Special Issue "Magnetic Nanoparticles"

A special issue of Magnetochemistry (ISSN 2312-7481). This special issue belongs to the section "Magnetic Nanospecies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Evgeny Katz
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA
Interests: bioelectronics; bionanotechnology; bioelectrochemistry; biosensors; self-assembling enzymes; monolayers; modified electrodes
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Magnetic nanoparticles, magnetic nanorods, and other magnetic nano-species have been prepared and used in many important applications. Particularly, magnetic nano-species functionalized with biomolecular and catalytic entities have been synthesized and extensively used for many biocatalytic, bioanalytical, and biomedical applications. Different biosensors, including immunosensors and DNA sensors, have been developed using functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for their operation in vitro and in vivo. Their use for magnetic targeting (drugs, genes, radiopharmaceuticals), magnetic resonance imaging, diagnostics, immunoassays, RNA and DNA purification, gene cloning, cell separation, and purification has been developed. Magnetic nano-objects of complex topologies, such as magnetic nanorods and nanotubes, have also been produced to serve as parts of various nano-devices, e.g., tunable fluidic channels for tiny magnetic particles, data storage devices in nanocircuits, and scanning tips for magnetic force microscopes. The present Special Issue will cover all research areas related to magnetic nanoparticles, magnetic nanorods, and other magnetic nano-species, their preparation, characterization, and various applications, specifically emphasizing biomedical applications. The Special Issue will be composed of review-style articles, which can be comprehensive literature reviews or reviews based on the author’s research activities (like concept papers). The Special Issue is planned for later conversion to a book on the same topic.

Prof. Dr. Evgeny Katz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Magnetic nanoparticles
  • Magnetic nanorods
  • Biomolecular-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles
  • Biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles
  • Characterization of magnetic nanoparticles
  • Synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles
  • Self-assembling of magnetic nanoparticles

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Magnetic Nanoparticles
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6010006 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Magnetic nanoparticles are a class of nanoparticle that can be manipulated using magnetic fields [...] Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Hybrid Nanostructured Magnetite Nanoparticles: From Bio-Detection and Theragnostics to Regenerative Medicine
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6010004 - 10 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Nanotechnology offers the possibility of operating on the same scale length at which biological processes occur, allowing to interfere, manipulate or study cellular events in disease or healthy conditions. The development of hybrid nanostructured materials with a high degree of chemical control and [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology offers the possibility of operating on the same scale length at which biological processes occur, allowing to interfere, manipulate or study cellular events in disease or healthy conditions. The development of hybrid nanostructured materials with a high degree of chemical control and complex engineered surface including biological targeting moieties, allows to specifically bind to a single type of molecule for specific detection, signaling or inactivation processes. Magnetite nanostructures with designed composition and properties are the ones that gather most of the designs as theragnostic agents for their versatility, biocompatibility, facile production and good magnetic performance for remote in vitro and in vivo for biomedical applications. Their superparamagnetic behavior below a critical size of 30 nm has allowed the development of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents or magnetic hyperthermia nanoprobes approved for clinical uses, establishing an inflection point in the field of magnetite based theragnostic agents. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Magnetic Nanoparticles for Nanomedicine
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6010003 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
The field of nanomedicine has recently emerged as a product of the expansion of a range of nanotechnologies into biomedical science, pharmacology and clinical practice. Due to the unique properties of nanoparticles and the related nanostructures, their applications to medical diagnostics, imaging, controlled [...] Read more.
The field of nanomedicine has recently emerged as a product of the expansion of a range of nanotechnologies into biomedical science, pharmacology and clinical practice. Due to the unique properties of nanoparticles and the related nanostructures, their applications to medical diagnostics, imaging, controlled drug and gene delivery, monitoring of therapeutic outcomes, and aiding in medical interventions, provide a new perspective for challenging problems in such demanding issues as those involved in the treatment of cancer or debilitating neurological diseases. In this review, we evaluate the role and contributions that the applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have made to various aspects of nanomedicine, including the newest magnetic particle imaging (MPI) technology allowing for outstanding spatial and temporal resolution that enables targeted contrast enhancement and real-time assistance during medical interventions. We also evaluate the applications of MNPs to the development of targeted drug delivery systems with magnetic field guidance/focusing and controlled drug release that mitigate chemotherapeutic drugs’ side effects and damage to healthy cells. These systems enable tackling of multiple drug resistance which develops in cancer cells during chemotherapeutic treatment. Furthermore, the progress in development of ROS- and heat-generating magnetic nanocarriers and magneto-mechanical cancer cell destruction, induced by an external magnetic field, is also discussed. The crucial roles of MNPs in the development of biosensors and microfluidic paper array devices (µPADs) for the detection of cancer biomarkers and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are also assessed. Future challenges concerning the role and contributions of MNPs to the progress in nanomedicine have been outlined. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Magnetic Nanoparticle Systems for Nanomedicine—A Materials Science Perspective
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6010002 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 7
Abstract
Iron oxide nanoparticles are the basic components of the most promising magneto-responsive systems for nanomedicine, ranging from drug delivery and imaging to hyperthermia cancer treatment, as well as to rapid point-of-care diagnostic systems with magnetic nanoparticles. Advanced synthesis procedures of single- and multi-core [...] Read more.
Iron oxide nanoparticles are the basic components of the most promising magneto-responsive systems for nanomedicine, ranging from drug delivery and imaging to hyperthermia cancer treatment, as well as to rapid point-of-care diagnostic systems with magnetic nanoparticles. Advanced synthesis procedures of single- and multi-core iron-oxide nanoparticles with high magnetic moment and well-defined size and shape, being designed to simultaneously fulfill multiple biomedical functionalities, have been thoroughly evaluated. The review summarizes recent results in manufacturing novel magnetic nanoparticle systems, as well as the use of proper characterization methods that are relevant to the magneto-responsive nature, size range, surface chemistry, structuring behavior, and exploitation conditions of magnetic nanosystems. These refer to particle size, size distribution and aggregation characteristics, zeta potential/surface charge, surface coating, functionalization and catalytic activity, morphology (shape, surface area, surface topology, crystallinity), solubility and stability (e.g., solubility in biological fluids, stability on storage), as well as to DC and AC magnetic properties, particle agglomerates formation, and flow behavior under applied magnetic field (magnetorheology). Full article
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Open AccessReview
Principles of Magnetic Hyperthermia: A Focus on Using Multifunctional Hybrid Magnetic Nanoparticles
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5040067 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Hyperthermia is a noninvasive method that uses heat for cancer therapy where high temperatures have a damaging effect on tumor cells. However, large amounts of heat need to be delivered, which could have negative effects on healthy tissues. Thus, to minimize the negative [...] Read more.
Hyperthermia is a noninvasive method that uses heat for cancer therapy where high temperatures have a damaging effect on tumor cells. However, large amounts of heat need to be delivered, which could have negative effects on healthy tissues. Thus, to minimize the negative side effects on healthy cells, a large amount of heat must be delivered only to the tumor cells. Magnetic hyperthermia (MH) uses magnetic nanoparticles particles (MNPs) that are exposed to alternating magnetic field (AMF) to generate heat in local regions (tissues or cells). This cancer therapy method has several advantages, such as (a) it is noninvasive, thus requiring surgery, and (b) it is local, and thus does not damage health cells. However, there are several issues that need to achieved: (a) the MNPs should be biocompatible, biodegradable, with good colloidal stability (b) the MNPs should be successfully delivered to the tumor cells, (c) the MNPs should be used with small amounts and thus MNPs with large heat generation capabilities are required, (d) the AMF used to heat the MNPs should meet safety conditions with limited frequency and amplitude ranges, (e) the changes of temperature should be traced at the cellular level with accurate and noninvasive techniques, (f) factors affecting heat transport from the MNPs to the cells must be understood, and (g) the effect of temperature on the biological mechanisms of cells should be clearly understood. Thus, in this multidisciplinary field, research is needed to investigate these issues. In this report, we shed some light on the principles of heat generation by MNPs in AMF, the limitations and challenges of MH, and the applications of MH using multifunctional hybrid MNPs. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Potential Biomedical Application of NiCu Magnetic Nanoparticles
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5040066 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Magnetic nanoparticles became increasingly interesting in recent years as a result of their tailorable size-dependent properties, which enable their use in a wide range of applications. One of their emerging applications is biomedicine; in particular, bimetallic nickel/copper magnetic nanoparticles (NiCu MNPs) are gaining [...] Read more.
Magnetic nanoparticles became increasingly interesting in recent years as a result of their tailorable size-dependent properties, which enable their use in a wide range of applications. One of their emerging applications is biomedicine; in particular, bimetallic nickel/copper magnetic nanoparticles (NiCu MNPs) are gaining momentum as a consequence of their unique properties that are suitable for biomedicine. These characteristics include stability in various chemical environments, proven biocompatibility with various cell types, and tunable magnetic properties that can be adjusted by changing synthesis parameters. Despite the obvious potential of NiCu MNPs for biomedical applications, the general interest in their use for this purpose is rather low. Nevertheless, the steadily increasing annual number of related papers shows that increasingly more researchers in the biomedical field are studying this interesting formulation. As with other MNPs, NiCu-based formulations were examined for their application in magnetic hyperthermia (MH) as one of their main potential uses in clinics. MH is a treatment method in which cancer tissue is selectively heated through the localization of MNPs at the target site in an alternating magnetic field (AMF). This heating destroys cancer cells only since they are less equipped to withstand temperatures above 43 °C, whereas this temperature is not critical for healthy tissue. Superparamagnetic particles (e.g., NiCu MNPs) generate heat by relaxation losses under an AMF. In addition to MH in cancer treatment, which might be their most beneficial potential use in biomedicine, the properties of NiCu MNPs can be leveraged for several other applications, such as controlled drug delivery and prolonged localization at a desired target site in the body. After a short introduction that covers the general properties of NiCu MNPs, this review explores different synthesis methods, along with their main advantages and disadvantages, potential surface modification approaches, and their potential in biomedical applications, such as MH, multimodal cancer therapy, MH implants, antibacterial activity, and dentistry. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Magnetic Particle Bioconjugates: A Versatile Sensor Approach
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5040064 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Nanomaterial biosensors have revolutionized the entire scientific, technology, biomedical, materials science, and engineering fields. Among all nanomaterials, magnetic nanoparticles, microparticles, and beads are unique in offering facile conjugation of biorecognition probes for selective capturing of any desired analytes from complex real sample matrices [...] Read more.
Nanomaterial biosensors have revolutionized the entire scientific, technology, biomedical, materials science, and engineering fields. Among all nanomaterials, magnetic nanoparticles, microparticles, and beads are unique in offering facile conjugation of biorecognition probes for selective capturing of any desired analytes from complex real sample matrices (e.g., biofluids such as whole blood, serum, urine and saliva, tissues, food, and environmental samples). In addition, rapid separation of the particle-captured analytes by the simple use of a magnet for subsequent detection on a sensor unit makes the magnetic particle sensor approach very attractive. The easy magnetic isolation feature of target analytes is not possible with other inorganic particles, both metallic (e.g., gold) and non-metallic (e.g., silica), which require difficult centrifugation and separation steps. Magnetic particle biosensors have thus enabled ultra-low detection with ultra-high sensitivity that has traditionally been achieved only by radioactive assays and other tedious optical sources. Moreover, when traditional approaches failed to selectively detect low-concentration analytes in complex matrices (e.g., colorimetric, electrochemistry, and optical methods), magnetic particle-incorporated sensing strategies enabled sample concentration into a defined microvolume of large surface area particles for a straightforward detection. The objective of this article is to highlight the ever-growing applications of magnetic materials for the detection of analytes present in various real sample matrices. The central idea of this paper was to show the versatility and advantages of using magnetic particles for a variety of sample matrices and analyte types and the adaptability of different transducers with the magnetic particle approaches. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Magnetic Particles-Based Analytical Platforms for Food Safety Monitoring
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5040063 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have attracted growing interest as versatile materials for the development of analytical detection and separation platforms for food safety monitoring. This review discusses recent advances in the synthesis, functionalization and applications of MNPs in bioanalysis. A special emphasis is given [...] Read more.
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have attracted growing interest as versatile materials for the development of analytical detection and separation platforms for food safety monitoring. This review discusses recent advances in the synthesis, functionalization and applications of MNPs in bioanalysis. A special emphasis is given to the use of MNPs as an immobilization support for biomolecules and as a target capture and pre-concentration to increase selectivity and sensitivity of analytical platforms for the monitoring of food contaminants. General principles and examples of MNP-based platforms for separation, amplification and detection of analytes of interest in food, including organic and inorganic constituents are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Magnetic Beads in Marine Toxin Detection: A Review
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5040062 - 12 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Due to the expanding occurrence of marine toxins, and their potential impact on human health, there is an increased need for tools for their rapid and efficient detection. We give an overview of the use of magnetic beads (MBs) for the detection of [...] Read more.
Due to the expanding occurrence of marine toxins, and their potential impact on human health, there is an increased need for tools for their rapid and efficient detection. We give an overview of the use of magnetic beads (MBs) for the detection of marine toxins in shellfish and fish samples, with an emphasis on their incorporation into electrochemical biosensors. The use of MBs as supports for the immobilization of toxins or antibodies, as signal amplifiers as well as for target pre-concentration, is reviewed. In addition, the exploitation of MBs in Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (SELEX) for the selection of aptamers is presented. These MB-based strategies have led to the development of sensitive, simple, reliable and robust analytical systems for the detection of toxins in natural samples, with applicability in seafood safety and human health protection. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles and Nanowires—A Brief Introduction
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5040061 - 10 Nov 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
Magnetic nanoparticles and magnetic nano-species of complex topology (e.g., nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, etc.) are overviewed briefly in the paper, mostly giving attention to the synthetic details and particle composition (e.g., core-shell structures made of different materials). Some aspects related to applications of magnetic [...] Read more.
Magnetic nanoparticles and magnetic nano-species of complex topology (e.g., nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, etc.) are overviewed briefly in the paper, mostly giving attention to the synthetic details and particle composition (e.g., core-shell structures made of different materials). Some aspects related to applications of magnetic nano-species are briefly discussed. While not being a comprehensive review, the paper offers a large collection of references, particularly useful for newcomers in the research area. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Iron Oxide Labeling and Tracking of Extracellular Vesicles
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5040060 - 07 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are essential tools for conveying biological information and modulating functions of recipient cells. Implantation of isolated or modulated EVs can be innovative therapeutics for various diseases. Furthermore, EVs could be a biocompatible drug delivery vehicle to carry both endogenous and [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are essential tools for conveying biological information and modulating functions of recipient cells. Implantation of isolated or modulated EVs can be innovative therapeutics for various diseases. Furthermore, EVs could be a biocompatible drug delivery vehicle to carry both endogenous and exogenous biologics. Tracking EVs should play essential roles in understanding the functions of EVs and advancing EV therapeutics. EVs have the characteristic structures consisting of the lipid bilayer and specific membrane proteins, through which they can be labeled efficiently. EVs can be labeled either directly using probes or indirectly by transfection of reporter genes. Optical imaging (fluorescent imaging and bioluminescent imaging), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are currently used for imaging EVs. Labeling EVs with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles for MRI tracking is a promising method that can be translated into clinic. SPIO can be internalized by most of the cell types and then released as SPIO containing EVs, which can be visualized on T2*-weighted imaging. However, this method has limitations in real-time imaging because of the life cycle of SPIO after EV degradation. Further studies will be needed to validate SPIO labeling by other imaging modalities in preclinical studies. The emerging technologies of labeling and imaging EVs with SPIO in comparison with other imaging modalities are reviewed in this paper. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Optical-Based (Bio) Sensing Systems Using Magnetic Nanoparticles
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5040059 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In recent years, various reports related to sensing application research have suggested that combining the synergistic impacts of optical, electrical or magnetic properties in a single technique can lead to a new multitasking platform. Owing to their unique features of the magnetic moment, [...] Read more.
In recent years, various reports related to sensing application research have suggested that combining the synergistic impacts of optical, electrical or magnetic properties in a single technique can lead to a new multitasking platform. Owing to their unique features of the magnetic moment, biocompatibility, ease of surface modification, chemical stability, high surface area, high mass transference, magnetic nanoparticles have found a wide range of applications in various fields, especially in sensing systems. The present review is comprehensive information about magnetic nanoparticles utilized in the optical sensing platform, broadly categorized into four types: surface plasmon resonance (SPR), surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), fluorescence spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging (NIRS) that are commonly used in various (bio) analytical applications. The review also includes some conclusions on the state of the art in this field and future aspects. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Implication of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Cancer Detection, Screening and Treatment
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5040055 - 01 Oct 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
During the last few decades, magnetic nanoparticles have been evaluated as promising materials in the field of cancer detection, screening, and treatment. Early diagnosis and screening of cancer may be achieved using magnetic nanoparticles either within the magnetic resonance imaging technique and/or sensing [...] Read more.
During the last few decades, magnetic nanoparticles have been evaluated as promising materials in the field of cancer detection, screening, and treatment. Early diagnosis and screening of cancer may be achieved using magnetic nanoparticles either within the magnetic resonance imaging technique and/or sensing systems. These sensors are designed to selectively detect specific biomarkers, compounds that can be related to the onset or evolution of cancer, during and after the treatment of this widespread disease. Some of the particular properties of magnetic nanoparticles are extensively exploited in cancer therapy as drug delivery agents to selectively target the envisaged location by tailored in vivo manipulation using an external magnetic field. Furthermore, individualized treatment with antineoplastic drugs may be combined with magnetic resonance imaging to achieve an efficient therapy. This review summarizes the studies about the implications of magnetic nanoparticles in cancer diagnosis, treatment and drug delivery as well as prospects for future development and challenges of magnetic nanoparticles in the field of oncology. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Pharmaceutical Applications of Iron-Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5030050 - 02 Sep 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Advances of nanotechnology led to the development of nanoparticulate systems with many advantages due to their unique physicochemical properties. The use of iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IOMNPs) in pharmaceutical areas increased in the last few decades. This article reviews the conceptual information about iron [...] Read more.
Advances of nanotechnology led to the development of nanoparticulate systems with many advantages due to their unique physicochemical properties. The use of iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IOMNPs) in pharmaceutical areas increased in the last few decades. This article reviews the conceptual information about iron oxides, magnetic nanoparticles, methods of IOMNP synthesis, properties useful for pharmaceutical applications, advantages and disadvantages, strategies for nanoparticle assemblies, and uses in the production of drug delivery, hyperthermia, theranostics, photodynamic therapy, and as an antimicrobial. The encapsulation, coating, or dispersion of IOMNPs with biocompatible material(s) can avoid the aggregation, biodegradation, and alterations from the original state and also enable entrapping the bioactive agent on the particle via adsorption or covalent attachment. IOMNPs show great potential for target drug delivery, improving the therapy as a consequence of a higher drug effect using lower concentrations, thus reducing side effects and toxicity. Different methodologies allow IOMNP synthesis, resulting in different structures, sizes, dispersions, and surface modifications. These advantages support their utilization in pharmaceutical applications, and getting suitable drug release control on the target tissues could be beneficial in several clinical situations, such as infections, inflammations, and cancer. However, more toxicological clinical investigations about IOMNPs are necessary. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Magnetic Janus Particles for Static and Dynamic (Bio)Sensing
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5030047 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Magnetic Janus particles bring together the ability of Janus particles to perform two different functions at the same time in a single particle with magnetic properties enabling their remote manipulation, which allows headed movement and orientation. This article reviews the preparation procedures and [...] Read more.
Magnetic Janus particles bring together the ability of Janus particles to perform two different functions at the same time in a single particle with magnetic properties enabling their remote manipulation, which allows headed movement and orientation. This article reviews the preparation procedures and applications in the (bio)sensing field of static and self-propelled magnetic Janus particles. The main progress in the fabrication procedures and the applicability of these particles are critically discussed, also giving some clues on challenges to be dealt with and future prospects. The promising characteristics of magnetic Janus particles in the (bio)sensing field, providing increased kinetics and sensitivity and decreased times of analysis derived from the use of external magnetic fields in their manipulation, allows foreseeing their great and exciting potential in the medical and environmental remediation fields. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Preparation and Application of Iron Oxide Nanoclusters
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5030045 - 01 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Magnetic iron oxide nanoclusters, which refers to a group of individual nanoparticles, have recently attracted much attention because of their distinctive behaviors compared to individual nanoparticles. In this review, we discuss preparation methods for creating iron oxide nanoclusters, focusing on synthetic procedures, formation [...] Read more.
Magnetic iron oxide nanoclusters, which refers to a group of individual nanoparticles, have recently attracted much attention because of their distinctive behaviors compared to individual nanoparticles. In this review, we discuss preparation methods for creating iron oxide nanoclusters, focusing on synthetic procedures, formation mechanisms, and the quality of the products. Then, we discuss the emerging applications for iron oxide nanoclusters in various fields, covering traditional and novel applications in magnetic separation, bioimaging, drug delivery, and magnetically responsive photonic crystals. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Bio-Catalysis and Biomedical Perspectives of Magnetic Nanoparticles as Versatile Carriers
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5030042 - 02 Jul 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
In recent years, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have gained increasing attention as versatile carriers because of their unique magnetic properties, biocatalytic functionalities, and capabilities to work at the cellular and molecular level of biological interactions. Moreover, owing to their exceptional functional properties, such as [...] Read more.
In recent years, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have gained increasing attention as versatile carriers because of their unique magnetic properties, biocatalytic functionalities, and capabilities to work at the cellular and molecular level of biological interactions. Moreover, owing to their exceptional functional properties, such as large surface area, large surface-to-volume ratio, and mobility and high mass transference, MNPs have been employed in several applications in different sectors such as supporting matrices for enzymes immobilization and controlled release of drugs in biomedicine. Unlike non-magnetic carriers, MNPs can be easily separated and recovered using an external magnetic field. In addition to their biocompatible microenvironment, the application of MNPs represents a remarkable green chemistry approach. Herein, we focused on state-of-the-art two majorly studied perspectives of MNPs as versatile carriers for (1) matrices for enzymes immobilization, and (2) matrices for controlled drug delivery. Specifically, from the applied perspectives of magnetic nanoparticles, a series of different applications with suitable examples are discussed in detail. The second half is focused on different metal-based magnetic nanoparticles and their exploitation for biomedical purposes. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances of Cellulase Immobilization onto Magnetic Nanoparticles: An Update Review
Magnetochemistry 2019, 5(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry5020036 - 10 Jun 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Cellulosic enzymes, including cellulase, play an important role in biotechnological processes in the fields of food, cosmetics, detergents, pulp, paper, and related industries. Low thermal and storage stability of cellulase, presence of impurities, enzyme leakage, and reusability pose great challenges in all these [...] Read more.
Cellulosic enzymes, including cellulase, play an important role in biotechnological processes in the fields of food, cosmetics, detergents, pulp, paper, and related industries. Low thermal and storage stability of cellulase, presence of impurities, enzyme leakage, and reusability pose great challenges in all these processes. These challenges can be overcome via enzyme immobilization methods. In recent years, cellulase immobilization onto nanomaterials became the focus of research attention owing to the surface features of these materials. However, the application of these nanomaterials is limited due to the efficacy of their recovery process. The application of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was suggested as a solution to this problem since they can be easily removed from the reaction mixture by applying an external magnet. Recently, MNPs were extensively employed for enzyme immobilization owing to their low toxicity and various practical advantages. In the present review, recent advances in cellulase immobilization onto functionalized MNPs is summarized. Finally, we discuss enhanced enzyme reusability, activity, and stability, as well as improved enzyme recovery. Enzyme immobilization techniques offer promising potential for industrial applications. Full article
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