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Magnetochemistry, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 8 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Design, Characterization and Molecular Modeling of New Fluorinated Paramagnetic Contrast Agents for Dual 1H/19F MRI
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6010008 - 11 Feb 2020
Viewed by 102
Abstract
One major goal in medical imaging is the elaboration of more efficient contrast agents (CAs). Those agents need to be optimized for the detection of affected tissues such as cancers or tumors while decreasing the injected quantity of agents. The paramagnetic contrast agents [...] Read more.
One major goal in medical imaging is the elaboration of more efficient contrast agents (CAs). Those agents need to be optimized for the detection of affected tissues such as cancers or tumors while decreasing the injected quantity of agents. The paramagnetic contrast agents containing fluorine atoms can be used for both proton and fluorine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and they open the possibility of simultaneously mapping the anatomy using 1H MRI and accurately locating the agents using 19F MRI. One of the challenges in this domain is to synthesize molecules containing several chemically equivalent fluorine atoms with relatively short relaxation times to allow the recording of 19F MR images in good conditions. With that aim, we propose to prepare a CA containing a paramagnetic center and nine chemically equivalent fluorine atoms using a cycloaddition reaction between two building blocks. These fluorinated contrast agents are characterized by 19F NMR, showing differences in the fluorine relaxation times T1 and T2 depending on the lanthanide ion. To complement the experimental results, molecular dynamics simulations are performed to shed light on the 3D-structure of the molecules in order to estimate the distance between the lanthanide ion and the fluorine atoms. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Magnetochemistry in 2019
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6010007 - 04 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Magnetic Nanoparticles
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6010006 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 178
Abstract
Magnetic nanoparticles are a class of nanoparticle that can be manipulated using magnetic fields [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessPerspective
False Chirality, Absolute Enantioselection and CP Violation: Pierre Curie’s Legacy
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6010005 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 153
Abstract
The 1884 suggestion of Pierre Curie (1859–1906) that the type of dissymmetry shown by collinear electric and magnetic fields may induce an enantiomeric excess, in a chemical reaction that would otherwise produce a racemic mixture, is explored in the context of fundamental symmetry [...] Read more.
The 1884 suggestion of Pierre Curie (1859–1906) that the type of dissymmetry shown by collinear electric and magnetic fields may induce an enantiomeric excess, in a chemical reaction that would otherwise produce a racemic mixture, is explored in the context of fundamental symmetry arguments. Curie’s arrangement exhibits false chirality (time-noninvariant enantiomorphism), and so it may not induce absolute enantioselection (ae) in a process that has reached thermodynamic equilibrium, since it does not lift the degeneracy of chiral enantiomers. However, it may do so in far-from-equilibrium processes via a breakdown in microscopic reversibility analogous to that observed in elementary particle processes under the influence of CP violation, the associated force possessing false chirality with respect to CP enantiomorphism. In contrast, an influence like circularly polarized light exhibiting true chirality (time-invariant enantiomorphism) lifts the degeneracy of enantiomers, and so may induce ae in all circumstances. Although to date, ae has not been observed under the influence of Curie’s arrangement of collinear electric and magnetic fields, it is argued that two different experiments have now demonstrated ae under a falsely chiral influence in systems far from equilibrium, namely in a spinning sample under a gravitational field, and in the separation of enantiomers at a ferromagnetic surface. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Hybrid Nanostructured Magnetite Nanoparticles: From Bio-Detection and Theragnostics to Regenerative Medicine
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6010004 - 10 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 199
Abstract
Nanotechnology offers the possibility of operating on the same scale length at which biological processes occur, allowing to interfere, manipulate or study cellular events in disease or healthy conditions. The development of hybrid nanostructured materials with a high degree of chemical control and [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology offers the possibility of operating on the same scale length at which biological processes occur, allowing to interfere, manipulate or study cellular events in disease or healthy conditions. The development of hybrid nanostructured materials with a high degree of chemical control and complex engineered surface including biological targeting moieties, allows to specifically bind to a single type of molecule for specific detection, signaling or inactivation processes. Magnetite nanostructures with designed composition and properties are the ones that gather most of the designs as theragnostic agents for their versatility, biocompatibility, facile production and good magnetic performance for remote in vitro and in vivo for biomedical applications. Their superparamagnetic behavior below a critical size of 30 nm has allowed the development of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents or magnetic hyperthermia nanoprobes approved for clinical uses, establishing an inflection point in the field of magnetite based theragnostic agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessReview
Magnetic Nanoparticles for Nanomedicine
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6010003 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 239
Abstract
The field of nanomedicine has recently emerged as a product of the expansion of a range of nanotechnologies into biomedical science, pharmacology and clinical practice. Due to the unique properties of nanoparticles and the related nanostructures, their applications to medical diagnostics, imaging, controlled [...] Read more.
The field of nanomedicine has recently emerged as a product of the expansion of a range of nanotechnologies into biomedical science, pharmacology and clinical practice. Due to the unique properties of nanoparticles and the related nanostructures, their applications to medical diagnostics, imaging, controlled drug and gene delivery, monitoring of therapeutic outcomes, and aiding in medical interventions, provide a new perspective for challenging problems in such demanding issues as those involved in the treatment of cancer or debilitating neurological diseases. In this review, we evaluate the role and contributions that the applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have made to various aspects of nanomedicine, including the newest magnetic particle imaging (MPI) technology allowing for outstanding spatial and temporal resolution that enables targeted contrast enhancement and real-time assistance during medical interventions. We also evaluate the applications of MNPs to the development of targeted drug delivery systems with magnetic field guidance/focusing and controlled drug release that mitigate chemotherapeutic drugs’ side effects and damage to healthy cells. These systems enable tackling of multiple drug resistance which develops in cancer cells during chemotherapeutic treatment. Furthermore, the progress in development of ROS- and heat-generating magnetic nanocarriers and magneto-mechanical cancer cell destruction, induced by an external magnetic field, is also discussed. The crucial roles of MNPs in the development of biosensors and microfluidic paper array devices (µPADs) for the detection of cancer biomarkers and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are also assessed. Future challenges concerning the role and contributions of MNPs to the progress in nanomedicine have been outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Magnetic Nanoparticle Systems for Nanomedicine—A Materials Science Perspective
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6010002 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 325
Abstract
Iron oxide nanoparticles are the basic components of the most promising magneto-responsive systems for nanomedicine, ranging from drug delivery and imaging to hyperthermia cancer treatment, as well as to rapid point-of-care diagnostic systems with magnetic nanoparticles. Advanced synthesis procedures of single- and multi-core [...] Read more.
Iron oxide nanoparticles are the basic components of the most promising magneto-responsive systems for nanomedicine, ranging from drug delivery and imaging to hyperthermia cancer treatment, as well as to rapid point-of-care diagnostic systems with magnetic nanoparticles. Advanced synthesis procedures of single- and multi-core iron-oxide nanoparticles with high magnetic moment and well-defined size and shape, being designed to simultaneously fulfill multiple biomedical functionalities, have been thoroughly evaluated. The review summarizes recent results in manufacturing novel magnetic nanoparticle systems, as well as the use of proper characterization methods that are relevant to the magneto-responsive nature, size range, surface chemistry, structuring behavior, and exploitation conditions of magnetic nanosystems. These refer to particle size, size distribution and aggregation characteristics, zeta potential/surface charge, surface coating, functionalization and catalytic activity, morphology (shape, surface area, surface topology, crystallinity), solubility and stability (e.g., solubility in biological fluids, stability on storage), as well as to DC and AC magnetic properties, particle agglomerates formation, and flow behavior under applied magnetic field (magnetorheology). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
Magnetoelectrochemistry and Asymmetric Electrochemical Reactions
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6010001 - 18 Dec 2019
Viewed by 297
Abstract
Magnetoelectrochemistry is a branch of electrochemistry where magnetic fields play a vital role in the oxidation and reduction process of the molecules. When it comes to spin-dependent electrochemistry (SDE), becomes a new paradigm. This work presents electrochemical response during the “chiral imprinting” on [...] Read more.
Magnetoelectrochemistry is a branch of electrochemistry where magnetic fields play a vital role in the oxidation and reduction process of the molecules. When it comes to spin-dependent electrochemistry (SDE), becomes a new paradigm. This work presents electrochemical response during the “chiral imprinting” on working electrodes and the effects of potentiostatic and galvanostatic methods. We explore the use of the SDE concept, which is implemented for chiral-ferromagnetic (CFM) hybrid working electrodes, and we compare various electrochemical parameters affecting the quality of deposition. We electrochemically co-deposited nickel (Ni) with a chiral compound (tartaric acid) in its enantiopure forms (L and D), which allows us to obtain a chiral co-deposited nickel-tartaric acid (Ni-LTA or Ni-DTA) working electrode. Full article
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