Special Issue "Magnetic Nanoparticles 2020"

A special issue of Magnetochemistry (ISSN 2312-7481). This special issue belongs to the section "Magnetic Nanospecies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Felisa Reyes-Ortega
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Applied Physics Department, Sciences Faculty, University of Granada, Spain
Interests: nanotechnology; controlled drug delivery; magnetic nanoparticles; cancer therapy; biomaterials; tissue engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The focus of this Special Issue involves the preparation, characterization, and applications of magnetic nanoparticles, with different geometries and functionalities, applied in biomedicine as a drug carrier, diagnosis imaging, tissue engineering, cell labelling, hyperthermia, magneto-rheological fluids, theranostic, micro- and nanochips, gene therapy, etc. Magnetic nanoparticles are potentially useful in biomedicine thanks to their response to magnetic fields. It allows local treatment in a specific site (target therapy), can be used to load and deliver sequentially different drugs combination (drug carriers) and can be easily functionalized to be biocompatible and nontoxic. Interest in magnetic nanoparticles, from its synthesis and surface functionalization strategies, and its stability in biological fluids, to the uptake by stem cells and the therapeutic efficiency has increased recently and multiple directions are ongoing in this research field.

In this context, this Special Issue on Magnetic Nanoparticles 2020 aims at publishing a collection of research contributions that illustrates recent achievements in all these aspects of development applied in the biomedical field. The suggested (but not unique) topics are listed below:

  1. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles. Morphologies, composition and size influence;
  2. Functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles:
    1. Type of material: Organic, inorganic, sol–gel functionalization, etc.;
    2. Methodology: emulsion polymerizations, crosslinking, physical recover (electrostatic, Van der Waals, hydrogen bonds);
    3. Magnetic properties after functionalization;
    4. Behavior in biological fluids;
  3. Applications:
    1. Drug and gene delivery;
    2. Cancer theranostics;
    3. Diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging;
    4. Hyperthermia;
    5. Magneto-rheological fluids;
    6. Target therapies;
    7. Cell labeling;
    8. Micro- and nanomedical devices;
    9. Others.

Prof. Dr. Felisa Reyes-Ortega
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • magnetic nanoparticles
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • diagnosis
  • magnetic hyperthermia
  • drug and gene deliver
  • biocompatible materials
  • medical devices

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Pulse Magnetic Fields Induced Drug Release from Gold Coated Magnetic Nanoparticle Decorated Liposomes
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6040052 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1155
Abstract
Magnetic nanoparticle-assisted drug release from liposomes is an important way to enhance the functionality/usefulness of liposomes. This work demonstrates an approach how to integrate magnetic nanoparticles with liposomes with the assistance of gold–thiol chemistry. The gold coated magnetic particles cover the thiolated liposomes [...] Read more.
Magnetic nanoparticle-assisted drug release from liposomes is an important way to enhance the functionality/usefulness of liposomes. This work demonstrates an approach how to integrate magnetic nanoparticles with liposomes with the assistance of gold–thiol chemistry. The gold coated magnetic particles cover the thiolated liposomes from the outside, which removes the competition of the drug molecules and the triggering magnetic particles to free the inner space of the liposomes when compared to previous magneto liposome formulations. The liposome consists of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) combined with distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) in addition to regular cholesterol or cholesterol-PEG-SH. Permeability assays and electron microscopy images show efficient coupling between the liposomes and nanoparticles in the presence of thiol groups without compromising the functionality of the liposomes. The nanoparticles such as gold nanoparticles, gold coated iron oxide nanoparticles and bare iron oxide nanoparticles are added following the model drug encapsulation. The efficient coupling between the gold coated nanoparticles (NPs) and the thiolate liposomes is evidenced by the shift in transition temperature of the thiolated liposomes. The addition of magnetically triggerable nanoparticles externally makes the entire interior of liposomes available for drug loading. The drug release efficiencies of these liposomes/NPs complexes were compared under exposure to pulsed magnetic fields. The results indicate up to 20% of the drug can be released in short time, which is comparable in efficiency to previous studies performed when magnetic NPs were located inside liposomes. Interestingly, the liposomes were found to exhibit variations in release efficiency based on different dilution media which is attributed to an osmotic pressure effect on liposomal stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles 2020)
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Article
Hydrogen Peroxide-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of BiFeO3 Microspheres and Their Dielectric Behavior
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6030042 - 09 Sep 2020
Viewed by 813
Abstract
Despite considerable efforts undertaken in a rapidly developing area of multiferroic research, synthesis of phase pure BiFeO3 is still a matter of intensive research. In this work, we report the shape-controlled synthesis of pure BiFeO3 microspheres via a facile hydrothermal route. [...] Read more.
Despite considerable efforts undertaken in a rapidly developing area of multiferroic research, synthesis of phase pure BiFeO3 is still a matter of intensive research. In this work, we report the shape-controlled synthesis of pure BiFeO3 microspheres via a facile hydrothermal route. The prepared BiFeO3 powder has been characterized using powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Thermal analysis (DTA), Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM), and impedance spectroscopy. Powder XRD analysis confirms the formation of pure rhombohedrally distorted perovskite with R3c space group. Scanning electron micrograph revealed that the prepared BiFeO3 microspheres are nearly spherical in shape with uniform size distribution. The BiFeO3 microspheres exhibit a dielectric constant value of ~110 at 1000 KHz, which is higher than the BiFeO3 prepared by conventional solid-state reaction and sol–gel method. Variation of dielectric constant with temperature at different frequencies shows that the BiFeO3 has a dielectric anomaly of ferroelectric to paraelectric type at 1093 K and this phenomenon is well supported by TGA results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles 2020)
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Article
Saturation of Specific Absorption Rate for Soft and Hard Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Polyol Process
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6020023 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
Spinel ferrite nanoparticles represent a class of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with enormous potential in magnetic hyperthermia. In this study, we investigated the magnetic and heating properties of spinel soft NiFe2O4, MnFe2O4, and hard CoFe2 [...] Read more.
Spinel ferrite nanoparticles represent a class of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with enormous potential in magnetic hyperthermia. In this study, we investigated the magnetic and heating properties of spinel soft NiFe2O4, MnFe2O4, and hard CoFe2O4 MNPs of comparable sizes (12–14 nm) synthesized by the polyol method. Similar to the hard ferrite, which predominantly is ferromagnetic at room temperature, the soft ferrite MNPs display a non-negligible coercivity (9–11 kA/m) arising from the strong interparticle interactions. The heating capabilities of ferrite MNPs were evaluated in aqueous media at concentrations between 4 and 1 mg/mL under alternating magnetic fields (AMF) amplitude from 5 to 65 kA/m at a constant frequency of 355 kHz. The hyperthermia data revealed that the SAR values deviate from the quadratic dependence on the AMF amplitude in all three cases in disagreement with the Linear Response Theory. Instead, the SAR values display a sigmoidal dependence on the AMF amplitude, with a maximum heating performance measured for the cobalt ferrites (1780 W/gFe+Co), followed by the manganese ferrites (835 W/gFe+Mn), while the nickel ferrites (540 W/gFe+Ni) present the lowest values of SAR. The heating performances of the ferrites are in agreement with their values of coercivity and saturation magnetization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles 2020)
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Review

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Review
Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Drug Delivery Approaches for Preventing and Treating Biofilms in Cystic Fibrosis
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6040072 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1140
Abstract
Biofilm-associated infections pose a huge burden on healthcare systems worldwide, with recurrent lung infections occurring due to the persistence of biofilm bacteria populations. In cystic fibrosis (CF), thick viscous mucus acts not only as a physical barrier, but also serves as a nidus [...] Read more.
Biofilm-associated infections pose a huge burden on healthcare systems worldwide, with recurrent lung infections occurring due to the persistence of biofilm bacteria populations. In cystic fibrosis (CF), thick viscous mucus acts not only as a physical barrier, but also serves as a nidus for infection. Increased antibiotic resistance in the recent years indicates that current therapeutic strategies aimed at biofilm-associated infections are “failing”, emphasizing the need to develop new and improved drug delivery systems with higher efficacy and efficiency. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have unique and favourable properties encompassing biocompatibility, biodegradability, magnetic and heat-mediated characteristics, making them suitable drug carriers. Additionally, an external magnetic force can be applied to enhance drug delivery to target sites, acting as “nano-knives”, cutting through the bacterial biofilm layer and characteristically thick mucus in CF. In this review, we explore the multidisciplinary approach of using current and novel MNPs as vehicles of drug delivery. Although many of these offer exciting prospects for future biofilm therapeutics, there are also major challenges of this emerging field that need to be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles 2020)
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Review
Magnetite (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles in Biomedical Application: From Synthesis to Surface Functionalisation
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6040068 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2975
Abstract
Nanotechnology has gained much attention for its potential application in medical science. Iron oxide nanoparticles have demonstrated a promising effect in various biomedical applications. In particular, magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are widely applied due to their biocompatibility, high magnetic susceptibility, [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology has gained much attention for its potential application in medical science. Iron oxide nanoparticles have demonstrated a promising effect in various biomedical applications. In particular, magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are widely applied due to their biocompatibility, high magnetic susceptibility, chemical stability, innocuousness, high saturation magnetisation, and inexpensiveness. Magnetite (Fe3O4) exhibits superparamagnetism as its size shrinks in the single-domain region to around 20 nm, which is an essential property for use in biomedical applications. In this review, the application of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) in the biomedical field based on different synthesis approaches and various surface functionalisation materials was discussed. Firstly, a brief introduction on the MNP properties, such as physical, thermal, magnetic, and optical properties, is provided. Considering that the surface chemistry of MNPs plays an important role in the practical implementation of in vitro and in vivo applications, this review then focuses on several predominant synthesis methods and variations in the synthesis parameters of MNPs. The encapsulation of MNPs with organic and inorganic materials is also discussed. Finally, the most common in vivo and in vitro applications in the biomedical world are elucidated. This review aims to deliver concise information to new researchers in this field, guide them in selecting appropriate synthesis techniques for MNPs, and to enhance the surface chemistry of MNPs for their interests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles 2020)
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Review
Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Purposes: Modern Trends and Prospects
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6030030 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1647
Abstract
The presented paper is a review article discussing existing synthesis methods and different applications of nanosized magnetic nanoparticles. It was shown that, in addition to the spectrum of properties typical for nanomaterials (primarily a large specific surface area and a high fraction of [...] Read more.
The presented paper is a review article discussing existing synthesis methods and different applications of nanosized magnetic nanoparticles. It was shown that, in addition to the spectrum of properties typical for nanomaterials (primarily a large specific surface area and a high fraction of surface atoms), magnetic nanoparticles also possess superparamagnetic properties that contribute to their formation of an important class of biomedical functional nanomaterials. This primarily concerns iron oxides magnetite and maghemite, for which in vitro and in vivo studies have shown low toxicity and high biocompatibility in comparison with other magnetic nanomaterials. Due to their exceptional chemical, biological, and physical properties, they are widely used in various areas, such as magnetic hyperthermia, targeted drug delivery, tissue engineering, magnetic separation of biological objects (cells, bacteria, viruses, DNA, and proteins), and magnetic diagnostics (they are used as agents for MRS and immunoassay). In addition to discussing the main problems and prospects of using nanoparticles of magnetic iron oxides for advanced biomedical applications, information is also reflected on their structure, production methods, and properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles 2020)
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Review
Successes and Challenges: Inhaled Treatment Approaches Using Magnetic Nanoparticles in Cystic Fibrosis
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6020025 - 04 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
Magnetic nanoparticles have been largely applied to increase the efficacy of antibiotics due to passive accumulation provided by enhancing permeability and retention, which is essential for the treatment of lung infections. Recurring lung infections such as in the life-shortening genetic disease cystic fibrosis [...] Read more.
Magnetic nanoparticles have been largely applied to increase the efficacy of antibiotics due to passive accumulation provided by enhancing permeability and retention, which is essential for the treatment of lung infections. Recurring lung infections such as in the life-shortening genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF) are a major problem. The recent advent of the CF modulator drug ivacaftor, alone or in combination with lumacaftor or tezacaftor, has enabled systemic treatment of the majority of patients. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) show unique properties such as biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as magnetic and heat-medicated characteristics. These properties make them suitable to be used as drug carriers and hyperthermia-based agents. Hyperthermia is a promising approach for the thermal activation therapy of several diseases, including pulmonary diseases. The benefits of delivering CF drugs via inhalation using MNPs as drug carriers afford application of sufficient therapeutic dosages directly to the primary target site, while avoiding potential suboptimal pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics and minimizing the risks of systemic toxicity. This review explores the multidisciplinary approach of using MNPs as vehicles of drug delivery. Additionally, we highlight advantages such as increased drug concentration at disease site, minimized drug loss and the possibility of specific cell targeting, while addressing major challenges for this emerging field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles 2020)
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Review
A Review on the Optimal Design of Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based T2 MRI Contrast Agents
Magnetochemistry 2020, 6(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry6010011 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1750
Abstract
Relaxivity r2 and thus the contrast efficacy of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) can be enhanced via either NP’s magnetic properties or coating optimization. Numerous reports can be found about the investigation of the optimal iron oxide nanoparticles (IO NPs) size, shape, crystallinity and [...] Read more.
Relaxivity r2 and thus the contrast efficacy of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) can be enhanced via either NP’s magnetic properties or coating optimization. Numerous reports can be found about the investigation of the optimal iron oxide nanoparticles (IO NPs) size, shape, crystallinity and composition that yield high saturation magnetization (ms) values and, consequently, high r2 values. Although the use of an appropriate coating can boost up the NPs MRI contrast agent efficiency, this topic has been largely understudied. Therefore, in this review, the factors affording r2 enhancement of spherical magnetic NPs are discussed. Based on the literature, the requirements for an optimal surface coating that may increase r2 values and ensure stability and biocompatibility of NPs are listed. One of the best candidates that fulfil these requirements are liposomes with embedded magnetic NPs, so-called magneto-liposomes. The analysis of the literature elucidated the most appropriate phospholipid compositions for the relaxivity enhancement and for magneto-liposomes in vivo stability. Finally, the future directions in the development of NP-based contrast agents are given. For example, most of the synthetic NPs are recognized and eliminated as a foreign substance by the immune system. To overcome this issue, a design of a biomimetic, cell-membrane-based nanocarrier for contrast agents is proposed. Disguised with cell membranes, NPs or other active components can act as autogenous cells and thus ensure the inherent biocompatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles 2020)
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