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Vet. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 11 (November 2021) – 45 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A Q fever outbreak on a dairy goat/cattle farm was investigated with regard to the One Health concept. Samples from all domestic animals and the farmer’s family were collected, including goats with different reproductive statuses. The serological analysis revealed current infections in goats, whereas cows had ongoing infections. The possible influence of gestation and hormonal status on Coxiella burnetii infection in goats is discussed. A new cattle-associated Coxiella burnetii genotype C16 was identified in vaginal swabs and placentas from ruminants. Feline, canine, and human sera also tested positive for Coxiella burnetii antibodies. We conclude that the cattle herd may have transmitted Coxiella to the pregnant goats, resulting in zoonotic spread of Q fever to cats, dogs, and humans on the affected farm.View this paper
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Article
The Genetic Relatedness and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Mastitis-Causing Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from New Zealand Dairy Cattle
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110287 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of bovine mastitis worldwide and is a common indication for use of antimicrobials on dairy farms. This study aims to investigate the association between on-farm antimicrobial usage and the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of mastitis-causing [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of bovine mastitis worldwide and is a common indication for use of antimicrobials on dairy farms. This study aims to investigate the association between on-farm antimicrobial usage and the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of mastitis-causing S. aureus. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on 57 S. aureus isolates derived from cows with either clinical or subclinical mastitis from 17 dairy herds in New Zealand. The genetic relatedness between isolates was examined using the core single nucleotide polymorphism alignment whilst AMR and virulence genes were identified in-silico. The association between gene presence-absence and sequence type (ST), antimicrobial susceptibility and dry cow therapy treatment was investigated using Scoary. Altogether, eight STs were identified with 61.4% (35/57) belonging to ST-1. Furthermore, 14 AMR-associated genes and 76 virulence-associated genes were identified, with little genetic diversity between isolates belonging to the same ST. Several genes including merR1 which is thought to play a role in ciprofloxacin-resistance were found to be significantly overrepresented in isolates sampled from herds using ampicillin/cloxacillin dry cow therapy. Overall, the presence of resistance genes remains low and current antimicrobial usage patterns do not appear to be driving AMR in S. aureus associated with bovine mastitis. Full article
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Review
A Comparative View on Molecular Alterations and Potential Therapeutic Strategies for Canine Oral Melanoma
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110286 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 985
Abstract
Canine oral melanoma (COM) is a highly aggressive tumour associated with poor prognosis due to metastasis and resistance to conventional anti-cancer therapies. As with human mucosal melanoma, the mutational landscape is predominated by copy number aberrations and chromosomal structural variants, but differences in [...] Read more.
Canine oral melanoma (COM) is a highly aggressive tumour associated with poor prognosis due to metastasis and resistance to conventional anti-cancer therapies. As with human mucosal melanoma, the mutational landscape is predominated by copy number aberrations and chromosomal structural variants, but differences in study cohorts and/or tumour heterogeneity can lead to discordant results regarding the nature of specific genes affected. This review discusses somatic molecular alterations in COM that result from single nucleotide variations, copy number changes, chromosomal rearrangements, and/or dysregulation of small non-coding RNAs. A cross-species comparison highlights notable recurrent aberrations, and functionally grouping dysregulated proteins reveals unifying biological pathways that may be critical for oncogenesis and metastasis. Finally, potential therapeutic strategies are considered to target these pathways in canine patients, and the benefits of collaboration between science, medical, and veterinary communities are emphasised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Understanding Spontaneously Occurring Melanoma in Animals)
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Brief Report
Analysis and Sequence Alignment of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus ChinaSX2020
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110285 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 851
Abstract
The peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) mainly infects goats and sheep and causes a highly contagious disease, PPR. Recently, a PPRV strain named ChinaSX2020 was isolated and confirmed following an indirect immunofluorescence assay and PCR using PPRV-specific antibody and primers, respectively. A [...] Read more.
The peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) mainly infects goats and sheep and causes a highly contagious disease, PPR. Recently, a PPRV strain named ChinaSX2020 was isolated and confirmed following an indirect immunofluorescence assay and PCR using PPRV-specific antibody and primers, respectively. A sequencing of the ChinaSX2020 strain showed a genome length of 15,954 nucleotides. A phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the ChinaSX2020 genome was classified into lineage IV of the PRRV genotypes. The genome of the ChinaSX2020 strain was found to be closely related to PPRVs isolated in China between 2013 and 2014. These findings revealed that not a variety of PRRVs but similar PPRVs were continuously spreading and causing sporadic outbreaks in China. Full article
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Article
Investigation of Citric Acid By-Products from Rice Produced by Microbial Fermentation on Growth Performance and Villi Histology of Thai Broiler Chicken (KKU 1)
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110284 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 894
Abstract
This study was conducted with Thai broiler chicken (KKU 1) to investigate the effect of citric acid by-products from rice (CABR) on growth performance and villi histology. A total of 192 broiler chicks were subject to three dietary treatments, including 0% CABR, 3% [...] Read more.
This study was conducted with Thai broiler chicken (KKU 1) to investigate the effect of citric acid by-products from rice (CABR) on growth performance and villi histology. A total of 192 broiler chicks were subject to three dietary treatments, including 0% CABR, 3% and 6% of dry matter. Body weight gains, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, survival rate, and production index (body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, survival rates, and productive index, respectively) were considered for growth performance evaluation. Villi height (µm), crypt depth (µm), and villi: crypt ratio were recorded for the villi histological measurement. The performance did not show a significant effect when compared with the control group during at ages ranging from 1 to 56 days. Villi histology indicate a significant effect on villi height (µm), crypt depth (µm), and villi: crypt of broiler chicks compared with the control group. Also, the use of 3% CABR caused a reduction microbial contamination in chicken fecal matter. In conclusion, supplementation of CABR had no negative effects on growth performance of Thai broiler chicken (KKU 1). Also, the addition of 3% CABR to the feed might help reduce fecal microbial contamination and affect the villi histology of Thai broiler chickens (KKU 1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Poultry Nutrition, Breeding and Health)
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Article
Failure to Eliminate Persistent Anaplasma marginale Infection from Cattle Using Labeled Doses of Chlortetracycline and Oxytetracycline Antimicrobials
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110283 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 833
Abstract
Bovine anaplasmosis, caused by the intracellular rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale, is the most prevalent tick-transmitted disease of cattle worldwide. In the U.S., tetracycline antimicrobials are commonly used to treat and control anaplasmosis. Oxytetracycline, administered by injection, is indicated for treatment of clinical [...] Read more.
Bovine anaplasmosis, caused by the intracellular rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale, is the most prevalent tick-transmitted disease of cattle worldwide. In the U.S., tetracycline antimicrobials are commonly used to treat and control anaplasmosis. Oxytetracycline, administered by injection, is indicated for treatment of clinical anaplasmosis in beef and dairy cattle and calves. Chlortetracycline, administered orally, is indicated for control of active anaplasmosis infection in beef and nonlactating dairy cattle. Tetracyclines have been demonstrated to be effective for treating active anaplasmosis, but their ability to eliminate A. marginale at currently approved therapeutic doses or dosing regimens remains unclear. In the absence of approved dosing regimens for A. marginale clearance, a study was conducted to determine the effect of approved oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline indications on A. marginale bacteremia. Fifteen animals with persistent anaplasmosis were enrolled and divided into three treatment groups. Group 1 (n = 6) received oral chlortetracycline (1.1 mg/kg bodyweight) administered via hand-fed medicated feed for 60 consecutive days. Group 2 (n = 6) received injectable oxytetracycline administered subcutaneously at 19.8 mg/kg bodyweight three times in 3-week intervals. Group 3 (n = 3) served as an untreated control. After 60 days, bacteremia failed to permanently decrease in response to treatment. This result indicates that clearance of A. marginale is unlikely to be reliably achieved using currently approved tetracycline-based regimens to manage anaplasmosis. Full article
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Article
Molecular Prevalence of Equine Parvovirus-Hepatitis in the Sera of Clinically Healthy Horses in South Korea
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110282 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) causes equine hepatitis. The prevalence of EqPV-H in healthy horses has been reported in the United States, China, Germany, and Austria. The present study determined the prevalence of EqPV-H in the sera of clinically healthy horses in South Korea to [...] Read more.
Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) causes equine hepatitis. The prevalence of EqPV-H in healthy horses has been reported in the United States, China, Germany, and Austria. The present study determined the prevalence of EqPV-H in the sera of clinically healthy horses in South Korea to identify the potential factors for infection and examine the genetic diversity of EqPV-H DNA sequences through comparison with foreign strains. Serum samples collected from 321 horses were tested for EqPV-H using non-structural protein 1 (NS1)-specific polymerase chain reaction. The associations of EqPV-H infection with sex, age, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase levels, and race performance were analyzed. Fourteen samples tested positive for EqPV-H (4.4%, 14/321), and EqPV-H infection was associated with sex (p = 0.006) and performance (p = 0.049). In both EqPV-H-positive and control horses, liver-specific biochemical analytes were within the normal ranges. Phylogenetic analyses based on the partial sequences of EqPV-H NS1 revealed that the Korean EqPV-H isolates shared approximately 98.7–100% similarity. Of these, 11 Korean isolates shared high similarity with strains from the United States, Germany, and China, and the remaining three strains were distinct in phylogenetic analyses. The present study describes the current molecular prevalence, potential risk factors, and genetic diversity of Korean EqPV-H. Full article
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Article
Effect of Copper, Zinc, and Selenium on the Migration of Bovine Neutrophils
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110281 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 854
Abstract
Neutrophils represent the first line of mammary gland defense against invading pathogens by transmigration across the mammary epithelial cell barrier. The effect of trace elements on the migration of bovine neutrophils is not clear. In this study, we investigated the effect of copper [...] Read more.
Neutrophils represent the first line of mammary gland defense against invading pathogens by transmigration across the mammary epithelial cell barrier. The effect of trace elements on the migration of bovine neutrophils is not clear. In this study, we investigated the effect of copper (Cu; 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/L), zinc (Zn; 1.0, 5.0 and 10 mg/L) and selenium (Se; 0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L) on the migration of bovine neutrophils by using a Transwell assay. The results showed that Cu, Zn and Se promoted the number of neutrophils in the trans-mammary epithelium. With the increased concentration of Cu at 1.5 mg/L, the number of neutrophils in the trans-mammary epithelium was increased significantly (p < 0.05). Zn (5.0 mg/L) and Se (0.1 mg/L) increased the migrated number of neutrophils (p < 0.01) to an extremely significant degree. These findings provided a theoretical and experimental basis for mammary gland immunity in dairy cows. Thus, we suggest that adding moderate amounts of different trace elements can improve the immune function of dairy cows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases)
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Case Report
Enhanced Asymptomatic Systemic Infection Caused by Plesiomonas shigelloides in a Captive Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110280 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 891
Abstract
A 7-year-old male gray wolf was found dead at a zoo during exhibition. To determine the cause of death, histological and gross necropsy diagnoses and a molecular analysis were performed. The gross necropsy revealed a swollen abdomen, hemorrhagic exudates around the mouth, splenomegaly, [...] Read more.
A 7-year-old male gray wolf was found dead at a zoo during exhibition. To determine the cause of death, histological and gross necropsy diagnoses and a molecular analysis were performed. The gross necropsy revealed a swollen abdomen, hemorrhagic exudates around the mouth, splenomegaly, a discolored liver, a congested kidney, hemorrhagic ascites, and dark gray-colored membranes and air bubbles in the fundus of the stomach. Rod-shaped bacteria were found in the liver parenchyma and hemorrhagic ascites using Giemsa staining. The nucleotide sequencing of the cultured bacteria identified the causative agent as Plesiomonas shigelloides, which is rarely responsible for systemic infections. This study describes a rare case and the first reported systemic gastrointestinal infection due to P. shigelloides in a zoo animal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis of Bacterial Infectious Diseases in a One Health Approach)
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Article
Serious Alert and Border Rejection Notifications on Food in the EU RASFF
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110279 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1213
Abstract
The serious alert and border rejection notifications on food from the European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (EU RASFF) database were used to determine their lag phases (from sampling to notification dates). More specifically, 4503 serious alert notifications on food [...] Read more.
The serious alert and border rejection notifications on food from the European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (EU RASFF) database were used to determine their lag phases (from sampling to notification dates). More specifically, 4503 serious alert notifications on food were used to calculate the percent (%) share of various lag phases in an overall fashion (for all EU RASFF Member States collectively examined) as well as for the top-three Member States (in notification numbers), in each one of seven hazard categories. The same procedure was followed for 5236 serious border rejection notifications in each one of five hazard categories on food. The lag phases calculated revealed a state of nonharmonization (in lag phases percent shares) both overall and among the top-three Member States, and in the same MS in various hazard categories in serious alert but less pronounced in serious border rejection notifications. Thus, a “Performance Effectiveness Reporting (PER)-50/30” indicator (over 50% of notifications being notified to the RASFF within 30 days of sampling) was proposed for both types of serious notifications, and its application herein has revealed volatility in performance effectiveness reporting among the top-three EU RASFF Member States in the hazard categories. Actions to harmonize this inconsistency should be pursued in the context of safeguarding public health, aiming at the fastest possible risk management and risk communication of serious contamination incidents on food. Finally, a proposal of an “RASFF country profile” is hereby proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
Article
Baculovirus Vectors Induce the Production of Interferons in Swine: Their Potential in the Development of Antiviral Strategies
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110278 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 945
Abstract
The huge variety of viruses affecting swine represents a global threat. Since vaccines against highly contagious viruses last several days to induce protective immune responses, antiviral strategies for rapid control of outbreak situations are needed. The baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), an [...] Read more.
The huge variety of viruses affecting swine represents a global threat. Since vaccines against highly contagious viruses last several days to induce protective immune responses, antiviral strategies for rapid control of outbreak situations are needed. The baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), an insect virus, has been demonstrated to be an effective vaccine vector for mammals. Besides the ability to display or transduce heterologous antigens, it also induces strong innate immune responses and provides IFN-mediated protection against lethal challenges with viruses like foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in mice. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of AcMNPV to induce IFN production and elicit antiviral activity in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Our results demonstrated that AcMNPV induced an IFN-α-mediated antiviral activity in PBMCs in vitro. Moreover, the inoculation of AcMNPV in piglets led to the production of type I and II IFNs in sera from inoculated animals and antiviral activities against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and FMDV measured by in vitro assays. Finally, it was demonstrated that the pseudotyping of AcMNPV with VSV-G protein, but not the enrichment of the AcMNPV genome with specific immunostimulatory CpG motifs for the porcine TLR9, improved the ability to induce IFN-α production in PBMCs in vitro. Together, these results suggest that AcMNPV is a promising tool for the induction of IFNs in antiviral strategies, with the potential to be biotechnologically improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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Article
Chronic Kidney Disease and Dietary Supplementation: Effects on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110277 - 15 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes an irreversible loss of kidney functioning in dogs. This double-blind case-control study evaluates the efficacy of a dietary supplement, which contains calcium carbonate, calcium lactate-gluconate, chitosan, sodium bicarbonate, Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL, Olea europaea L. extract, and fructooligosaccharides, in [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes an irreversible loss of kidney functioning in dogs. This double-blind case-control study evaluates the efficacy of a dietary supplement, which contains calcium carbonate, calcium lactate-gluconate, chitosan, sodium bicarbonate, Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL, Olea europaea L. extract, and fructooligosaccharides, in dogs in advanced CKD stage. Thirty dogs were enrolled in the study; half were administered the new dietary supplementation for 90 days, while the others were used as controls. Hematologic, biochemical, and urinalysis were performed. This novel dietary supplement mainly reported a good control of uremia, phosphate, acid-base balance, blood pressure, inflammation, and oxidative stress in dogs with advanced stages of CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases)
Article
The Role of Thoracic Ultrasonography and Airway Endoscopy in the Diagnosis of Equine Asthma and Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110276 - 15 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
Mild-moderate (MEA), severe (SEA) equine asthma and exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) are common respiratory disorders in horses. The present retrospective study aims to evaluate the role of ultrasonography and endoscopy in the diagnosis of these conditions. Three hundred and three horses were included [...] Read more.
Mild-moderate (MEA), severe (SEA) equine asthma and exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) are common respiratory disorders in horses. The present retrospective study aims to evaluate the role of ultrasonography and endoscopy in the diagnosis of these conditions. Three hundred and three horses were included and divided into SEA, MEA and MEA + EIPH groups, on the basis of history, clinical examination and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) cytology; scores were assigned to lung ultrasonography, pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia (PLH), tracheal mucus (TM) and tracheal bifurcation edema (TB). These scores were compared between groups, and their associations with age, BALf cytology, tracheal wash microbiology and between endoscopic and ultrasonographic scores were statistically analyzed. Ultrasonographic scores were higher in the SEA and MEA + EIPH groups and associated with increased BALf neutrophils and hemosiderophages. The PLH score was higher in younger horses affected by MEA and EIPH and associated with increased eosinophils and hemosiderophages. TM and TB scores were greater in older horses affected by SEA, associated with increased neutrophils and inversely correlated with hemosiderophages. Moreover, TM grade was negatively correlated with mast cells. Thoracic ultrasonography and airway endoscopy can provide useful information about the inflammatory status of upper and lower airways in the horse. Full article
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Case Report
A Recurrent Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor-like Lesion of the Splenic Capsule in a Kitten: Clinical, Microscopic and Ultrastructural Description
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110275 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 917
Abstract
Objective: To describe the findings of an unusual splenic tumor in a kitten. Methods: A grossly multinodular mass arising from the splenic capsule of a 7-month-old male Havana kitten was echographically detected and surgically removed by splenectomy, then analyzed microscopically and ultrastructurally. Results: [...] Read more.
Objective: To describe the findings of an unusual splenic tumor in a kitten. Methods: A grossly multinodular mass arising from the splenic capsule of a 7-month-old male Havana kitten was echographically detected and surgically removed by splenectomy, then analyzed microscopically and ultrastructurally. Results: The mass showed features of an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. Treatment and Outcome: Two months after surgical excision, the mass recurred in the same intra-abdominal area but disappeared after 2 months of anti-inflammatory therapy. Follow-up at 18 months after surgery revealed resolution of the disease. Clinical Relevance: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in cats have been rarely reported and are usually in the orbital region. In the present report, an unusual multinodular gross presentation, a recurrence over time, and a favorable clinical course, are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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Article
Protective and Therapeutic Effects of Orlistat on Metabolic Syndrome and Oxidative Stress in High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD) in Rats: Role on Nrf2 Activation
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110274 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1201
Abstract
Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is an excessive buildup of liver lipids closely associated with various kinds of undesirable metabolic effects and oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate the protective and therapeutic effects of orlistat on metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress parameters [...] Read more.
Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is an excessive buildup of liver lipids closely associated with various kinds of undesirable metabolic effects and oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate the protective and therapeutic effects of orlistat on metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress parameters in high-fat diet (HFD) induced-MAFLD rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6/group), i.e., Normal control (N), HFD, HFD + orlistat (HFD + O) (10 mg/kg/day administered concomitantly for 12 weeks as a protective model), and obese+orlistat (OB + O) (10 mg/kg/day administered 6 weeks after induction of obesity as a therapeutic model) groups. After 12 weeks, the HFD group had significantly increased Lee obesity index, serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein levels, liver total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) together with decreased serum high-density lipoprotein level. Additionally, the HFD group also showed increased Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus with high Keap1 expression and increased liver oxidative stress parameters. Orlistat significantly improved all these alterations in HFD rats. We demonstrated that orlistat might have protective and therapeutic effects against HFD-induced MAFLD rats by its activation on Nrf2 signaling pathway, which subsequently improved metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases)
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Review
Infectious Bronchitis Virus (Gammacoronavirus) in Poultry Farming: Vaccination, Immune Response and Measures for Mitigation
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110273 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) poses significant financial and biosecurity challenges to the commercial poultry farming industry. IBV is the causative agent of multi-systemic infection in the respiratory, reproductive and renal systems, which is similar to the symptoms of various viral and bacterial diseases [...] Read more.
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) poses significant financial and biosecurity challenges to the commercial poultry farming industry. IBV is the causative agent of multi-systemic infection in the respiratory, reproductive and renal systems, which is similar to the symptoms of various viral and bacterial diseases reported in chickens. The avian immune system manifests the ability to respond to subsequent exposure with an antigen by stimulating mucosal, humoral and cell-mediated immunity. However, the immune response against IBV presents a dilemma due to the similarities between the different serotypes that infect poultry. Currently, the live attenuated and killed vaccines are applied for the control of IBV infection; however, the continual emergence of IB variants with rapidly evolving genetic variants increases the risk of outbreaks in intensive poultry farms. This review aims to focus on IBV challenge–infection, route and delivery of vaccines and vaccine-induced immune responses to IBV. Various commercial vaccines currently have been developed against IBV protection for accurate evaluation depending on the local situation. This review also highlights and updates the limitations in controlling IBV infection in poultry with issues pertaining to antiviral therapy and good biosecurity practices, which may aid in establishing good biorisk management protocols for its control and which will, in turn, result in a reduction in economic losses attributed to IBV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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Article
Mitochondrial Localization Signal of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Capsid Protein Plays a Critical Role in Cap-Induced Apoptosis
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110272 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), considered one of the most globally important porcine pathogens, causes postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). This virus is localized in the mitochondria in pigs with PMWS. Here, we identified, for the first time, a mitochondrial localization signal (MLS) in [...] Read more.
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), considered one of the most globally important porcine pathogens, causes postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). This virus is localized in the mitochondria in pigs with PMWS. Here, we identified, for the first time, a mitochondrial localization signal (MLS) in the PCV2 capsid protein (Cap) at the N-terminus. PK-15 cells showed colocalization of the MLS-EGFP fusion protein with mitochondria. Since the PCV2 Cap also contained a nuclear localization signal (NLS) that mediated entry into the nucleus, we inferred that the subcellular localization of the PCV2 Cap is inherently complex and dependent on the viral life cycle. Furthermore, we also determined that deletion of the MLS attenuated Cap-induced apoptosis. More importantly, the MLS was essential for PCV2 replication, as absence of the MLS resulted in failure of virus rescue from cells infected with infectious clone DNA. In conclusion, the MLS of the PCV2 Cap plays critical roles in Cap-induced apoptosis, and MLS deletion of Cap is lethal for virus rescue. Full article
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Article
Use of Deoxycorticosterone Pivalate by Veterinarians: A Western European Survey
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110271 - 09 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
This study aims to gather knowledge about the use of deoxycorticosterone pivalate (DOCP) by Western European Veterinarians (WEV) in dogs with typical hypoadrenocorticism. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey, translated into four languages and disseminated to veterinary affiliates and [...] Read more.
This study aims to gather knowledge about the use of deoxycorticosterone pivalate (DOCP) by Western European Veterinarians (WEV) in dogs with typical hypoadrenocorticism. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey, translated into four languages and disseminated to veterinary affiliates and mailing lists in six countries of Western Continental Europe. Respondents were tasked to share their therapeutic approach to hypoadrenocorticism, whether they preferred DOCP or fludrocortisone and the specific practical use of DOCP. One-hundred and eighty-four responses were included. Of these, 79.9% indicated that they preferred prescribing DOCP over fludrocortisone as a first-line treatment for mineralocorticoid supplementation. A total of 154 respondents had used DOCP at least once. Eighty percent of those who reported their initial dosage prescribed 2.2 mg/kg. After starting DOCP, 68.2% of the respondents assess electrolytes 10 and 25 days after administration following manufacturer instructions. In stable dogs, electrolytes are monitored quarterly, monthly, semi-annually, and annually by 44.2%, 34.4%, 16.9%, and 4.6% of respondents respectively. When treatment adjustment is required, 53% prefer to reduce dosage while 47% increase the interval between doses. Overall, DOCP is the preferred mineralocorticoid supplementation among WEV. Reported variability underlies the need to investigate the best strategies for DOCP use and therapeutic adjustments. Full article
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Article
Relationship of the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI) with Ovarian Responses and Embryo Production in Superovulated Thai-Holstein Crossbreds under Tropical Climate Conditions
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110270 - 08 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 915
Abstract
Heat stress strongly negatively affects reproductive traits in dairy cattle. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of heat stress in superstimulated Thai-Holstein crossbreds under tropical climate conditions. Data included 75 records from 12 superovulated Thai-Holstein crossbreds between 2018 [...] Read more.
Heat stress strongly negatively affects reproductive traits in dairy cattle. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of heat stress in superstimulated Thai-Holstein crossbreds under tropical climate conditions. Data included 75 records from 12 superovulated Thai-Holstein crossbreds between 2018 and 2020. Cows were superstimulated with conventional treatment. The mean temperature-humidity index (THI) was evaluated for three data collection periods: during the 9, 21 and 42-day periods before the insemination day to determine the period in which THI mostly affected superstimulation responses. The THI levels/thresholds were determined and interpreted together with the superovulatory response. A significantly negative correlation was obtained for the THI during the period 9 days before insemination. Negative effects on the number of large follicles and corpora lutea began at a THI of 72 and were apparently severe after a THI of 77, similar to the ovulation rate, fertilized ova and transferable embryos (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, more degenerated embryos were found with THI values (p < 0.05). The superovulatory response in Thai-Holstein crossbreds under tropical climate conditions is highly affected by heat stress starting at a THI of 72 and becomes more severe at a THI higher than 77. Full article
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Review
Feline Polycystic Kidney Disease: An Update
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110269 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 2026
Abstract
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a disease that affects felines and other mammals, such as humans. The common name is autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and causes a progressive development of fluid-filled cysts in the kidney and sometimes in other organs as [...] Read more.
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a disease that affects felines and other mammals, such as humans. The common name is autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and causes a progressive development of fluid-filled cysts in the kidney and sometimes in other organs as the liver and pancreas. The formation and growth of cysts progress slowly, causing deterioration of kidney tissue and a gradual decrease in kidney function, leading to irreversible kidney failure. Feline PKD or ADPKD in humans are hereditary pathologies of autosomal dominant transmission. ADPKD is one of the genetic diseases with the highest prevalence in humans. In cats, this disease also has a high prevalence, mainly in the Persian breed, being one of the most common feline genetic diseases. Imaging tests seem to be the most reliable method for diagnosis of the disease, although more genetic tests are being developed to detect the presence of the responsible mutation. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about feline PKD to guide future research related to an adequate diagnosis and early detection of causal mutations. It can allow the establishment of selection programs to reduce or eliminate this pathology in feline breeds. Full article
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Article
First Detection and Genetic Characterization of New Equine Parvovirus Species Circulating among Horses in Korea
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110268 - 07 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
Equine parvovirus-cerebrospinal fluid (EqPV-CSF) and eqcopivirus (EqCoPV) are new parvovirus species (EqPVs) identified from various tissues (CSF, blood, and respiratory swabs) in horses with neurologic and respiratory diseases. In this study, we described the prevalence rate of EqPV-CSF and EqCoPV in 133 and [...] Read more.
Equine parvovirus-cerebrospinal fluid (EqPV-CSF) and eqcopivirus (EqCoPV) are new parvovirus species (EqPVs) identified from various tissues (CSF, blood, and respiratory swabs) in horses with neurologic and respiratory diseases. In this study, we described the prevalence rate of EqPV-CSF and EqCoPV in 133 and 77 serum and fecal samples, respectively, using polymerase chain reaction. Further, we analyzed the potential risk factors for infection. We calculated the nucleotide and amino acid similarity and constructed phylogenetic trees. There was a moderate-to-high prevalence rate (EqPV-CSF: 3.8%; EqCoPV 9.8%) of each virus in serum; moreover, age, country of foaling, and clinical colic signs were significantly associated with the EqPVs infection. The newly identified EqPV-CSF/EqCoPV genomes had high nucleotide and amino acid identities with previously isolated strains in the USA. In phylogenetic analysis, they clustered and formed a new subgroup in the genus Copiparvovirus. To our knowledge, this is the first field epidemiologic study on EqPV-CSF and EqCoPV using both serum and fecal samples. Our findings demonstrate the risk factors for infection and could facilitate the development of disease prevention strategies. Full article
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Communication
A Molecular Study on Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) in Pigs in Bulgaria
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110267 - 06 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1045
Abstract
Information on hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains circulating in animal reservoirs in Bulgaria is currently lacking. Herein, by screening HEV seropositive sera obtained from Bulgarian swine and wild boars, viral RNA was detected at high prevalence rate (28.2%) in industrial pigs. Sequence analysis [...] Read more.
Information on hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains circulating in animal reservoirs in Bulgaria is currently lacking. Herein, by screening HEV seropositive sera obtained from Bulgarian swine and wild boars, viral RNA was detected at high prevalence rate (28.2%) in industrial pigs. Sequence analysis of the partial polymerase (RdRp) region revealed the highest genetic correlation with HEVs of genotype (Gt) 3 identified in French and Dutch patients. For three such strains, a 700-bp fragment of the open reading frame 2 gene was generated. On phylogenetic analysis, the Bulgarian strains clustered tightly (93.8–98.3% nt) with human and animal HEVs classified within the Gt3 subtype c. Full article
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Article
What Determines Pig Farmers’ Epidemic Coping Behaviors: A Qualitative Analysis of Endemically Infected Areas in Relation to African Swine Fever
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110266 - 05 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1094
Abstract
An animal epidemic is a big threat for economic development that may seriously disturb the breeding industry and people’s normal life. The most effective approach so far for epidemic control is biosecurity, zoning, culling animals exposed, and other relevant measures, which highly demands [...] Read more.
An animal epidemic is a big threat for economic development that may seriously disturb the breeding industry and people’s normal life. The most effective approach so far for epidemic control is biosecurity, zoning, culling animals exposed, and other relevant measures, which highly demands the cooperation of farmers in epidemic areas. However, an uncooperative phenomenon among individual farmers facing an epidemic has been recorded for a long time and includes unwilling to report the epidemic and selling infected pork. It is important to unravel the determinants of farmers’ coping behaviors during an animal epidemic outbreak and use corresponding strategies to reduce farmers’ inappropriate behaviors. Taking African Swine Fever (ASF) crisis as an example, this study aimed to reveal the determinants and underlying mechanism of pig farmers’ coping behaviors. We adopted qualitative interviews with 45 pig farmers across four endemically infected areas in Hunan provinces, and the data collected were subjected to a grounded theory analysis. Our results showed that emergency response, information sources, and information channels jointly affected pig farmers’ epidemic risk perception and their perception of coping behaviors. Meanwhile, both the characteristics of the government and pig farmers moderated this affect. Consequently, by processing information through either a heuristic or an analytical path, pig farmers’ behavioral intention was transformed into actual coping behaviors. Our study emphasizes the value of sufficient risk communication, proper compensation policies, and strong public trust in the government for improving the farmers’ participation in the epidemic response. Theoretical and practical implications to animal epidemic prevention and control are provided. Full article
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Systematic Review
Colistin Resistant mcr Genes Prevalence in Livestock Animals (Swine, Bovine, Poultry) from a Multinational Perspective. A Systematic Review
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110265 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1927
Abstract
The objective of this review is to collect and present the results of relevant studies on an international level, on the subject of colistin resistance due to mcr genes prevalence in livestock animals. After a literature search, and using PRISMA guidelines principles, a [...] Read more.
The objective of this review is to collect and present the results of relevant studies on an international level, on the subject of colistin resistance due to mcr genes prevalence in livestock animals. After a literature search, and using PRISMA guidelines principles, a total of 40 swine, 16 bovine and 31 poultry studies were collected concerning mcr-1 gene; five swine, three bovine and three poultry studies referred to mcr-2 gene; eight swine, one bovine, two poultry studies were about mcr-3 gene; six swine, one bovine and one poultry manuscript studied mcr-4 gene; five swine manuscripts studied mcr-5 gene; one swine manuscript was about mcr-6, mcr-7, mcr-8, mcr-9 genes and one poultry study about mcr-10 gene was found. Information about colistin resistance in bacteria derived from animals and animal product foods is still considered limited and that should be continually enhanced; most of the information about clinical isolates are relative to enteropathogens Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. This review demonstrates the widespread dispersion of mcr genes to livestock animals, indicating the need to further increase measures to control this important threat for public health issue. Full article
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Article
The Therapeutic Effects of Oral Intake of Hydrogen Rich Water on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110264 - 04 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1033
Abstract
This study explored the effects of drinking Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on skin wound healing in dogs. Eight circular wounds were analyzed in each dog. The experimental group was treated with HRW thrice daily, while the control group was provided with distilled water (DW). [...] Read more.
This study explored the effects of drinking Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on skin wound healing in dogs. Eight circular wounds were analyzed in each dog. The experimental group was treated with HRW thrice daily, while the control group was provided with distilled water (DW). The wound tissues of dogs were examined histopathologically. The fibroblasts, inflammatory cell infiltration, the average number of new blood vessels, and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the skin homogenate of the wound was measured using the corresponding kits. The expressions of Nrf-2, HO-1, NQO-1, VEGF, and PDGF were measured using the real-time fluorescence quantitative method. We observed that HRW wounds showed an increased rate of wound healing, and a faster average healing time compared with DW. Histopathology showed that in the HRW group, the average thickness of the epidermis was significantly lower than the DW group. The average number of blood vessels in the HRW group was higher than the DW group. The MDA levels were higher in the DW group than in the HRW group, but the SOD levels were higher in the HRW group than in the DW group. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the expression of each gene was significantly different between the two groups. HRW treatment promoted skin wound healing in dogs, accelerated wound epithelization, reduced inflammatory reaction, stimulated the expression of cytokines related to wound healing, and shortened wound healing time. Full article
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Article
Use of Levetiracetam in Epileptic Dogs with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Study
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110263 - 03 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1177
Abstract
In human medicine, doses of levetiracetam (LEV) are individualized for patients with epilepsy, depending on the status of the patient’s renal function. However, there are not reports on the individualized dosing of LEV for small animals. The aim of this study is to [...] Read more.
In human medicine, doses of levetiracetam (LEV) are individualized for patients with epilepsy, depending on the status of the patient’s renal function. However, there are not reports on the individualized dosing of LEV for small animals. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a dose adjustment of LEV is needed in dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patient databases were searched, and 37 dogs with seizures or epilepsy were retrospectively included in this study. Based on pre-existing CKD, patients were divided into a CKD group (n = 20) and a non-CKD group (n = 17). We collected kidney panels before and after LEV treatment. Side-effects were monitored for 1 month after the start of LEV administration. In the CKD group, more dogs developed adverse effects (85%) than in the non-CKD group (52.94%). After LEV administration, an increase in blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine was more often reported in the CKD group than it was in the non-CKD group. Our data indicate that in dogs with seizures or epilepsy with pre-existing CKD, an LEV dose-adjustment is needed. During LEV treatment, CKD patients should be monitored for side-effects and may require laboratory evaluation of renal function. Full article
Article
Clinical Cohort Study in Canine Patients, to Determine the Average Platelet and White Blood Cell Number and Its Correlation with Patient’s Age, Weight, Breed and Gender: 92 Cases (2019–2020)
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110262 - 03 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1140
Abstract
Due to its easy preparation and that it is well tolerated, the use of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has become increasingly popular in regenerative medicine. However, there are still no clear guidelines on how it should be classified or whether the individual canine [...] Read more.
Due to its easy preparation and that it is well tolerated, the use of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has become increasingly popular in regenerative medicine. However, there are still no clear guidelines on how it should be classified or whether the individual canine patient’s clinical status can influence its quality. Objective: This study aims to show if the weight, age, sex, neutered status or breed of canine patients have any correlation with the composition of PRP. Design: A blinded count of the platelets and white blood cells (WBC) was performed from 111 samples from 92 client owned dogs undergoing treatment for degenerative joint disease (DJD). The results were analysed using Pearson correlation test, ANOVA test or Student T-test. Results: There is a positive correlation between the number of platelets and WBC in canine patients of different breeds, but there was no significant difference on the platelet number and WBC number among the different breeds. The weight of the patient is also directly correlated to the platelet number (p = 0.003) but not WBC number. WBC number was negatively correlated to the weight of the patient. The sex and age of the patient did not affect platelets and WBC number, although WBC number is increased in non-neutered male population (p = 0.003). However, it would be interesting to investigate whether the growth factors released from the platelet granules are affected by patient variables in a canine population. Conclusions: Our results show that it is possible to obtain good quality autologous PRP, irrespective of age, sex, neutered status or weight of the patient, for PRP regenerative therapy. Full article
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Review
Comparative Review of Malignant Melanoma and Histologically Well-Differentiated Melanocytic Neoplasm in the Oral Cavity of Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110261 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1347
Abstract
Oral malignant melanoma (OMM) is the most common neoplasm of the canine oral cavity. It is characterized by its aggressive local disease as well as its high rate of lymphatic invasion and distant metastasis. OMM carries a poor prognosis, with most patients succumbing [...] Read more.
Oral malignant melanoma (OMM) is the most common neoplasm of the canine oral cavity. It is characterized by its aggressive local disease as well as its high rate of lymphatic invasion and distant metastasis. OMM carries a poor prognosis, with most patients succumbing to the disease due to progression of the neoplasm. Histopathologically, OMM is characterized by significant nuclear atypia, a mitotic index of greater than 4/10 hpf, and evidence of vascular invasion or metastasis. Clinically, these lesions can become locally invasive, causing lysis of bones and severe inflammation of the surrounding soft tissue. With time, these lesions can spread to the regional lymph node and to the lungs and other organs. Prognosis can vary depending on the size of the primary tumor, regional node involvement, and distant metastatic disease; however, multiple studies report a relatively short median survival time ranging from less than 4 months to 8 months. Histologically well- differentiated melanocytic neoplasms (HWDMN) are a variant of OMM and sometimes referred to as canine oral melanocytic neoplasms of low malignant potential. Unlike OMM, patients with HWDMN have longer survival times. Histopathologically, HWDMNs have well-differentiated melanocytes with a low mitotic index of 3 or less per 10 hpf and minimal nuclear atypia. HWDMNs have better prognosis with a mean survival time of up to 34 months. This article is a comparative review of OMM and its less aggressive counterpart. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Understanding Spontaneously Occurring Melanoma in Animals)
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Article
Hand Hygiene Evaluation Using Two Different Evaluation Tools and Hand Contamination of Veterinary Healthcare Workers in a Swiss Companion Animal Clinic
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110260 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
Hand hygiene (HH) is the most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections. HH compliance in companion animal clinics has been reported to be poor. The present study compared an online application with the WHO evaluation form to assess the WHO five moments of [...] Read more.
Hand hygiene (HH) is the most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections. HH compliance in companion animal clinics has been reported to be poor. The present study compared an online application with the WHO evaluation form to assess the WHO five moments of HH in a Swiss companion animal clinic. In 202 hand swabs from 87 staff members, total viable count (TVC) before and after patient contact was evaluated and the swabs were tested for selected antimicrobial resistant microorganisms of public health importance. HH compliance (95% confidence interval) was 36.6% (33.8–39.5%) and was similar when assessed with the two evaluation tools. HH differed between hospital areas (p = 0.0035) and HH indications (p < 0.0001). Gloves were worn in 22.0% (18.0–26.6%) of HH observations and were indicated in 37.2% (27.3–48.3%) of these observations. Mean TVC before patient contact was lower (0.52 log CFU/cm2) than after patient contact (1.02 log CFU/cm2) but was similar before patient contact on gloved and ungloved hands. Three hand swabs (1.5% (0.4–4.3%)) were positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Gloving should not be regarded as a substitute for HH. Overall, HH in companion animal medicine should urgently be fostered. Full article
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Article
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Surveillance in breeding Herds and Nurseries Using Tongue Tips from Dead Animals
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110259 - 02 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1492
Abstract
The detection capacity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) in tongues from dead animals in breeding herds (stillborns and piglets dying during the lactating period) and nursery farms (naturally dead animals) for PRRSV surveillance was evaluated. The samples were selected if [...] Read more.
The detection capacity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) in tongues from dead animals in breeding herds (stillborns and piglets dying during the lactating period) and nursery farms (naturally dead animals) for PRRSV surveillance was evaluated. The samples were selected if pairs of serum and tongues were available from 2018 to 2020. Serum (pools of five) and exudate from tongues (one bag) were analyzed by PRRSV RT-PCR. The agreement between the serum sample procedure versus tongues exudate was assessed using a concordance test (Kappa statistic) at batch level. A total of 32 submissions, corresponding to 14 farms, had PRRSV diagnostic information for serum and tongues exudate. The overall agreement of batch classification as positive or negative, based on RT-PCR PRRSV results, between serum and tongue exudate of the 32 pairs was 76.9%. Cohen’s Kappa was 0.55. The main discrepancy came from the presence of positive samples in tongues exudate and not in serum, suggesting that tongue exudate to monitor PRRSV seems to be more sensitive than serum. These results suggest that this sample procedure could be also used for PRRSV surveillance and monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Standardization of Diagnostics in Swine Diseases)
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Case Report
Bilateral Renal Large B Cell Lymphoma in a Dog: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110258 - 01 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1367
Abstract
Canine lymphoma is a commonly reported neoplasia and, in most dogs, arises from lymph nodes before spreading to other organs. Renal lymphoma rarely occurs, and kidneys usually are a secondary site of origin. Primary renal lymphoma is infrequently described in the veterinary literature. [...] Read more.
Canine lymphoma is a commonly reported neoplasia and, in most dogs, arises from lymph nodes before spreading to other organs. Renal lymphoma rarely occurs, and kidneys usually are a secondary site of origin. Primary renal lymphoma is infrequently described in the veterinary literature. In this study, we present a rare case of primary renal lymphoma in a dog and a review of similar cases. A 3-year-old male dog was admitted due to anorexia, weakness and vomiting. Clinical examination revealed bilaterally enlarged kidneys. Imaging demonstrated the presence of multiple renal masses. Cytology of abdominal fluid and kidneys led to the diagnosis of large cell lymphoma. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry on tissue samples taken from the kidneys confirmed the cytological diagnosis of lymphoma and categorized it as primary bilateral renal large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lymphoma in Animals)
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