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Review

COVID-19 Biomarkers and Advanced Sensing Technologies for Point-of-Care (POC) Diagnosis

1
Advanced Energy Systems and Microdevices Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
2
Division of Engineering in Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham, and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Wing Cheung Mak
Bioengineering 2021, 8(7), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070098
Received: 24 May 2021 / Revised: 23 June 2021 / Accepted: 29 June 2021 / Published: 12 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Nano Biomedical Devices in Advanced Healthcare)
COVID-19, also known as SARS-CoV-2 is a novel, respiratory virus currently plaguing humanity. Genetically, at its core, it is a single-strand positive-sense RNA virus. It is a beta-type Coronavirus and is distinct in its structure and binding mechanism compared to other types of coronaviruses. Testing for the virus remains a challenge due to the small market available for at-home detection. Currently, there are three main types of tests for biomarker detection: viral, antigen and antibody. Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) remains the gold standard for viral testing. However, the lack of quantitative detection and turnaround time for results are drawbacks. This manuscript focuses on recent advances in COVID-19 detection that have lower limits of detection and faster response times than RT-PCR testing. The advancements in sensing platforms have amplified the detection levels and provided real-time results for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein detection with limits as low as 1 fg/mL in the Graphene Field Effect Transistor (FET) sensor. Additionally, using multiple biomarkers, detection levels can achieve a specificity and sensitivity level comparable to that of PCR testing. Proper biomarker selection coupled with nano sensing detection platforms are key in the widespread use of Point of Care (POC) diagnosis in COVID-19 detection. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19 biomarkers; COVID-19 sensing techniques; biomarker detection; biomarker sensing; future diagnostic trends COVID-19 biomarkers; COVID-19 sensing techniques; biomarker detection; biomarker sensing; future diagnostic trends
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MDPI and ACS Style

Etienne, E.E.; Nunna, B.B.; Talukder, N.; Wang, Y.; Lee, E.S. COVID-19 Biomarkers and Advanced Sensing Technologies for Point-of-Care (POC) Diagnosis. Bioengineering 2021, 8, 98. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070098

AMA Style

Etienne EE, Nunna BB, Talukder N, Wang Y, Lee ES. COVID-19 Biomarkers and Advanced Sensing Technologies for Point-of-Care (POC) Diagnosis. Bioengineering. 2021; 8(7):98. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070098

Chicago/Turabian Style

Etienne, Ernst Emmanuel, Bharath Babu Nunna, Niladri Talukder, Yudong Wang, and Eon Soo Lee. 2021. "COVID-19 Biomarkers and Advanced Sensing Technologies for Point-of-Care (POC) Diagnosis" Bioengineering 8, no. 7: 98. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070098

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