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Phenotypes of Sarcopenic Obesity: Exploring the Effects on Peri-Muscular Fat, the Obesity Paradox, Hormone-Related Responses and the Clinical Implications

Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Bahrain, Sakhir P.O. Box 32038, Bahrain
Geriatrics 2020, 5(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010008
Received: 7 November 2019 / Revised: 3 February 2020 / Accepted: 6 February 2020 / Published: 14 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
Sarcopenic obesity combines the words sarcopenia and obesity. This definition of obesity should be better differentiated between visceral and subcutaneous fat phenotypes. For this reason, this review lays the foundation for defining the subcutaneous and the visceral fat into the context of sarcopenia. Thus, the review aims to explore the missing links on pathogenesis of visceral fat and its relationship on age: defining the peri-muscular fat as a new entity and the subcutaneous fat as a first factor that leads to the obesity paradox. Last but not least, this review underlines and motivates the mechanisms of the hormonal responses and anti-inflammatory adipokines responsible for the clinical implications of sarcopenic visceral obesity, describing factor by factor the multiple axis between the visceral fat-sarcopenia and all mortality outcomes linked to cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cirrhosis, polycystic ovary, disability and postoperative complications. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; sarcopenia; visceral fat; subcutaneous fat; inflammation obesity; sarcopenia; visceral fat; subcutaneous fat; inflammation
MDPI and ACS Style

Alalwan, T.A. Phenotypes of Sarcopenic Obesity: Exploring the Effects on Peri-Muscular Fat, the Obesity Paradox, Hormone-Related Responses and the Clinical Implications. Geriatrics 2020, 5, 8.

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