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Article

3D Printed Nanocellulose Scaffolds as a Cancer Cell Culture Model System

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Unit of Biological Function, Division Materials and Production, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Box 857, SE-50115 Borås, Sweden
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Sahlgrenska Center for Cancer Research, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 425, Medicinaregatan 1G, SE-41390 Gothenburg, Sweden
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Wallenberg Centre for Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Gothenburg, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden
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Department of Clinical Genetics and Genomics, Region Västra Götaland, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden
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Department of Clinical Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden
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RISE PFI AS, Høgskoleringen 6b, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway
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Department of Laboratory Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 440, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal contribution.
Academic Editor: Joaquim M. S. Cabral
Bioengineering 2021, 8(7), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070097
Received: 14 May 2021 / Revised: 28 June 2021 / Accepted: 28 June 2021 / Published: 10 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocomposite Inks for 3D Printing)
Current conventional cancer drug screening models based on two-dimensional (2D) cell culture have several flaws and there is a large need of more in vivo mimicking preclinical drug screening platforms. The microenvironment is crucial for the cells to adapt relevant in vivo characteristics and here we introduce a new cell culture system based on three-dimensional (3D) printed scaffolds using cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) pre-treated with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpyperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) as the structural material component. Breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, were cultured in 3D TEMPO-CNF scaffolds and were shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histochemistry to grow in multiple layers as a heterogenous cell population with different morphologies, contrasting 2D cultured mono-layered cells with a morphologically homogenous cell population. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that 3D TEMPO-CNF scaffolds induced elevation of the stemness marker CD44 and the migration markers VIM and SNAI1 in MCF7 cells relative to 2D control. T47D cells confirmed the increased level of the stemness marker CD44 and migration marker VIM which was further supported by increased capacity of holoclone formation for 3D cultured cells. Therefore, TEMPO-CNF was shown to represent a promising material for 3D cell culture model systems for cancer cell applications such as drug screening. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanocellulose; 3D printing; cancer; 3D cell culture; CNF; cancer stemness nanocellulose; 3D printing; cancer; 3D cell culture; CNF; cancer stemness
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rosendahl, J.; Svanström, A.; Berglin, M.; Petronis, S.; Bogestål, Y.; Stenlund, P.; Standoft, S.; Ståhlberg, A.; Landberg, G.; Chinga-Carrasco, G.; Håkansson, J. 3D Printed Nanocellulose Scaffolds as a Cancer Cell Culture Model System. Bioengineering 2021, 8, 97. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070097

AMA Style

Rosendahl J, Svanström A, Berglin M, Petronis S, Bogestål Y, Stenlund P, Standoft S, Ståhlberg A, Landberg G, Chinga-Carrasco G, Håkansson J. 3D Printed Nanocellulose Scaffolds as a Cancer Cell Culture Model System. Bioengineering. 2021; 8(7):97. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070097

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rosendahl, Jennifer, Andreas Svanström, Mattias Berglin, Sarunas Petronis, Yalda Bogestål, Patrik Stenlund, Simon Standoft, Anders Ståhlberg, Göran Landberg, Gary Chinga-Carrasco, and Joakim Håkansson. 2021. "3D Printed Nanocellulose Scaffolds as a Cancer Cell Culture Model System" Bioengineering 8, no. 7: 97. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8070097

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