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A Review on the Optimal Design of Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based T2 MRI Contrast Agents

Department for Nanostructured Materials, Jožef Stefan Institute, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(1), 11;
Received: 12 February 2020 / Revised: 25 February 2020 / Accepted: 25 February 2020 / Published: 28 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles 2020)
Relaxivity r2 and thus the contrast efficacy of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) can be enhanced via either NP’s magnetic properties or coating optimization. Numerous reports can be found about the investigation of the optimal iron oxide nanoparticles (IO NPs) size, shape, crystallinity and composition that yield high saturation magnetization (ms) values and, consequently, high r2 values. Although the use of an appropriate coating can boost up the NPs MRI contrast agent efficiency, this topic has been largely understudied. Therefore, in this review, the factors affording r2 enhancement of spherical magnetic NPs are discussed. Based on the literature, the requirements for an optimal surface coating that may increase r2 values and ensure stability and biocompatibility of NPs are listed. One of the best candidates that fulfil these requirements are liposomes with embedded magnetic NPs, so-called magneto-liposomes. The analysis of the literature elucidated the most appropriate phospholipid compositions for the relaxivity enhancement and for magneto-liposomes in vivo stability. Finally, the future directions in the development of NP-based contrast agents are given. For example, most of the synthetic NPs are recognized and eliminated as a foreign substance by the immune system. To overcome this issue, a design of a biomimetic, cell-membrane-based nanocarrier for contrast agents is proposed. Disguised with cell membranes, NPs or other active components can act as autogenous cells and thus ensure the inherent biocompatibility. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; magnetic resonance imaging; liposomes; biomimetics nanoparticles; magnetic resonance imaging; liposomes; biomimetics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kostevšek, N. A Review on the Optimal Design of Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based T2 MRI Contrast Agents. Magnetochemistry 2020, 6, 11.

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