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Bioengineering, Volume 8, Issue 7 (July 2021) – 15 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Three-dimensional scaffolding materials, such as electrospun fibers, have been used for in vitro cell cultures with more representative in vivo results. However, the mechanisms of how such a material modulates intracellular activities remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the roles of a commonly used scaffold in modulating amino acid levels in hepatocytes. Amino acids play a fundamental role in supporting liver functions such as metabolism. We found that the fibrous scaffold generally upregulated the amino acid contents. Further studies revealed that integrin was the bridge between the extracellular and intracellular conditions. These results open new avenues to better understand cell–extracellular matrix interactions. View this paper
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Article
De Novo Valve Tissue Morphology Following Bioscaffold Mitral Valve Replacement in a Juvenile Non-Human Primate Model
Bioengineering 2021, 8(7), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070100 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1175
Abstract
The utility of implanting a bioscaffold mitral valve consisting of porcine small intestinal submucosa (PSIS) in a juvenile baboon model (12 to 14 months old at the time of implant; n = 3) to assess their in vivo tissue remodeling responses was investigated. [...] Read more.
The utility of implanting a bioscaffold mitral valve consisting of porcine small intestinal submucosa (PSIS) in a juvenile baboon model (12 to 14 months old at the time of implant; n = 3) to assess their in vivo tissue remodeling responses was investigated. Our findings demonstrated that the PSIS mitral valve exhibited the robust presence of de novo extracellular matrix (ECM) at all explantation time points (at 3-, 11-, and 20-months). Apart from a significantly lower level of proteoglycans in the implanted valve’s annulus region (p < 0.05) at 3 months compared to the 11- and 20-month explants, there were no other significant differences (p > 0.05) found between any of the other principal valve ECM components (collagen and elastin) at the leaflet, annulus, or chordae tendinea locations, across these time points. In particular, neochordae tissue had formed, which seamlessly integrated with the native papillary muscles. However, additional processing will be required to trigger accelerated, uniform and complete valve ECM formation in the recipient. Regardless of the specific processing done to the bioscaffold valve, in this proof-of-concept study, we estimate that a 3-month window following bioscaffold valve replacement is the timeline in which complete regeneration of the valve and integration with the host needs to occur. Full article
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Review
Genitourinary Tissue Engineering: Reconstruction and Research Models
Bioengineering 2021, 8(7), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070099 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1372
Abstract
Tissue engineering is an emerging field of research that initially aimed to produce 3D tissues to bypass the lack of adequate tissues for the repair or replacement of deficient organs. The basis of tissue engineering protocols is to create scaffolds, which can have [...] Read more.
Tissue engineering is an emerging field of research that initially aimed to produce 3D tissues to bypass the lack of adequate tissues for the repair or replacement of deficient organs. The basis of tissue engineering protocols is to create scaffolds, which can have a synthetic or natural origin, seeded or not with cells. At the same time, more and more studies have indicated the low clinic translation rate of research realised using standard cell culture conditions, i.e., cells on plastic surfaces or using animal models that are too different from humans. New models are needed to mimic the 3D organisation of tissue and the cells themselves and the interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix. In this regard, urology and gynaecology fields are of particular interest. The urethra and vagina can be sites suffering from many pathologies without currently adequate treatment options. Due to the specific organisation of the human urethral/bladder and vaginal epithelium, current research models remain poorly representative. In this review, the anatomy, the current pathologies, and the treatments will be described before focusing on producing tissues and research models using tissue engineering. An emphasis is made on the self-assembly approach, which allows tissue production without the need for biomaterials. Full article
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Review
COVID-19 Biomarkers and Advanced Sensing Technologies for Point-of-Care (POC) Diagnosis
Bioengineering 2021, 8(7), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070098 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
COVID-19, also known as SARS-CoV-2 is a novel, respiratory virus currently plaguing humanity. Genetically, at its core, it is a single-strand positive-sense RNA virus. It is a beta-type Coronavirus and is distinct in its structure and binding mechanism compared to other types of [...] Read more.
COVID-19, also known as SARS-CoV-2 is a novel, respiratory virus currently plaguing humanity. Genetically, at its core, it is a single-strand positive-sense RNA virus. It is a beta-type Coronavirus and is distinct in its structure and binding mechanism compared to other types of coronaviruses. Testing for the virus remains a challenge due to the small market available for at-home detection. Currently, there are three main types of tests for biomarker detection: viral, antigen and antibody. Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) remains the gold standard for viral testing. However, the lack of quantitative detection and turnaround time for results are drawbacks. This manuscript focuses on recent advances in COVID-19 detection that have lower limits of detection and faster response times than RT-PCR testing. The advancements in sensing platforms have amplified the detection levels and provided real-time results for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein detection with limits as low as 1 fg/mL in the Graphene Field Effect Transistor (FET) sensor. Additionally, using multiple biomarkers, detection levels can achieve a specificity and sensitivity level comparable to that of PCR testing. Proper biomarker selection coupled with nano sensing detection platforms are key in the widespread use of Point of Care (POC) diagnosis in COVID-19 detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Nano Biomedical Devices in Advanced Healthcare)
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Article
3D Printed Nanocellulose Scaffolds as a Cancer Cell Culture Model System
Bioengineering 2021, 8(7), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070097 - 10 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1615
Abstract
Current conventional cancer drug screening models based on two-dimensional (2D) cell culture have several flaws and there is a large need of more in vivo mimicking preclinical drug screening platforms. The microenvironment is crucial for the cells to adapt relevant in vivo characteristics [...] Read more.
Current conventional cancer drug screening models based on two-dimensional (2D) cell culture have several flaws and there is a large need of more in vivo mimicking preclinical drug screening platforms. The microenvironment is crucial for the cells to adapt relevant in vivo characteristics and here we introduce a new cell culture system based on three-dimensional (3D) printed scaffolds using cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) pre-treated with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpyperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) as the structural material component. Breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, were cultured in 3D TEMPO-CNF scaffolds and were shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histochemistry to grow in multiple layers as a heterogenous cell population with different morphologies, contrasting 2D cultured mono-layered cells with a morphologically homogenous cell population. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that 3D TEMPO-CNF scaffolds induced elevation of the stemness marker CD44 and the migration markers VIM and SNAI1 in MCF7 cells relative to 2D control. T47D cells confirmed the increased level of the stemness marker CD44 and migration marker VIM which was further supported by increased capacity of holoclone formation for 3D cultured cells. Therefore, TEMPO-CNF was shown to represent a promising material for 3D cell culture model systems for cancer cell applications such as drug screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocomposite Inks for 3D Printing)
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Review
Bioprocessing of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells: From Planar Culture to Microcarrier-Based Bioreactors
Bioengineering 2021, 8(7), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070096 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1589
Abstract
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have demonstrated great potential to be used as therapies for many types of diseases. Due to their immunoprivileged status, allogeneic hMSCs therapies are particularly attractive options and methodologies to improve their scaling and manufacturing are needed. Microcarrier-based bioreactor [...] Read more.
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have demonstrated great potential to be used as therapies for many types of diseases. Due to their immunoprivileged status, allogeneic hMSCs therapies are particularly attractive options and methodologies to improve their scaling and manufacturing are needed. Microcarrier-based bioreactor systems provide higher volumetric hMSC production in automated closed systems than conventional planar cultures. However, more sophisticated bioprocesses are necessary to successfully convert from planar culture to microcarriers. This article summarizes key steps involved in the planar culture to microcarrier hMSC manufacturing scheme, from seed train, inoculation, expansion and harvest. Important bioreactor parameters, such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), mixing, feeding strategies and cell counting techniques, are also discussed. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Real-Time Video-Based Engagement and Feedback during Pedaling on Cadence Control and Exercise Motivation: A Proof-of-Concept Study
Bioengineering 2021, 8(7), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070095 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1396
Abstract
The use of video and music as an intrinsic, dissociative attentional stimulus during exercise is thought to distract from the physical discomfort of exercise, and contribute to improved exercise adherence; however, the effects of video-based feedback and engagement during pedaling on exercise performance [...] Read more.
The use of video and music as an intrinsic, dissociative attentional stimulus during exercise is thought to distract from the physical discomfort of exercise, and contribute to improved exercise adherence; however, the effects of video-based feedback and engagement during pedaling on exercise performance and motivation are poorly understood. The aims of the present study were twofold. Firstly, to develop a novel video-based engagement regime for pedaling that links pedaling cadence with the play rate of a video, and secondly, to employ an instrumented pedaling device to assess the influence of the video engagement paradigm on cadence performance and exercise motivation. Eighteen healthy subjects participated in 15-min-duration pedaling sessions while targeting a specific low cadence (60 rotations per minute) and high cadence (100 rotations per minute), including pedaling with the provision of (i) target pedaling cadence information only, (ii) visual feedback on cadence control, including pedaling duration, pedaling cadence, and cadence deviation from target, and (iii) real-time engagement, which involved pedaling at the target speed to maintain the playback rate of a pre-recorded video. Cadence deviation from the target was evaluated, and self-reported exercise motivation examined with a post-exercise survey. Pedaling-cadence deviations significantly reduced with cadence feedback at both low and high cadence (p < 0.05). Participants reported enjoying feedback and video-based engagement during pedaling, with 83% of participants feeling that engagement motivated them to perform pedaling-based exercise. In conclusion, real-time cadence control feedback and video-based engagement during pedaling for healthy individuals may improve performance in targeted pedaling tasks. Through dissociation from the physical cues associated with exercise and fatigue, feedback and engagement may ultimately increase enjoyment and exercise compliance and adherence of pedaling-based exercise. The findings may be useful in prescription and maintenance of targeted pedaling exercises for stroke rehabilitation and exercise therapy. Full article
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Review
Blood Plasma Self-Separation Technologies during the Self-Driven Flow in Microfluidic Platforms
Bioengineering 2021, 8(7), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070094 - 03 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2480
Abstract
Blood plasma is the most commonly used biofluid in disease diagnostic and biomedical analysis due to it contains various biomarkers. The majority of the blood plasma separation is still handled with centrifugation, which is off-chip and time-consuming. Therefore, in the Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) field, [...] Read more.
Blood plasma is the most commonly used biofluid in disease diagnostic and biomedical analysis due to it contains various biomarkers. The majority of the blood plasma separation is still handled with centrifugation, which is off-chip and time-consuming. Therefore, in the Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) field, an effective microfluidic blood plasma separation platform attracts researchers’ attention globally. Blood plasma self-separation technologies are usually divided into two categories: active self-separation and passive self-separation. Passive self-separation technologies, in contrast with active self-separation, only rely on microchannel geometry, microfluidic phenomena and hydrodynamic forces. Passive self-separation devices are driven by the capillary flow, which is generated due to the characteristics of the surface of the channel and its interaction with the fluid. Comparing to the active plasma separation techniques, passive plasma separation methods are more considered in the microfluidic platform, owing to their ease of fabrication, portable, user-friendly features. We propose an extensive review of mechanisms of passive self-separation technologies and enumerate some experimental details and devices to exploit these effects. The performances, limitations and challenges of these technologies and devices are also compared and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Nano Biomedical Devices in Advanced Healthcare)
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Article
Measurement of the Adipose Stem Cells Cell Sheets Transmittance
Bioengineering 2021, 8(7), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070093 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1172
Abstract
In the field of cell therapy, the interest in cell sheet technology is increasing. To determine the cell sheet harvesting time requires experience and practice, and different factors could change the harvesting time (variability among donors and culture media, between cell culture dishes, [...] Read more.
In the field of cell therapy, the interest in cell sheet technology is increasing. To determine the cell sheet harvesting time requires experience and practice, and different factors could change the harvesting time (variability among donors and culture media, between cell culture dishes, initial cell seeding density). We have developed a device that can measure the transmittance of the multilayer cell sheets, using a light emitting diode and a light detector, to estimate the harvesting time. The transmittance of the adipose stromal cells cell sheets (ASCCS) was measured every other day as soon as the cells were confluent, up to 12 days. The ASCCS, from three different initial seeding densities, were harvested at 8, 10, and 12 days after seeding. Real-time PCR and immunostaining confirmed the expression of specific cell markers (CD29, CD73, CD90, CD105, HLA-A, HLA-DR), but less than the isolated adipose stromal cells. The number of cells per cell sheets, the average thickness per cell sheet, and the corresponding transmittance showed no correlation. Decrease of the transmittance seems to be correlated with the cell sheet maturation. For the first time, we are reporting the success development of a device to estimate ASCCS harvesting time based on their transmittance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Sheet Engineering for Stem Cell Delivery and Tissue Modeling)
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Review
Bioremediation of Agricultural Soils Polluted with Pesticides: A Review
Bioengineering 2021, 8(7), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070092 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2521
Abstract
Pesticides are chemical compounds used to eliminate pests; among them, herbicides are compounds particularly toxic to weeds, and this property is exploited to protect the crops from unwanted plants. Pesticides are used to protect and maximize the yield and quality of crops. The [...] Read more.
Pesticides are chemical compounds used to eliminate pests; among them, herbicides are compounds particularly toxic to weeds, and this property is exploited to protect the crops from unwanted plants. Pesticides are used to protect and maximize the yield and quality of crops. The excessive use of these chemicals and their persistence in the environment have generated serious problems, namely pollution of soil, water, and, to a lower extent, air, causing harmful effects to the ecosystem and along the food chain. About soil pollution, the residual concentration of pesticides is often over the limits allowed by the regulations. Where this occurs, the challenge is to reduce the amount of these chemicals and obtain agricultural soils suitable for growing ecofriendly crops. The microbial metabolism of indigenous microorganisms can be exploited for degradation since bioremediation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, rather efficient method compared to the physical and chemical ones. Several biodegradation techniques are available, based on bacterial, fungal, or enzymatic degradation. The removal efficiencies of these processes depend on the type of pollutant and the chemical and physical conditions of the soil. The regulation on the use of pesticides is strictly connected to their environmental impacts. Nowadays, every country can adopt regulations to restrict the consumption of pesticides, prohibit the most harmful ones, and define the admissible concentrations in the soil. However, this variability implies that each country has a different perception of the toxicology of these compounds, inducing different market values of the grown crops. This review aims to give a picture of the bioremediation of soils polluted with commercial pesticides, considering the features that characterize the main and most used ones, namely their classification and their toxicity, together with some elements of legislation into force around the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioengineering in Remediation of Polluted Environments)
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Article
Transcatheter Heart Valve Implantation in Bicuspid Patients with Self-Expanding Device
Bioengineering 2021, 8(7), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070091 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1108
Abstract
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) patients are conventionally not treated by transcathether aortic valve implantation (TAVI) because of anatomic constraint with unfavorable outcome. Patient-specific numerical simulation of TAVI in BAV may predict important clinical insights to assess the conformability of the transcathether heart valves [...] Read more.
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) patients are conventionally not treated by transcathether aortic valve implantation (TAVI) because of anatomic constraint with unfavorable outcome. Patient-specific numerical simulation of TAVI in BAV may predict important clinical insights to assess the conformability of the transcathether heart valves (THV) implanted on the aortic root of members of this challenging patient population. We aimed to develop a computational approach and virtually simulate TAVI in a group of n.6 stenotic BAV patients using the self-expanding Evolut Pro THV. Specifically, the structural mechanics were evaluated by a finite-element model to estimate the deformed THV configuration in the oval bicuspid anatomy. Then, a fluid–solid interaction analysis based on the smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique was adopted to quantify the blood-flow patterns as well as the regions at high risk of paravalvular leakage (PVL). Simulations demonstrated a slight asymmetric and elliptical expansion of the THV stent frame in the BAV anatomy. The contact pressure between the luminal aortic root surface and the THV stent frame was determined to quantify the device anchoring force at the level of the aortic annulus and mid-ascending aorta. At late diastole, PVL was found in the gap between the aortic wall and THV stent frame. Though the modeling framework was not validated by clinical data, this study could be considered a further step towards the use of numerical simulations for the assessment of TAVI in BAV, aiming at understanding patients not suitable for device implantation on an anatomic basis. Full article
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Article
Reengineering Tumor Microenvironment with Sequential Interleukin Delivery
Bioengineering 2021, 8(7), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070090 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
Some cytokines can reengineer anti-tumor immunity to modify the tumor micro-environment. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) can partially reduce tumor growth in several animal models, including prostate cancer. We hypothesized that addition of IL-18, which can induce the proliferation of several immune effector cells through inducing [...] Read more.
Some cytokines can reengineer anti-tumor immunity to modify the tumor micro-environment. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) can partially reduce tumor growth in several animal models, including prostate cancer. We hypothesized that addition of IL-18, which can induce the proliferation of several immune effector cells through inducing IFNγ could synergize with IL-27 to enhance tumor growth control. We describe our findings on the effects of IL-27 gene delivery on prostate cancer cells and how sequential therapy with IL-18 enhanced the efficacy of IL-27. The combination of IL-27 followed by IL-18 (27→18) successfully reduced cancer cell viability, with significant effects in cell culture and in an immunocompetent mouse model. We also examined a novel chimeric cytokine, comprising an IL-27 targeted at the C-terminus with a short peptide, LSLITRL (27pepL). This novel cytokine targets a receptor upregulated in tumor cells (IL-6Rα) via the pepL ligand. Interestingly, when we compared the 27→18 combination with the single 27pepL therapy, we observed a similar efficacy for both. This efficacy was further enhanced when 27pepL was sequenced with IL-18 (27pepL→18). The observed reduction in tumor growth and significantly enriched canonical pathways and upstream regulators, as well as specific immune effector signatures (as determined by bioinformatics analyses in the tumor microenvironment) supported the therapeutic design, whereby IL-27 or 27pepL can be more effective when delivered with IL-18. This cytokine sequencing approach allows flexible incorporation of both gene delivery and recombinant cytokines as tools to augment IL-27’s bioactivity and reengineer efficacy against prostate tumors and may prove applicable in other therapeutic settings. Full article
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Review
Bioengineering Progress in Lung Assist Devices
Bioengineering 2021, 8(7), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070089 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1434
Abstract
Artificial lung technology is advancing at a startling rate raising hopes that it would better serve the needs of those requiring respiratory support. Whether to assist the healing of an injured lung, support patients to lung transplantation, or to entirely replace native lung [...] Read more.
Artificial lung technology is advancing at a startling rate raising hopes that it would better serve the needs of those requiring respiratory support. Whether to assist the healing of an injured lung, support patients to lung transplantation, or to entirely replace native lung function, safe and effective artificial lungs are sought. After 200 years of bioengineering progress, artificial lungs are closer than ever before to meet this demand which has risen exponentially due to the COVID-19 crisis. In this review, the critical advances in the historical development of artificial lungs are detailed. The current state of affairs regarding extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, intravascular lung assists, pump-less extracorporeal lung assists, total artificial lungs, and microfluidic oxygenators are outlined. Full article
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Article
Electrospun Microfibers Modulate Intracellular Amino Acids in Liver Cells via Integrin β1
Bioengineering 2021, 8(7), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070088 - 22 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Although numerous recent studies have shown the importance of polymeric microfibrous extracellular matrices (ECMs) in maintaining cell behaviors and functions, the mechanistic nexus between ECMs and intracellular activities is largely unknown. Nevertheless, this knowledge will be critical in understanding and treating diseases with [...] Read more.
Although numerous recent studies have shown the importance of polymeric microfibrous extracellular matrices (ECMs) in maintaining cell behaviors and functions, the mechanistic nexus between ECMs and intracellular activities is largely unknown. Nevertheless, this knowledge will be critical in understanding and treating diseases with ECM remodeling. Therefore, we present our findings that ECM microstructures could regulate intracellular amino acid levels in liver cells mechanistically through integrin β1. Amino acids were studied because they are the fundamental blocks for protein synthesis and metabolism, two vital functions of liver cells. Two ECM conditions, flat and microfibrous, were prepared and studied. In addition to characterizing cell growth, albumin production, urea synthesis, and cytochrome p450 activity, we found that the microfibrous ECM generally upregulated the intracellular amino acid levels. Further explorations showed that cells on the flat substrate expressed more integrin β1 than cells on the microfibers. Moreover, after partially blocking integrin β1 in cells on the flat substrate, the intracellular amino acid levels were restored, strongly supporting integrin β1 as the linking mechanism. This is the first study to report that a non-biological polymer matrix could regulate intracellular amino acid patterns through integrin. The results will help with future therapy development for liver diseases with ECM changes (e.g., fibrosis). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospinning for Tissue Engineering)
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Article
A Preliminary Validation of a New Surgical Procedure for the Treatment of Primary Bladder Neck Obstruction Using a Computational Modeling Approach
Bioengineering 2021, 8(7), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070087 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1127
Abstract
A new surgical procedure for the treatment of primary bladder neck obstruction with maintenance of anterograde ejaculation is proposed. In place of monolateral or bilateral bladder neck incision, associated with a loss of ejaculation rate of up to 30%, the new surgical procedure [...] Read more.
A new surgical procedure for the treatment of primary bladder neck obstruction with maintenance of anterograde ejaculation is proposed. In place of monolateral or bilateral bladder neck incision, associated with a loss of ejaculation rate of up to 30%, the new surgical procedure consists of laser drilling the bladder neck with a number of holes and without muscle fiber disruption. The effect of this novel procedure has been studied numerically, with a simplified two-dimensional numerical model of the internal urethral sphincter, varying the position and the number of holes in the fibrotic region of the urethral tissue. Results show an improvement of the urethral sphincter opening by increasing the number of holes, ranging from about 6% to 16% of recovery. Moreover, a non-aligned position of holes positively influences the opening recovery. The concentrations of maximum principal strain and stress have been registered in the proximity of the interface between the physiologic and diseased sphincter, and in those regions where the radial thickness is significantly thinner. The effects on the first five patients have been included in the study, showing improvement in micturition, lower urinary tract symptoms, sustained ejaculatory function, and quality of life. Full article
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Article
Pilot Clinical Study Investigating the Thermal Physiology of Breast Cancer via High-Resolution Infrared Imaging
Bioengineering 2021, 8(7), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070086 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1339
Abstract
This descriptive study investigates breast thermal characteristics in females histologically diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer and in their contralateral normal breasts. The multi-institutional clinical pilot study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) at participating institutions. Eleven female subjects with [...] Read more.
This descriptive study investigates breast thermal characteristics in females histologically diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer and in their contralateral normal breasts. The multi-institutional clinical pilot study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) at participating institutions. Eleven female subjects with radiologic breast abnormalities were enrolled in the study between June 2019 and September 2019 after informed consent was obtained. Static infrared images were recorded for each subject. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to conduct paired comparisons in temperature data between breasts among the eight histologically diagnosed breast cancer subjects (n = 8). Localized temperatures of cancerous breast lesions were significantly warmer than corresponding regions in contralateral breasts (34.0 ± 0.9 °C vs. 33.2 ± 0.5 °C, p = 0.0142, 95% CI 0.25–1.5 °C). Generalized temperatures over cancerous breasts, in contrast, were not significantly warmer than corresponding regions in contralateral breasts (33.9 ± 0.8 °C vs. 33.4 ± 0.4 °C, p = 0.0625, 95% CI −0.05–1.45 °C). Among the breast cancers enrolled, breast cancers elevated temperatures locally at the site of the lesion (localized hyperthermia), but not over the entire breast (generalized hyperthermia). Full article
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