Next Issue
Volume 5, June
Previous Issue
Volume 4, December

Geriatrics, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 21 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
High Rate of Oral Candida Detection in Dependent Japanese Older People
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010021 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2206
Abstract
The aim of this study was to clarify the association between oral Candida detection and the dependency status of older people. This study included 31 older people aged ≥70 years who had a certified need for long-term care or support and received care [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to clarify the association between oral Candida detection and the dependency status of older people. This study included 31 older people aged ≥70 years who had a certified need for long-term care or support and received care in a local day care center; it also included 27 independent older patients aged ≥70 years who visited Hiroshima University Hospital. Oral Candida was detected by a polymerase chain reaction using swab samples from the tongue surface. Oral moisture was significantly reduced in dependent older people, compared with independent older people (p = 0.003). There was a weak negative relationship between numbers of bacteria and levels of oral moisture (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient; R = −0.29, p = 0.01). Dependent older people exhibited a significantly higher rate of Candida albicans detection (35.5%) compared with independent older people (11.1%). Dependent older people also exhibited a higher rate of concurrent detection of both C. albicans and Candida glabrata (32.3%) compared with independent older people (11.1%), but this difference was not statistically significant. Thus, dependent older people may be more susceptible to oral C. albicans infection, compared with independent older people. Good oral hygiene is necessary to prevent oral Candida infection in dependent older people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Healthy Aging)
Communication
Screening for Frailty in Older Emergency Patients and Association with Outcome
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010020 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2417
Abstract
Older people have a high incidence of adverse outcomes after urgent care presentation. Identifying high-risk older patients early is key to targeting interventions at those patients most likely to benefit. This study used the Frailsafe three-point screening questions amongst older Emergency Department (ED) [...] Read more.
Older people have a high incidence of adverse outcomes after urgent care presentation. Identifying high-risk older patients early is key to targeting interventions at those patients most likely to benefit. This study used the Frailsafe three-point screening questions amongst older Emergency Department (ED) attendees. Consecutive unplanned ED attendances in patients aged ≥75 were assessed for Frailsafe status. The primary outcome was mortality at 180 days. A Frailsafe screen was completed in 356 patients, of whom 194/356 (54.5%) were Frailsafe positive. The mean age was 85.8 for Frailsafe screen positive and 82.2 for Frailsafe screen negative patients (p < 0.001). A positive Frailsafe screen was a predictor of death within 180 days of presentation to the ED and remained so after adjustment (AOR = 3.23, 95% CI 1.45–7.19, p = 0.004). A positive Frailsafe screen was an independent predictor of a new care home admission at 180 days (AOR = 8.95, 95% CI 2.01–39.83, p = 0.004). A positive Frailsafe screen was also predictive of a number of secondary outcomes, such as length of stay of >28 days (AOR 3.42, 95% CI 1.41–8.31, p = 0.007) and re-attendance within 30 days of discharge after admission (OR = 2.73, 95% CI 1.27–5.88, p = 0.01). Frailsafe screen results independently predict a range of outcomes amongst older ED attendees. Full article
Article
Associations of Frailty Status with Low-Mileage Driving and Driving Cessation in a Cohort of Older Drivers
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010019 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2494
Abstract
The US older adult population is projected to considerably increase in the future, and continued driving mobility is important for health aspects in populations with fewer transportation alternatives. This study evaluated whether frailty is associated with low-mileage driving (<1865 miles per year) and [...] Read more.
The US older adult population is projected to considerably increase in the future, and continued driving mobility is important for health aspects in populations with fewer transportation alternatives. This study evaluated whether frailty is associated with low-mileage driving (<1865 miles per year) and driving cessation among older adults. Baseline demographics and health data were collected for 2990 older drivers via in-person assessments and questionnaires, with 2964 reporting baseline frailty data. Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to evaluate the association between baseline frailty status and low-mileage driving. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression were used to evaluate the association between baseline frailty status and driving cessation. For every unit increase in frailty, the estimated adjusted risk of driving fewer than 1865 miles/year increased by 138% (adjusted risk ratio: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.63–3.46). Relative to older drivers who were not frail, the adjusted hazard ratios of driving cessation were 4.15 (95% CI: 1.89–9.10) for those classified as prefrail and 6.08 (95% CI: 1.36–27.26) for those classified as frail. Frailty is positively associated with low-mileage driving status and driving cessation in a dose-response fashion. Public health interventions that reduce frailty, such as physical activity, may help older drivers maintain safe and independent mobility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Driving: 2019)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Review of Therapeutic Options for the Prevention of VTE in Total Joint Arthroplasty
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010018 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2639
Abstract
Hip and knee arthroplasty patients are at high risk of perioperative venous thromboembolic events (VTE). VTE has been well studied in this population and it is recommended that total joint arthroplasty recipients receive chemoprophylactic anticoagulation due to risk factors inherent to the surgical [...] Read more.
Hip and knee arthroplasty patients are at high risk of perioperative venous thromboembolic events (VTE). VTE has been well studied in this population and it is recommended that total joint arthroplasty recipients receive chemoprophylactic anticoagulation due to risk factors inherent to the surgical intervention. There are few concise resources for the orthopedic surgeon that summarize data regarding post-operative anticoagulation in the context of currently available therapeutic options and perioperative standards of practice. The periodic reexamination of literature is essential as conclusions drawn from studies predating perioperative protocols that include early mobilization and sequential compression devices as standards of practice in total joint arthroplasty are no longer generalizable to modern-day practice. We reviewed a large number of recently published research studies related to post-operative anticoagulation in total joint arthroplasty populations that received a high Level of Evidence grade. Current literature supports the use of oral aspirin regimens in place of more aggressive anticoagulants, particularly among low risk patients. Oral aspirin regimens appear to have the additional benefit of lower rates of bleeding and wound complications. Less consensus exists among high risk patients and more potent anticoagulants may be indicated. However, available evidence does not demonstrate clear superiority among current options, all of which may place patients at a higher risk of bleeding and wound complications. In this situation, chemoprophylactic selection should reflect specific patient needs and characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation in the Aging Population)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Brief Report
Frailty Confers High Mortality Risk across Different Populations: Evidence from an Overview of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010017 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2562
Abstract
We performed an overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to summarize available data regarding the association between frailty and all-cause mortality. Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine) databases were searched until February 2020 for meta-analyses examining [...] Read more.
We performed an overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to summarize available data regarding the association between frailty and all-cause mortality. Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine) databases were searched until February 2020 for meta-analyses examining the association between frailty and all-cause mortality. The AMSTAR2 checklist was used to evaluate methodological quality. Frailty exposure and the risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] or relative risk [RR]) were displayed in forest plots. We included 25 meta-analyses that pooled data from between 3 and 20 studies. The number of participants included in these meta-analyses ranged between <2000 and >500,000. Overall, 56%, 32%, and 12% of studies were rated as of moderate, low, and critically low quality, respectively. Frailty was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality in 24/24 studies where the HR/RRs ranged from 1.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.74] (patients with diabetes) to 7.95 [95% CI 4.88–12.96] (hospitalized patients). The median HR/RR across different meta-analyses was 1.98 (interquartile range 1.65–2.67). Pre-frailty was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality in 7/7 studies with the HR/RR ranging from 1.09 to 3.65 (median 1.51, IQR 1.38–1.73). These data suggest that interventions to prevent frailty and pre-frailty are needed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Evidence-Based Role of Nutrients and Antioxidants for Chronic Pain Management in Musculoskeletal Frailty and Sarcopenia in Aging
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010016 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4853
Abstract
Musculoskeletal disorders in aging and pain are closely connected because of multiple mechanisms leading to loss of mobility and autonomy. Pain is predictive of diability and worsening frailty and the strength of this relationship increases with the severity of pain. This study presents [...] Read more.
Musculoskeletal disorders in aging and pain are closely connected because of multiple mechanisms leading to loss of mobility and autonomy. Pain is predictive of diability and worsening frailty and the strength of this relationship increases with the severity of pain. This study presents a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, cross sectional studies, and observational studies based on treatment of pain in adults with musculoskeletal disorders using nutritional non-pharmacological (nutrients and antioxidants) interventions. The review found the efficiency of the following topics: (a) accession of the patient to a dietary counselling (e.g., daily recommended amount of protein—equivalent to at least of 1 g of protein per kilogram of body weight); (b) intake of glutamic acid-rich such as soy, egg, and cod and tryptophan-rich foods such as milk and peanuts—or taking quick-acting, free-form supplements; (c) supplementation of vitamin D and magnesium, if lacking; (d) weekly consumption of fish or supplements of omega-3 fatty acids; and (e) availability of botanicals, in particular curcumin and gingerol. These non-pharmacological interventions can help the pain therapist to create a personalized medicine (precision medicine), acting with the maximum efficacy and safety, and also reducing the dosage of analgesic drugs needed. Full article
Article
First-Hand Experience of Severe Dysphagia Following Brainstem Stroke: Two Qualitative Cases
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010015 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2887
Abstract
Background: Dysphagia has profound effects on individuals, and living with dysphagia is a complex phenomenon that touches essential areas of life. Dysphagia following a brainstem stroke is often more severe and the chances of spontaneous recovery are less likely as compared with dysphagia [...] Read more.
Background: Dysphagia has profound effects on individuals, and living with dysphagia is a complex phenomenon that touches essential areas of life. Dysphagia following a brainstem stroke is often more severe and the chances of spontaneous recovery are less likely as compared with dysphagia following a hemispheric stroke. Objective: To explore how two individuals with brainstem stroke experienced severe dysphagia during their inpatient neurorehabilitation and how they experienced their recovery approximately one month following discharge. Methods: An explorative study was conducted to evaluate the first-hand perspective on severe eating difficulties. A qualitative case study was chosen to collect data during two face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Phenomenological perspectives shaped the interview-process and the processing of data. Results: Analysis of the empirical data generated the following main themes regarding experiences of: (i) the mouth and throat; (ii) shared dining; and (iii) recovery and regression related to swallowing-eating-drinking. Conclusion: Participants expressed altered sensations of the mouth and throat, which affected their oral intake and social participation in meals. Good support for managing and adapting their problems of swallowing, eating, and drinking in daily activities is essential. Knowledge and skills of professionals in relation to dysphagia is a significant requirement for recovery progress in settings within the municipality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Rehabilitation and Management of Dysphagia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Cognitive Status and Outcomes of Older People in Orthopedic Rehabilitation? A Retrospective-Cohort Study
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010014 - 02 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2581
Abstract
Background: Cognitive function of older people is not routinely assessed in orthopedic rehabilitation, after elective and non-elective surgery. The aim of this study was to assess cognitive impairment and its impact on both length of stay and functional outcomes, of older people admitted [...] Read more.
Background: Cognitive function of older people is not routinely assessed in orthopedic rehabilitation, after elective and non-elective surgery. The aim of this study was to assess cognitive impairment and its impact on both length of stay and functional outcomes, of older people admitted to orthopedic rehabilitation. Methods: Retrospective audit, inclusion criteria: aged >65 years, orthopedic diagnosis, discharged from hospital. Results: 116 files were audited, mean age of 82.3 (SD = 7.5) years. Diagnostic groups: fractured neck of femur, (n = 44, 37.98%); elective surgery (n = 42, 36.21%); and other orthopedic conditions (n = 30, 25.86%). Overall 71.55% (n = 83) had cognitive impairment, with a median of mild cognitive impairment across all diagnoses. Both measures of cognition (MoCA/FIM Cognitive) were significantly associated with length of stay (p < 0.01), function (p < 0.05), and discharge destination (p = 0.01). Conclusions: A high percentage of older orthopedic patients in rehabilitation with both elective and non-elective diagnoses have cognitive impairment. Cognitive screening is recommended for all older orthopedic patients in rehabilitation, to inform an individualized rehabilitation plan to improve outcomes and length of stay. Further research is required to explore cognitive strategies to maximize rehabilitation outcomes in the geriatric orthopedic population. Full article
Article
Effect of the Nurse-Led Sexual Health Discharge Program on the Sexual Function of Older Patients Undergoing Transurethral Resection of Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010013 - 02 Mar 2020
Viewed by 3132
Abstract
Background: Sexual dysfunction is a complication of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). There is a lack of knowledge of the effect of discharge programs aiming at improving sexual function in older patients undergoing TURP. Objective: To investigate the effect of the [...] Read more.
Background: Sexual dysfunction is a complication of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). There is a lack of knowledge of the effect of discharge programs aiming at improving sexual function in older patients undergoing TURP. Objective: To investigate the effect of the nurse-led sexual health discharge program on the sexual function of older patients undergoing TURP. Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 80 older patients undergoing TURP in an urban area of Iran. Samples were selected using a convenience method and were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups (n = 40 in each group). The sexual health discharge program was conducted by a nurse in three sessions of 30–45 min for the intervention group. Sexual function scores were measured using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) Questionnaire, one and three months after the intervention. Results: The intervention significantly improved erectile function (p = 0.044), sexual desire (p = 0.01), satisfaction with sexual intercourse (p = 0.03), overall satisfaction with sexual function (p = 0.01), and the general score of sexual function (p = 0.038), three months after the program. In the first month after the intervention, except in sexual desire (p = 0.028), no statistically significant effect of the program was reported (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The nurse-led sexual health discharge program led to the improvement of the sexual function of older patients undergoing TURP over time. This program can be incorporated into routine discharge programs for the promotion of well-being in older patients. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Editorial
The Geriatric Surgery: The Importance of Frailty Identification Beyond Chronological Age
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010012 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2411
Abstract
In the last fifty years, there has been a great improvement in social and health conditions [...] Full article
Article
A New Simple Screening Tool—4QT: Can It Identify Those with Swallowing Problems? A Pilot Study
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010011 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3152
Abstract
As people and the population age, the prevalence of swallowing problems (dysphagia) increases. The screening for dysphagia is considered good practice in stroke care, yet is not routinely undertaken in the management of frail older adults. A short swallow screen, the 4QT, was [...] Read more.
As people and the population age, the prevalence of swallowing problems (dysphagia) increases. The screening for dysphagia is considered good practice in stroke care, yet is not routinely undertaken in the management of frail older adults. A short swallow screen, the 4QT, was developed following a review of the literature. The screen has four questions relating to swallowing that can be asked by a member of the health care team. A convenience sample of 48 older frail patients on an acute frailty ward was recruited into a Quality Improvement project. Their swallow was screened using the EAT-10 and 4QT. A speech and language therapist assessed for the presence of dysphagia using a standardised assessment for dysphagia. The 4QT was as effective as the EAT-10 in identifying older frail adults with potential swallowing problems (Κ = 0.73). The 4QT has 100% sensitivity, 80.4% specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) 50%, negative predictive value (NPV) 100%. The 4QT is a highly sensitive but not specific swallow screen, only 50% of people reporting swallowing problems were confirmed to have a degree of dysphagia by the SLT. The 4QT is a simple screening tool that could be used by all staff, but requires further research/evaluation before it is widely accepted into clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Rehabilitation and Management of Dysphagia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Discussion
Optimising Medicines Administration for Patients with Dysphagia in Hospital: Medical or Nursing Responsibility?
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010009 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3041
Abstract
Dysphagia is common—not only associated with stroke, dementia, Parkinson’s but also in many non-neurological medical problems—and is increasingly prevalent in ageing patients, where malnutrition is common and pneumonia is frequently the main cause of death. To improve the care of people with dysphagia [...] Read more.
Dysphagia is common—not only associated with stroke, dementia, Parkinson’s but also in many non-neurological medical problems—and is increasingly prevalent in ageing patients, where malnutrition is common and pneumonia is frequently the main cause of death. To improve the care of people with dysphagia (PWD) and minimise risk of aspiration and choking, the textures of food and drinks are frequently modified. Whilst medicines are usually concurrently prescribed for PWD, their texture is frequently not considered and therefore any minimisation of risk with respect to food and drink may be being negated when such medicines are administered. Furthermore, evidence is starting to emerge that mixing thickeners with medicines can, in certain circumstances, significantly affect drug bioavailability and therefore amending the texture of a medicine may not be straightforward. Research across a number of hospital trusts demonstrated that PWD are three times more likely to experience medication administration errors than those without dysphagia located on the same ward. Errors more commonly seen in PWD were missed doses, wrong formulation and wrong preparation through medicines alteration. Researchers also found that the same patient with dysphagia would be given their medicines in entirely different ways depending on the person administering the medicine. The alteration of medicines prior to administration has potential for patient harm, particularly if the medicine has been designed to release medicines at a pre-defined rate or within a pre-defined location. Alteration of medicines can have significant legal implications and these are frequently overlooked. Dispersing, crushing or mixing medicines can be part of, or misconstrued as, covert administration, thus introducing a further raft of legislation. Guidance within the UK recommends that following identification of dysphagia, the ongoing need for the medicine should be considered, as should the most appropriate route and formulation, with medicines alteration used as a last resort. The patient should be at the centre of any decision making. Evidence suggests that in the UK this guidance is not being followed. This article considers the clinical and legal issues surrounding administration of medicines to PWD from a UK perspective and debates whether medicines optimisation should be the primary responsibility of the prescriber when initiating therapy on the ward or the nurse who administers the medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Rehabilitation and Management of Dysphagia)
Article
Survival Analysis of Hospitalized Elderly People with Fractures in Brazil Over One Year
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010010 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2189
Abstract
Objective: This study analyzes the causes of death, survival, and other related factors in hospitalized elderly people with fractures over the course of one year. Methods: We followed 376 fracture patients for one year in a prospective cohort study to a reference hospital [...] Read more.
Objective: This study analyzes the causes of death, survival, and other related factors in hospitalized elderly people with fractures over the course of one year. Methods: We followed 376 fracture patients for one year in a prospective cohort study to a reference hospital in central Brazil. The Cox regression model was used to analyze factors associated with survival. Results: The results indicate that the one-year mortality rate was high (22.9%). The independent factors linked to lower overall survival were as follows: patients aged ≥80 years with previous intensive care unit (ICU) admission and presence of comorbidities (diabetes mellitus [DM] and dementia). Conclusion: Our study results may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of fractures on the elderly population and reinforce the need to oversee age-groups, diabetic patients, and patients with complications during hospitalization. Full article
Review
Phenotypes of Sarcopenic Obesity: Exploring the Effects on Peri-Muscular Fat, the Obesity Paradox, Hormone-Related Responses and the Clinical Implications
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010008 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3108
Abstract
Sarcopenic obesity combines the words sarcopenia and obesity. This definition of obesity should be better differentiated between visceral and subcutaneous fat phenotypes. For this reason, this review lays the foundation for defining the subcutaneous and the visceral fat into the context of sarcopenia. [...] Read more.
Sarcopenic obesity combines the words sarcopenia and obesity. This definition of obesity should be better differentiated between visceral and subcutaneous fat phenotypes. For this reason, this review lays the foundation for defining the subcutaneous and the visceral fat into the context of sarcopenia. Thus, the review aims to explore the missing links on pathogenesis of visceral fat and its relationship on age: defining the peri-muscular fat as a new entity and the subcutaneous fat as a first factor that leads to the obesity paradox. Last but not least, this review underlines and motivates the mechanisms of the hormonal responses and anti-inflammatory adipokines responsible for the clinical implications of sarcopenic visceral obesity, describing factor by factor the multiple axis between the visceral fat-sarcopenia and all mortality outcomes linked to cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cirrhosis, polycystic ovary, disability and postoperative complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
Article
Factors Determining Home versus Rehabilitation Discharge Following Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty for Patients Who Live Alone
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010007 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2504
Abstract
Patients who are discharged home following primary hip and knee arthroplasty have lower associated costs and better outcomes than patients who are discharged to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). However, patients who live alone are more likely to be discharged to an SNF. We [...] Read more.
Patients who are discharged home following primary hip and knee arthroplasty have lower associated costs and better outcomes than patients who are discharged to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). However, patients who live alone are more likely to be discharged to an SNF. We studied the factors that determine the discharge destination for patients who live alone after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) at an urban tertiary care academic hospital between April 2016 and April 2017. We identified 127 patients who lived alone: 79 (62.2%) were sent home, and 48 (37.8%) were sent to an SNF after surgery. Patients who went home versus to an SNF differed in age, employment status, exercise/active status, patient expectation of discharge to an SNF, ASA score, and the length of stay. After controlling for expectations of discharge to an SNF (OR: 28.98), patients who were younger (OR: 0.03) and employed (OR: 6.91) were more likely to be discharged home. In conclusion, the expectation of discharge location was the strongest predictor of discharge to an SNF even after controlling for age and employment. Future research should include a multi-hospital approach to strengthen the validity of our findings and investigate additional factors that impact discharge destination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation in the Aging Population)
Communication
Inadequacy of Protein Intake in Older UK Adults
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010006 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5063
Abstract
The current dietary recommendation for protein intake in the UK is 0.75 g/kg/day, however, this population-wide recommendation does not necessarily reflect altered requirements for older adults to maintain muscle protein synthesis, nor does it encompass the potential impact of intake timing. Optimal muscle [...] Read more.
The current dietary recommendation for protein intake in the UK is 0.75 g/kg/day, however, this population-wide recommendation does not necessarily reflect altered requirements for older adults to maintain muscle protein synthesis, nor does it encompass the potential impact of intake timing. Optimal muscle protein synthesis in older adults requires both higher intake requirements and a distribution of protein intake above a 25 g threshold, three times across the day. This study aimed to describe the protein intake of older adults in a UK region and compare the results to recommendations. The study re-assessed two existing datasets with rich diet information for older adults in the South Yorkshire area. Data were extracted from food diaries of 256 adults aged between 65 and 89 years old (mean ± SD 72.4 ± 5.3 years). Quantity and timing of intake were coded using Nutritics software and compared to recommendations. The relationship between body mass index (BMI), age, and protein intake was explored. Fewer than 50% of the participants met current UK recommendations (0.75 g/kg/day) and fewer than 15% met the ESPEN 1.2 g/kg/day age-specific recommendation. Only one participant met the 25 g/meal recommendation across three meals. These findings suggest that the older adult population is not achieving recommendations to maintain muscle protein synthesis. Nonetheless it identifies several straightforward opportunities for improvement, notably elevation of morning intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Healthy Aging)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Protocol
Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment for Frail Older People in Swedish Acute Care Settings (CGA-Swed): A Randomised Controlled Study
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010005 - 24 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3690
Abstract
The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) for frail older people in Swedish acute hospital settings – the CGA-Swed study. In this study protocol, we present the study design, the intervention and the outcome [...] Read more.
The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) for frail older people in Swedish acute hospital settings – the CGA-Swed study. In this study protocol, we present the study design, the intervention and the outcome measures as well as the baseline characteristics of the study participants. The study is a randomised controlled trial with an intervention group receiving the CGA and a control group receiving medical assessment without the CGA. Follow-ups were conducted after 1, 6 and 12 months, with dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) as the primary outcome measure. The study group consisted of frail older people (75 years and older) in need of acute medical hospital care. The study design, randomisation and process evaluation carried out were intended to ensure the quality of the study. Baseline data show that the randomisation was successful and that the sample included frail older people with high dependence in ADL and with a high comorbidity. The CGA contributed to early recognition of frail older people’s needs and ensured a care plan and follow-up. This study is expected to show positive effects on frail older people’s dependence in ADL, life satisfaction and satisfaction with health and social care. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Assessment and Management of Dysphagia in Acute Stroke: An Initial Service Review of International Practice
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010004 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3463
Abstract
The international approach to the assessment and management of dysphagia in the acute phase post stroke is little studied. A questionnaire was sent to clinicians in stroke services that explored the current practice in dysphagia screening, assessment, and management within the acute phase [...] Read more.
The international approach to the assessment and management of dysphagia in the acute phase post stroke is little studied. A questionnaire was sent to clinicians in stroke services that explored the current practice in dysphagia screening, assessment, and management within the acute phase post stroke. The findings from four (the UK, the US, Canada, and Australia) of the 22 countries returning data are analysed. Consistent approaches to dysphagia screening and the modification of food and liquid were identified across all four countries. The timing of videofluoroscopy (VFS) assessment was significantly different, with the US utilising this assessment earlier post stroke. Compensatory and Postural techniques were employed significantly more by Canada and the US than the UK and Australia. Only food and fluid modification, tongue exercises, effortful swallow and chin down/tuck were employed by more than fifty percent of all respondents. The techniques used for assessment and management tended to be similar within, but not between, countries. Relationships were found between the use of instrumental assessment and the compensatory management techniques that were employed. The variation in practice that was found, may reflect the lack of an available robust evidence base to develop care pathways and identify the best practice. Further investigation and identification of the impact on dysphagia outcome is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Rehabilitation and Management of Dysphagia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Editorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Geriatrics in 2019
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010003 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2194
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Review
Cannabinoids in the Older Person: A Literature Review
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010002 - 13 Jan 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4273
Abstract
Introduction: Medical cannabinoids have received significant mainstream media attention in recent times due to an evolving political and clinical landscape. Whilst the efficacy of cannabinoids in the treatment of some childhood epilepsy syndromes is increasingly recognized, medical cannabinoids may also have potential clinical [...] Read more.
Introduction: Medical cannabinoids have received significant mainstream media attention in recent times due to an evolving political and clinical landscape. Whilst the efficacy of cannabinoids in the treatment of some childhood epilepsy syndromes is increasingly recognized, medical cannabinoids may also have potential clinical roles in the treatment of older adults. Prescribing restrictions for medical cannabinoids in certain jurisdictions (including the UK) has recently been relaxed. However, few geriatricians have the detailed knowledge or awareness of the potential risks or rewards of utilizing cannabinoids in the older person; even fewer geriatricians have direct experience of using these drugs in their own clinical practice. Older persons are more likely to suffer from medical illness representing potential indications for medical cannabinoids (e.g., pain); equally they may be more vulnerable to any adverse effects. Aim: This narrative literature review aims to provide a brief introduction for the geriatrician to the potential indications, evidence-base, contra-indications and side effects of medical cannabinoids in older people. Methods: A search was conducted of CENTRAL, Medline, Embase, CINAHL and psycINFO, Cochrane and Web of Science databases. Reference lists were hand searched. Abstracts and titles were screened, followed by a full text reading of relevant articles. Results: 35 studies were identified as relevant for this narrative review. Conclusions: Cannabinoids demonstrate some efficacy in the treatment of pain and chemotherapy-related nausea; limited data suggest potential benefits in the treatment of spasticity and anxiety. Risks of cannabinoids in older patients appear to be moderate, and their frequency comparable to other analgesic drug classes. However, the quality of research is weak, and few older patients have been enrolled in cannabinoid studies. Dedicated research is needed to determine the efficiency and safety of cannabinoids in older patients. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Consumption of Two or Three Meals per Day with Adequate Protein Content Is Associated with Lower Risk of Physical Disability in Mexican Adults Aged 60 Years and Older
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010001 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3040
Abstract
Adequate protein intake per day has been associated with a lower risk of physical disability; however, if adequate protein intake per meal is also associated is unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between adequate protein intake per meal [...] Read more.
Adequate protein intake per day has been associated with a lower risk of physical disability; however, if adequate protein intake per meal is also associated is unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between adequate protein intake per meal and physical disability in daily living activities in Mexican adults aged ≥60 years. We assessed the number of meals per day with an adequate protein content (24 h dietary recall), the presence of physical disability in daily living activities (two validated questionnaires), and their association in 187 participants through logistic regression. Consuming two or three meals per day with ≥30 g each was associated with lower risk of physical disability on Transportation (OR [95% CI]: 0.06 [0.01–0.50], p = 0.01), Shopping (0.05 [0.01–0.40], p = 0.004), Feeding (0.06 [0.01–0.74], p = 0.028), and Transfer (0.09 [0.01–0.98], p = 0.048). On the other hand, consuming two or three meals per day with ≥0.4 g/kg each was associated with lower risk of physical disability on Shopping (0.21 [0.05–0.89], p = 0.034) and Transportation (0.12 [0.03–0.48], p = 0.003). The consumption of two or three meals per day with adequate protein content is associated with lower risk of physical disability in Mexican adults aged 60 years and older. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop