaining useful life (RUL) prediction for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are crucial for health management. This paper proposes a novel sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) prediction method for LIB capacity degradation based on the gated recurrent unit (GRU) neural network [...] Read more.
The state of health (SOH) evaluation and remaining useful life (RUL) prediction for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are crucial for health management. This paper proposes a novel sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) prediction method for LIB capacity degradation based on the gated recurrent unit (GRU) neural network with the attention mechanism. An improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm is developed for automatic hyperparameter search of the Seq2Seq model, which speeds up parameter convergence and avoids getting stuck in local optima. Before model training, the complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) algorithm decomposes the capacity degradation sequences. And the intrinsic mode function (IMF) components with the highest correlation are employed to reconstruct the sequences, reducing the influence of noise in the original data. A real-cycle-life data set under fixed operating conditions is employed to validate the superiority and effectiveness of the method. The comparison results demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms traditional GRU and RNN models. The predicted mean absolute percent error (MAPE) in SOH evaluation and RUL prediction can be as low as 0.76% and 0.24%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Battery Status Estimation and Prediction)
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22 pages, 3353 KiB  
Article
Predicting the Cycle Life of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Data-Driven Machine Learning Based on Discharge Voltage Curves
by Yinfeng Jiang and Wenxiang Song
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080413 - 7 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2493
Abstract
Battery degradation is a complex nonlinear problem, and it is crucial to accurately predict the cycle life of lithium-ion batteries to optimize the usage of battery systems. However, diverse chemistries, designs, and degradation mechanisms, as well as dynamic cycle conditions, have remained significant [...] Read more.
Battery degradation is a complex nonlinear problem, and it is crucial to accurately predict the cycle life of lithium-ion batteries to optimize the usage of battery systems. However, diverse chemistries, designs, and degradation mechanisms, as well as dynamic cycle conditions, have remained significant challenges. We created 53 features from discharge voltage curves, 18 of which were newly developed. The maximum relevance minimum redundancy (MRMR) algorithm was used for feature selection. Robust linear regression (RLR) and Gaussian process regression (GPR) algorithms were deployed on three different datasets to estimate battery cycle life. The RLR and GPR algorithms achieved high performance, with a root-mean-square error of 6.90% and 6.33% in the worst case, respectively. This work highlights the potential of combining feature engineering and machine learning modeling based only on discharge voltage curves to estimate battery degradation and could be applied to onboard applications that require efficient estimation of battery cycle life in real time. Full article
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17 pages, 7093 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Different Current Collector Materials for In Situ Lithium Deposition with Slurry-Based Solid Electrolyte Layers
by Tina Kreher, Fabian Heim, Julia Pross-Brakhage, Jessica Hemmerling and Kai Peter Birke
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080412 - 7 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2228
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate different current collector materials for in situ deposition of lithium using a slurry-based β-Li3PS4 electrolyte layer with a focus on transferability to industrial production. Therefore, half-cells with different current collector materials (carbon-coated aluminum, stainless [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate different current collector materials for in situ deposition of lithium using a slurry-based β-Li3PS4 electrolyte layer with a focus on transferability to industrial production. Therefore, half-cells with different current collector materials (carbon-coated aluminum, stainless steel, aluminum, nickel) are prepared and plating/stripping tests are performed. The results are compared in terms of Coulombic efficiency (CE) and overvoltages. The stainless steel current collector shows the best performance, with a mean efficiency of ηmean,SST=98%; the carbon-coated aluminum reaches ηmean,Al+C=97%. The results for pure aluminum and nickel indicate strong side reactions. In addition, an approach is tested in which a solvate ionic liquid (SIL) is added to the solid electrolyte layer. Compared to the cell setup without SIL, this cannot further increase the CE; however, a significant reduction in overvoltages is achieved. Full article
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22 pages, 6970 KiB  
Review
Research Progress in Thermal Runaway Vent Gas Characteristics of Li-Ion Battery
by Mingming Qiu, Jianghong Liu, Beihua Cong and Yan Cui
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080411 - 7 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2991
Abstract
The wide application of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) brings along with it various safety problems, such as fire and explosion accidents. Aiming at the thermal runaway (TR) and fire problems of LIBs, we reviewed the evolution of TR within LIB and the release of [...] Read more.
The wide application of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) brings along with it various safety problems, such as fire and explosion accidents. Aiming at the thermal runaway (TR) and fire problems of LIBs, we reviewed the evolution of TR within LIB and the release of TR gases and their hazards, as well as the research progress in recent years in the area of fire separation of LIBs. To begin with, physical, electrical, and thermal abuse are the three main factors leading to TR and the thermal stability of aging batteries significantly deteriorates. Furthermore, the decomposition of the electrolyte and the reaction between the active materials generates CO, CO2, H2, HF, and a variety of hydrocarbons. These TR gases have serious toxic and explosive hazards. In addition, fire separation can effectively delay the occurrence and propagation of TR within LIB modules. As a good heat-absorbing material, phase-change materials are widely used in the thermal management system and have a great prospect of wide applications in the fire separation of LIBs. Finally, the research on the TR gases’ hazards of aging LIB and safer and more effective fire separation are prospected. Full article
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17 pages, 3644 KiB  
Article
Optimal Capacity Configuration of Wind–Solar Hydrogen Storage Microgrid Based on IDW-PSO
by Ge He, Zhijie Wang, Hengke Ma and Xianli Zhou
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080410 - 6 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1814
Abstract
Because the new energy is intermittent and uncertain, it has an influence on the system’s output power stability. A hydrogen energy storage system is added to the system to create a wind, light, and hydrogen integrated energy system, which increases the utilization rate [...] Read more.
Because the new energy is intermittent and uncertain, it has an influence on the system’s output power stability. A hydrogen energy storage system is added to the system to create a wind, light, and hydrogen integrated energy system, which increases the utilization rate of renewable energy while encouraging the consumption of renewable energy and lowering the rate of abandoning wind and light. Considering the system’s comprehensive operation cost economy, power fluctuation, and power shortage as the goal, considering the relationship between power generation and load, assigning charging and discharging commands to storage batteries and hydrogen energy storage, and constructing a model for optimal capacity allocation of wind–hydrogen microgrid system. The optimal configuration model of the wind, solar, and hydrogen microgrid system capacity is constructed. A particle swarm optimization with dynamic adjustment of inertial weight (IDW-PSO) is proposed to solve the optimal allocation scheme of the model in order to achieve the optimal allocation of energy storage capacity in a wind–hydrogen storage microgrid. Finally, a microgrid system in Beijing is taken as an example for simulation and solution, and the results demonstrate that the proposed approach has the characteristics to optimize the economy and improve the capacity of renewable energy consumption, realize the inhibition of the fluctuations of power, reduce system power shortage, and accelerate the convergence speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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44 pages, 4755 KiB  
Review
Redox Flow Batteries: Recent Development in Main Components, Emerging Technologies, Diagnostic Techniques, Large-Scale Applications, and Challenges and Barriers
by Abdul Ghani Olabi, Mohamed Adel Allam, Mohammad Ali Abdelkareem, T. D. Deepa, Abdul Hai Alami, Qaisar Abbas, Ammar Alkhalidi and Enas Taha Sayed
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080409 - 4 Aug 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 8803
Abstract
Redox flow batteries represent a captivating class of electrochemical energy systems that are gaining prominence in large-scale storage applications. These batteries offer remarkable scalability, flexible operation, extended cycling life, and moderate maintenance costs. The fundamental operation and structure of these batteries revolve around [...] Read more.
Redox flow batteries represent a captivating class of electrochemical energy systems that are gaining prominence in large-scale storage applications. These batteries offer remarkable scalability, flexible operation, extended cycling life, and moderate maintenance costs. The fundamental operation and structure of these batteries revolve around the flow of an electrolyte, which facilitates energy conversion and storage. Notably, the power and energy capacities can be independently designed, allowing for the conversion of chemical energy from input fuel into electricity at working electrodes, resembling the functioning of fuel cells. This work provides a comprehensive overview of the components, advantages, disadvantages, and challenges of redox flow batteries (RFBs). Moreover, it explores various diagnostic techniques employed in analyzing flow batteries. The discussion encompasses the utilization of RFBs for large-scale energy storage applications and summarizes the engineering design aspects related to these batteries. Additionally, this study delves into emerging technologies, applications, and challenges in the realm of redox flow batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Redox Flow Battery Research and Development)
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12 pages, 6952 KiB  
Article
In-Situ Alloy-Modified Sodiophilic Current Collectors for Anode-Less Sodium Metal Batteries
by Xiaolong Cheng, Dongjun Li, Shen Peng, Pengcheng Shi, Huili Yu, Yu Jiang and Shikuo Li
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080408 - 4 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1761
Abstract
Anode-less sodium metal batteries have drawn dramatica attention owing to their high specific energy and low cost. However, the growth of sodium dendrites and the resulting loss of active materials and serious safety concerns hinder their practical applications. In this work, a bismuth-based [...] Read more.
Anode-less sodium metal batteries have drawn dramatica attention owing to their high specific energy and low cost. However, the growth of sodium dendrites and the resulting loss of active materials and serious safety concerns hinder their practical applications. In this work, a bismuth-based modification layer with good sodiophilicity is constructed on the surface of Cu foil (denoted as Cu@Bi) to control the deposition of Na metal. The activation-derived porous Na-rich alloy phase can provide abundant nucleation sites and reduce the nucleation overpotential to induce the uniform and dense deposition of Na metal. When evaluated in half cell, the Cu@Bi current collectors can operate for 750 h at 1 mA cm−2 and 1 mAh cm−2, with an average coulombic efficiency (CE) of 99.5%. When the current density is improved to 2 mA cm−2, the Cu@Bi can also stably maintain for 750 cycles, demonstrating the remarkable effect of the modification layer. When coupled with the Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode, the full cell exhibits stable cycle performance over 80 cycles. The modification strategy of alloy modification can provide fresh ideas for the research and application of anode-less and even anode-free metal batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries)
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27 pages, 3101 KiB  
Review
Solid Electrolytes Based on NASICON-Structured Phosphates for Lithium Metal Batteries
by Irina Stenina, Svetlana Novikova, Daria Voropaeva and Andrey Yaroslavtsev
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080407 - 4 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2703
Abstract
All-solid-state lithium batteries are a promising alternative to commercially available lithium-ion batteries due to their ability to achieve high energy density, safety, and compactness. Electrolytes are key components of all-solid-state batteries, as they are crucial in determining the batteries’ efficiency. Herein, the structure [...] Read more.
All-solid-state lithium batteries are a promising alternative to commercially available lithium-ion batteries due to their ability to achieve high energy density, safety, and compactness. Electrolytes are key components of all-solid-state batteries, as they are crucial in determining the batteries’ efficiency. Herein, the structure of LiM2(PO4)3 (M = Ti, Ge, Zr) and lithium-ion migration mechanisms are introduced as well as different synthetic routes and doping (co-doping), and their influence on conductivity is discussed. The effective methods of reducing electrolyte/electrode interface resistance and improving ion-conducting properties are summarized. In addition, different polymer/NASICON composites are considered. The challenges and prospects of practical applications of NASICON-type lithium phosphates as electrolytes for all-solid-state batteries are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrolytes for Solid State Batteries)
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17 pages, 4763 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Graphene in Na2FeP2O7/C/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Cathode for Sodium-Ion Batteries
by Inara Nesterova, Liga Britala, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Beate Kruze, Gunars Bajars and Gints Kucinskis
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080406 - 3 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1995
Abstract
This study presents a thorough investigation of Na2FeP2O7 (NFP) cathode material for sodium-ion batteries and its composites with carbon and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Our findings demonstrate that rGO sheets improve cycling performance in NFP/C/rGO composite in the [...] Read more.
This study presents a thorough investigation of Na2FeP2O7 (NFP) cathode material for sodium-ion batteries and its composites with carbon and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Our findings demonstrate that rGO sheets improve cycling performance in NFP/C/rGO composite in the absence of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI)-stabilizing additives. However, once SEI is stabilized with the help of fluoroethylene carbonate electrolyte additive, NFP with carbon additive (NFP/C) exhibits a superior electrochemical performance when compared to NFP/rGO and NFP/C/rGO composites. The decreases in capacity and rate capability are proportional to the amount of rGO added, and lead to an increase in overvoltage and internal resistance. Based on our results, we attribute this effect to worsened sodium kinetics in the bulk of the electrode—the larger ionic radius of Na+ hinders charge transfer in the presence of rGO, despite the likely improved electronic conductivity. These findings provide a compelling explanation for the observed trends in electrochemical performance and suggest that the use of rGO in Na-ion battery electrodes may present challenges associated with ionic transport along and through rGO sheets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promising Carbon-Based Materials for Energy Storage)
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12 pages, 3715 KiB  
Article
A Hollow-Shaped ZIF-8-N-Doped Porous Carbon Fiber for High-Performance Zn-Ion Hybrid Supercapacitors
by Mingqi Wei, Zhenlong Jiang, Chengcheng Yang, Tao Jiang, Linlin Zhang, Guangzhen Zhao, Guang Zhu, Lianghao Yu and Yuanyuan Zhu
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080405 - 3 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1618
Abstract
The advantages of low cost, high theoretical capacity, and dependable safety of aqueous zinc ion hybrid supercapacitors (ZHSCs) enable their promising use in flexible and wearable energy storage devices. However, achieving extended cycling stability in ZHSCs is still challenged by the limited availability [...] Read more.
The advantages of low cost, high theoretical capacity, and dependable safety of aqueous zinc ion hybrid supercapacitors (ZHSCs) enable their promising use in flexible and wearable energy storage devices. However, achieving extended cycling stability in ZHSCs is still challenged by the limited availability of carbon cathode materials that can effectively pair with zinc anode materials. Here, we report a method for synthesising heteroatom-doped carbon nanofibers using electrostatic spinning and metal-organic frameworks (specifically ZIF-8). Assembled Zn//ZPCNF-1.5 ZHSCs exhibited 193 mA h g−1 specific capacity at 1 A g−1 and 162.6 Wh kg−1 energy density at 841.2 kW kg−1. Additionally, the device showed an ultra-long cycle life, maintaining 98% capacity after 20,000 cycles. Experimental analysis revealed an increase in the number of pores and active sites after adding ZIF-8 to the precursor. Furthermore, N doping effectively enhanced Zn2+ ions chemical adsorption and improved Zn-ion storage performance. This work provides a feasible design strategy to enhance ZHSC energy storage capability for practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrode Materials and Electrolyte for Rechargeable Batteries)
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13 pages, 2328 KiB  
Article
Effect of External Compression on the Thermal Runaway of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells during Crush Tests: Insights for Improved Safety Assessment
by Alexander Hahn, Stefan Doose, Daniel Saathoff and Arno Kwade
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080404 - 2 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1694
Abstract
To gain better understanding of the safety behavior of lithium-ion batteries under mechanical stress, crush tests are performed and reported in literature and in standards. However, many of these tests are conducted without the use of a cell clamping device, whereas external pressure [...] Read more.
To gain better understanding of the safety behavior of lithium-ion batteries under mechanical stress, crush tests are performed and reported in literature and in standards. However, many of these tests are conducted without the use of a cell clamping device, whereas external pressure is applied to the cell in a battery module in applications such as in an electric vehicle. The objective of this manuscript is to determine the effect of differing external compression on the thermal runaway of battery cells. Therefore, in this study, crush tests are performed with a hemispherical punch in a battery cell test chamber on commercially available 5 Ah pouch cells in a clamping device at four different normal stresses. The results are compared to cells that are free to expand with gas evolution. It is shown that applying compression to the cells not only results in a greater reproducibility of the experiments but that it also affects the thermal runaway process itself. With decreasing clamping stresses, the reaction time of the thermal runaway is increased by up to 19%, and the mass ejection is decreased by up to 10%, which, in turn, strongly influences the measurable gas concentrations by up to 80%. Based on this, a defined clamping compression was selected to obtain comparable results for different cell formats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Performance, Ageing, Reliability and Safety)
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14 pages, 4508 KiB  
Article
Facile Constructing Hierarchical Fe3O4@C Nanocomposites as Anode for Superior Lithium-Ion Storage
by Haichang Zhong, Wenlong Huang, Yukun Wei, Xin Yang, Chunhai Jiang, Hui Liu, Wenxian Zhang, Chu Liang, Leyang Dai and Xijun Xu
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080403 - 2 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Ferroferric oxide (Fe3O4) is regarded to be a promising high-capacity anode material for LIBs. However, the capacity attenuates fast and the rate performance is poor due to the dramatic pulverization and sluggish charge transfer properties. To solve these problems, [...] Read more.
Ferroferric oxide (Fe3O4) is regarded to be a promising high-capacity anode material for LIBs. However, the capacity attenuates fast and the rate performance is poor due to the dramatic pulverization and sluggish charge transfer properties. To solve these problems, a simple in situ encapsulation and composite method was successfully developed to construct carbon nanotube/nanorod/nanosheet-supported Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Owing to the hierarchical architecture design, the novel structure Fe3O4@C nanocomposites effectively enhance the charge transfer, alleviate pulverization, avoid the agglomeration of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and also provide superior kinetics toward lithium storage, thereby showing significantly improved reversibility and rate performance. The carbon nanotube/nanorod supported core-shell structure Fe3O4@C nanocomposite displays outstanding high rate capability and stable cycling performance (reversible capability of 1006, 552 and 423 mA h g−1 at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 A g−1 after running 100, 300 and 500 cycles, respectively). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transition Metal Compound Materials for Secondary Batteries)
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25 pages, 8490 KiB  
Article
Conditioning Solid-State Anode-Less Cells for the Next Generation of Batteries
by Manuela C. Baptista, Beatriz Moura Gomes, Diana Capela, Miguel F. S. Ferreira, Diana Guimarães, Nuno A. Silva, Pedro A. S. Jorge, José J. Silva and Maria Helena Braga
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080402 - 2 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2255
Abstract
Anode-less batteries are a promising innovation in energy storage technology, eliminating the need for traditional anodes and offering potential improvements in efficiency and capacity. Here, we have fabricated and tested two types of anode-less pouch cells, the first using solely a copper negative [...] Read more.
Anode-less batteries are a promising innovation in energy storage technology, eliminating the need for traditional anodes and offering potential improvements in efficiency and capacity. Here, we have fabricated and tested two types of anode-less pouch cells, the first using solely a copper negative current collector and the other the same current collector but coated with a nucleation seed ZnO layer. Both types of cells used the same all-solid-state electrolyte, Li2.99Ba0.005ClO composite, in a cellulose matrix and a LiFePO4 cathode. Direct and indirect methods confirmed Li metal anode plating after charging the cells. The direct methods are X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), a technique not divulged in the battery world but friendly to study the surface of the negative current collector, as it detects lithium. The indirect methods used were electrochemical cycling and impedance and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It became evident the presence of plated Li on the surface of the current collector in contact with the electrolyte upon charging, both directly and indirectly. A maximum average lithium plating thickness of 2.9 µm was charged, and 0.13 µm was discharged. The discharge initiates from a maximum potential of 3.2 V, solely possible if an anode-like high chemical potential phase, such as Li, would form while plating. Although the ratings and energy densities are minor in this study, it was concluded that a layer of ZnO, even at 25 °C, allows for higher discharge power for more hours than plain Cu. It was observed that where Li plates on ZnO, Zn is not detected or barely detected by XPS. The present anode-less cells discharge quickly initially at higher potentials but may hold a discharge potential for many hours, likely due to the ferroelectric character of the electrolyte. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rechargeable Batteries)
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18 pages, 5183 KiB  
Article
AlCl3-NaCl-ZnCl2 Secondary Electrolyte in Next-Generation ZEBRA (Na-ZnCl2) Battery
by Sumit Kumar, Wenjin Ding, Ralf Hoffmann, Louis Sieuw, Meike V. F. Heinz, Norbert Weber and Alexander Bonk
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080401 - 1 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1441
Abstract
Increasing demand to store intermittent renewable electricity from, e.g., photovoltaic and wind energy, has led to much research and development in large-scale stationary energy storage, for example, ZEBRA batteries (Na-NiCl2 solid electrolyte batteries). Replacing Ni with abundant and low-cost Zn makes the [...] Read more.
Increasing demand to store intermittent renewable electricity from, e.g., photovoltaic and wind energy, has led to much research and development in large-scale stationary energy storage, for example, ZEBRA batteries (Na-NiCl2 solid electrolyte batteries). Replacing Ni with abundant and low-cost Zn makes the ZEBRA battery more cost-effective. However, few studies were performed on this next-generation ZEBRA (Na-ZnCl2) battery system, particularly on its AlCl3-NaCl-ZnCl2 secondary electrolyte. Its properties such as phase diagrams and vapor pressures are vital for the cell design and optimization. In our previous work, a simulation-assisted method for molten salt electrolyte selection has shown its successful application in development of molten salt batteries. The same method is used here to in-depth study the AlCl3-NaCl-ZnCl2 salt electrolyte in terms of its phase diagrams and vapor pressures via FactSageTM and thermo-analytical techniques (Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and OptiMeltTM), and their effects on battery performance such as operation safety and charging/discharging reaction mechanism. The DSC and OptiMelt results show that the experimental data such as melting temperatures and phase changes agree well with the simulated phase diagrams. Moreover, the FactSageTM simulation shows that the salt vapor pressure increases significantly with increasing temperature and molar fraction of AlCl3. The obtained phase diagrams and vapor pressures will be used in the secondary electrolyte selection, cell design and battery operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Sodium Rechargeable Batteries and Beyond)
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37 pages, 9937 KiB  
Review
Recent Progress and Prospects in Liquid Cooling Thermal Management System for Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Jiahao Liu, Hao Chen, Silu Huang, Yu Jiao and Mingyi Chen
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9080400 - 1 Aug 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5755
Abstract
The performance of lithium-ion batteries is closely related to temperature, and much attention has been paid to their thermal safety. With the increasing application of the lithium-ion battery, higher requirements are put forward for battery thermal management systems. Compared with other cooling methods, [...] Read more.
The performance of lithium-ion batteries is closely related to temperature, and much attention has been paid to their thermal safety. With the increasing application of the lithium-ion battery, higher requirements are put forward for battery thermal management systems. Compared with other cooling methods, liquid cooling is an efficient cooling method, which can control the maximum temperature and maximum temperature difference of the battery within an acceptable range. This article reviews the latest research in liquid cooling battery thermal management systems from the perspective of indirect and direct liquid cooling. Firstly, different coolants are compared. The indirect liquid cooling part analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of different liquid channels and system structures. Direct cooling summarizes the different systems’ differences in cooling effectiveness and energy consumption. Then, the combination of liquid cooling, air cooling, phase change materials, and heat pipes is examined. Later, the connection between the cooling and heating functions in the liquid thermal management system is considered. In addition, from a safety perspective, it is found that liquid cooling can effectively manage thermal runaway. Finally, some problems are put forward, and a summary and outlook are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Safety of Lithium Ion Batteries)
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