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Article

The Role of Thoracic Ultrasonography and Airway Endoscopy in the Diagnosis of Equine Asthma and Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage

1
Equine Sports Medicine Laboratory “Franco Tradati”, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Università Degli Studi di Milano, 26900 Lodi, Italy
2
Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Università Degli Studi di Milano, 26900 Lodi, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rob Siebers
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110276
Received: 29 September 2021 / Revised: 12 November 2021 / Accepted: 13 November 2021 / Published: 15 November 2021
Mild-moderate (MEA), severe (SEA) equine asthma and exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) are common respiratory disorders in horses. The present retrospective study aims to evaluate the role of ultrasonography and endoscopy in the diagnosis of these conditions. Three hundred and three horses were included and divided into SEA, MEA and MEA + EIPH groups, on the basis of history, clinical examination and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) cytology; scores were assigned to lung ultrasonography, pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia (PLH), tracheal mucus (TM) and tracheal bifurcation edema (TB). These scores were compared between groups, and their associations with age, BALf cytology, tracheal wash microbiology and between endoscopic and ultrasonographic scores were statistically analyzed. Ultrasonographic scores were higher in the SEA and MEA + EIPH groups and associated with increased BALf neutrophils and hemosiderophages. The PLH score was higher in younger horses affected by MEA and EIPH and associated with increased eosinophils and hemosiderophages. TM and TB scores were greater in older horses affected by SEA, associated with increased neutrophils and inversely correlated with hemosiderophages. Moreover, TM grade was negatively correlated with mast cells. Thoracic ultrasonography and airway endoscopy can provide useful information about the inflammatory status of upper and lower airways in the horse. View Full-Text
Keywords: horse; equine; thoracic ultrasonography; airways endoscopy; equine asthma; EIPH horse; equine; thoracic ultrasonography; airways endoscopy; equine asthma; EIPH
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lo Feudo, C.M.; Stucchi, L.; Alberti, E.; Stancari, G.; Conturba, B.; Zucca, E.; Ferrucci, F. The Role of Thoracic Ultrasonography and Airway Endoscopy in the Diagnosis of Equine Asthma and Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage. Vet. Sci. 2021, 8, 276. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110276

AMA Style

Lo Feudo CM, Stucchi L, Alberti E, Stancari G, Conturba B, Zucca E, Ferrucci F. The Role of Thoracic Ultrasonography and Airway Endoscopy in the Diagnosis of Equine Asthma and Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage. Veterinary Sciences. 2021; 8(11):276. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110276

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lo Feudo, Chiara Maria, Luca Stucchi, Elena Alberti, Giovanni Stancari, Bianca Conturba, Enrica Zucca, and Francesco Ferrucci. 2021. "The Role of Thoracic Ultrasonography and Airway Endoscopy in the Diagnosis of Equine Asthma and Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage" Veterinary Sciences 8, no. 11: 276. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110276

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