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Foods, Volume 7, Issue 10 (October 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Ultrasound (US) refers to acoustic waves with a frequency greater than 20 kHz, distinguished into [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Artificial LED Light and Far Infrared Irradiation on Phenolic Compound, Isoflavones and Antioxidant Capacity in Soybean (Glycine max L.) Sprout
Foods 2018, 7(10), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100174
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
The effect of light emitting diode (LED) light and far infrared irradiation (FIR) on total phenol, isoflavones and antioxidant activity were investigated in soybean (Glycine max L.) sprout. Artificial blue (470 nm), green (530 nm) LED and florescent light (control) were applied
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The effect of light emitting diode (LED) light and far infrared irradiation (FIR) on total phenol, isoflavones and antioxidant activity were investigated in soybean (Glycine max L.) sprout. Artificial blue (470 nm), green (530 nm) LED and florescent light (control) were applied on soybean sprout, from three to seven days after sowing (DAS) in growth chamber. The photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and photoperiod was 150 ± 5 μmol m−2s−1 and 16 h, respectively. The FIR was applied for 30, 60 and 120 min at 90, 110 and 130 °C on harvested sprout. Total phenolic content (TP) (59.81 mg/g), antioxidant capacity (AA: 75%, Ferric Reduction Antioxidant Power (FRAP): 1357 µM Fe2+) and total isoflavones content (TIC) (51.1 mg/g) were higher in blue LED compared to control (38.02 mg/g, 58%, 632 µM Fe2+ and 30.24 mg/g, respectively). On the other hand, TP (64.23 mg/g), AA (87%), FRAP (1568 µM Fe2+) and TIC (58.98 mg/g) were significantly increased by FIR at 110 °C for 120 min among the treatments. Result suggests that blue LED is the most suitable light to steady accumulation of secondary metabolites (SM) in growing soybean sprout. On the other hand, FIR at 110 °C for 120 min is the best ailment to induce SM in proceed soybean sprout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Liquid Chromatography in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Pre-Processed Chickpea Flour Incorporation into “Mankoushe” on Appetite Hormones and Scores
Foods 2018, 7(10), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100173
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Recently, there has been an increasing interest in integrating pulse flours into pastries and baked products to improve their nutritional and health benefits. “Mankoushe,” a popular Lebanese pastry made up of refined wheat flour was enriched with chickpea flour that is
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Recently, there has been an increasing interest in integrating pulse flours into pastries and baked products to improve their nutritional and health benefits. “Mankoushe,” a popular Lebanese pastry made up of refined wheat flour was enriched with chickpea flour that is of better nutritional value, and its postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, lipidemia and appetite measures were monitored. A randomized cross-over study was performed on sixteen healthy Lebanese females, age (years): 22.90 ± 3.00, and BMI (kg/m2): 22.70 ± 2.65. Over-night fasted females were asked to consume two iso-energetic meals (201 g; 681 kcal) on two separate days, three days apart. One meal was the “Regular Mankoushe” (RM) made with white flour 100%, and the second meal was the “Chickpeas Mankoushe” (CM) made with a mixture of wheat/chickpea flour (70/30). Blood samples were collected 15 min before meal ingest and at 30, 90, 150 and 210 min postprandial. Glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) plasma levels were measured. Subjective appetite rating and food intake were also assessed. Incorporation of pre-processed chickpea flour into “Mankoushe” as 30% of the dough was associated with a modest reduction in both glucose and insulin levels, and TG was minimally affected. At the level of appetite hormones, changes in GLP-1 were similar, whereas the reduction in ghrelin was significantly lower after the RM meal and thus favored a higher satiating effect compared to CM. This was not paralleled by a similar change in subjective appetite scores and subsequent energy intake. In conclusion, findings suggest that pre-processed chickpea flour could be a promising functional ingredient of traditional pastries to improve their nutritional quality. Nevertheless, further investigations are warranted regarding its satiating effect. Full article
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Open AccessReview Potential of Food Hydrolyzed Proteins and Peptides to Chelate Iron or Calcium and Enhance their Absorption
Foods 2018, 7(10), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100172
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Iron and calcium are two essential micronutrients that have strong effects on nutrition and human health because of their involvement in several biological and redox processes. Iron is responsible for electron and oxygen transport, cell respiration, and gene expression, whereas calcium is responsible
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Iron and calcium are two essential micronutrients that have strong effects on nutrition and human health because of their involvement in several biological and redox processes. Iron is responsible for electron and oxygen transport, cell respiration, and gene expression, whereas calcium is responsible for intracellular metabolism, muscle contraction, cardiac function, and cell proliferation. The bioavailability of these nutrients in the body is dependent on enhancers and inhibitors, some of which are found in consumed foods. Hydrolyzed proteins and peptides from food proteins can bind these essential minerals in the body and facilitate their absorption and bioavailability. The binding is also important because excess free iron will increase oxidative stress and the risks of developing chronic diseases. This paper provides an overview of the function of calcium and iron, and strategies to enhance their absorption with an emphasis on hydrolyzed proteins and peptides from foods. It also discusses the relationship between the structure of peptides and their potential to act as transition metal ligands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Activity of Mentha piperita L. Ethanol Extract against Acetic Acid Bacteria Asaia spp.
Foods 2018, 7(10), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100171
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
Acetic acid bacteria belonging to the genus Asaia spp. are relatively new microbial contaminants in the beverage industry. These bacteria cause organoleptic changes such as increased turbidity, haziness and sour odor. In addition, they are able to form biofilms on the inner parts
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Acetic acid bacteria belonging to the genus Asaia spp. are relatively new microbial contaminants in the beverage industry. These bacteria cause organoleptic changes such as increased turbidity, haziness and sour odor. In addition, they are able to form biofilms on the inner parts of production lines, and finally they can cause secondary contamination of final products. For this reason, new methods using effective and safe preservatives are being developed to improve microbial stability of soft beverages. The aim of the research was to investigate the effects of Mentha piperita L. ethanol extract against Asaia spp. biofilm formation. The bacterial adhesion was evaluated by a plate count method and luminometry, as well as fluorescence microscopy. The polyphenolic profile of the mint extract was determined on the basis of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The obtained microbiological results indicate bacteriostatic effect of mint extract at 10% (v/v) concentration. The plant extract also reduces the number of adhered bacterial cells on polystyrene surface. Full article
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Open AccessReview Alginate-Based Edible Films and Coatings for Food Packaging Applications
Foods 2018, 7(10), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100170
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
Alginate is a naturally occurring polysaccharide used in the bio industry. It is mainly derived from brown algae species. Alginate-based edible coatings and films attract interest for improving/maintaining quality and extending the shelf-life of fruit, vegetable, meat, poultry, seafood, and cheese by reducing
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Alginate is a naturally occurring polysaccharide used in the bio industry. It is mainly derived from brown algae species. Alginate-based edible coatings and films attract interest for improving/maintaining quality and extending the shelf-life of fruit, vegetable, meat, poultry, seafood, and cheese by reducing dehydration (as sacrificial moisture agent), controlling respiration, enhancing product appearance, improving mechanical properties, etc. This paper reviews the most recent essential information about alginate-based edible coatings. The categorization of alginate-based coatings/film in food packaging concept is formed gradually with the explanation of the most important titles. Emphasis will be placed on active ingredients incorporated into alginate-based formulations, edible coating/film application methods, research and development studies of coated food products and mass transfer and barrier characteristics of the alginate-based coatings/films. Future trends are also reviewed to identify research gaps and recommend new research areas. The summarized information presented in this article will enable researchers to thoroughly understand the fundamentals of the coating process and to develop alginate-based edible films and coatings more readily. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Edible Films and Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle A Chemometrics Approach Comparing Volatile Changes during the Shelf Life of Apple Juice Processed by Pulsed Electric Fields, High Pressure and Thermal Pasteurization
Foods 2018, 7(10), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100169
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
High-Pressure Processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) processing technologies are being used increasingly on a commercial basis, with high-quality labelled fruit juices being one of the most important promotion strategies. Quality-related enzymes, which might still be active after HPP and PEF pasteurization,
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High-Pressure Processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) processing technologies are being used increasingly on a commercial basis, with high-quality labelled fruit juices being one of the most important promotion strategies. Quality-related enzymes, which might still be active after HPP and PEF pasteurization, can cause undesirable aroma changes during storage. This study investigated volatile changes during the shelf life of PEF (15.5 kV/cm and specific energy of 158 kJ/L), HPP (600 MPa for 3 min), and thermally (72 °C for 15 s) pasteurized Jazz apple juices—up to five weeks. To have an increased insight into the volatile changes, an integrated instrumental (GC-MS) and data analysis (chemometrics) approach was implemented. Immediately after pasteurization, PEF processing resulted a better retention of odor-active volatiles, such as (E)-2-hexenal and hexyl acetate, whereas thermal processing lowered their amount. During refrigerated storage, these volatiles have gradually decreased in all processed juices. By the end of storage, the amount of these aroma relevant volatiles appears to still be higher in PEF and HPP pasteurized juices compared to their conventional counterparts. This study demonstrated the potential of advanced chemometric approaches to obtain increased insight into complex shelf life changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonthermal Modification of Food Structure and Functionality)
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Open AccessReview Chemical and Biological Sensors for Food-Quality Monitoring and Smart Packaging
Foods 2018, 7(10), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100168
Received: 25 August 2018 / Revised: 6 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
The growing interest in food quality and safety requires the development of sensitive and reliable methods of analysis as well as technology for freshness preservation and food quality. This review describes the status of chemical and biological sensors for food monitoring and smart
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The growing interest in food quality and safety requires the development of sensitive and reliable methods of analysis as well as technology for freshness preservation and food quality. This review describes the status of chemical and biological sensors for food monitoring and smart packaging. Sensing designs and their analytical features for measuring freshness markers, allergens, pathogens, adulterants and toxicants are discussed with example of applications. Their potential implementation in smart packaging could facilitate food-status monitoring, reduce food waste, extend shelf-life, and improve overall food quality. However, most sensors are still in the development stage and need significant work before implementation in real-world applications. Issues like sensitivity, selectivity, robustness, and safety of the sensing materials due to potential contact or migration in food need to be established. The current development status of these technologies, along with a discussion of the challenges and opportunities for future research, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Application in Food Analysis and Detection)
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Open AccessReview Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella in the Food Supply and the Potential Role of Antibiotic Alternatives for Control
Foods 2018, 7(10), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100167
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
Salmonella enterica is one of the most ubiquitous enteropathogenic bacterial species on earth, and comprises more than 2500 serovars. Widely known for causing non-typhoidal foodborne infections (95%), and enteric (typhoid) fever in humans, Salmonella colonizes almost all warm- and cold-blooded animals, in addition
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Salmonella enterica is one of the most ubiquitous enteropathogenic bacterial species on earth, and comprises more than 2500 serovars. Widely known for causing non-typhoidal foodborne infections (95%), and enteric (typhoid) fever in humans, Salmonella colonizes almost all warm- and cold-blooded animals, in addition to its extra-animal environmental strongholds. The last few decades have witnessed the emergence of highly virulent and antibiotic-resistant Salmonella, causing greater morbidity and mortality in humans. The emergence of several Salmonella serotypes resistant to multiple antibiotics in food animals underscores a significant food safety hazard. In this review, we discuss the various antibiotic-resistant Salmonella serotypes in food animals and the food supply, factors that contributed to their emergence, their antibiotic resistance mechanisms, the public health implications of their spread through the food supply, and the potential antibiotic alternatives for controlling them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
Open AccessArticle Fractionation of Glycomacropeptide from Whey Using Positively Charged Ultrafiltration Membranes
Foods 2018, 7(10), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100166
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
Fractionation of the bovine glycomacropeptide (GMP) from the other proteins in cheese whey was examined using ultrafiltration membranes surface modified to contain positively charged polymer brushes made of polyhexamethylene biguanide. By placing a strong positive charge on a 1000 kDa ultrafiltration membrane and
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Fractionation of the bovine glycomacropeptide (GMP) from the other proteins in cheese whey was examined using ultrafiltration membranes surface modified to contain positively charged polymer brushes made of polyhexamethylene biguanide. By placing a strong positive charge on a 1000 kDa ultrafiltration membrane and adjusting the pH of whey close to the isoelectric point of GMP, a 14-fold increase in selectivity was observed compared to unmodified membranes. A one stage membrane system gave 90% pure GMP and a three-stage rectification system gave 97% pure GMP. The charged membrane was salt-tolerant up to 40 mS cm−1 conductivity, allowing fractionation of GMP directly from cheese whey without first lowering the whey conductivity by water dilution. Thus, similarly sized proteins that differed somewhat in isoelectric points and were 50–100 fold smaller than the membrane molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), were cleanly fractionated using charged ultrafiltration membranes without water addition. This is the first study to report on the use of salt-tolerant charged ultrafiltration membranes to produce chromatographically pure protein fractions from whey, making ultrafiltration an attractive alternative to chromatography for dairy protein fractionation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Processing Technology in the Food Industry)
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Open AccessReview Comprehensive Description of Fusarium graminearum Pigments and Related Compounds
Foods 2018, 7(10), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100165
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 4 October 2018 / Published: 5 October 2018
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Abstract
Several studies have explored in depth the biochemistry and genetics of the pigments present in Fusarium graminearum, but there is a need to discuss their relationship with the mold’s observable surface color pattern variation throughout its lifecycle. Furthermore, they require basic cataloguing,
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Several studies have explored in depth the biochemistry and genetics of the pigments present in Fusarium graminearum, but there is a need to discuss their relationship with the mold’s observable surface color pattern variation throughout its lifecycle. Furthermore, they require basic cataloguing, including a description of their major features known so far. Colors are a viable alternative to size measurement in growth studies. When grown on yeast extract agar (YEA) at 25 °C, F. graminearum initially exhibits a whitish mycelium, developing into a yellow-orange mold by the sixth day and then turning into wine-red. The colors are likely due to accumulation of the golden yellow polyketide aurofusarin and the red rubrofusarin, but the carotenoid neurosporaxanthin also possibly plays a major role in the yellow or orange coloration. Torulene might contribute to red tones, but it perhaps ends up being converted into neurosporaxanthin. Culmorin is also present, but it does not contribute to the color, though it was initially isolated in pigment studies. Additionally, there is the 5-deoxybostrycoidin-based melanin, but it mostly occurs in the teleomorph’s perithecium. There is still a need to chemically quantify the pigments throughout the lifecycle, and analyze their relationships and how much each impacts F. graminearum’s surface color. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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Open AccessReview Application of Ultrasound in Food Science and Technology: A Perspective
Foods 2018, 7(10), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100164
Received: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
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Abstract
Ultrasound is composed of mechanical sound waves that originate from molecular movements that oscillate in a propagation medium. The waves have a very high frequency, equal to approximately 20 kHz, are divided into two categories (i.e., low-intensity and high-intensity waves) and cannot be
[...] Read more.
Ultrasound is composed of mechanical sound waves that originate from molecular movements that oscillate in a propagation medium. The waves have a very high frequency, equal to approximately 20 kHz, are divided into two categories (i.e., low-intensity and high-intensity waves) and cannot be perceived by the human ear. Nature has created the first ultrasound applications. Bats use ultrasound to navigate in the dark, and many cetaceans use echolocation to detect prey or obstacles using ultrasound produced by their vocal system. Ultrasound is commonly associated with the biomedical field. Today, ultrasound-based methods and equipment are available to detect organs, motion, tumour masses, and pre/post-natal handicaps, and for kidney stone removal, physiotherapy, and aesthetic cures. However, ultrasound has found multiple applications in many other fields as well. In particular, ultrasound has recently been used in the food industry to develop various effective and reliable food processing applications. Therefore, this review summarizes the major applications of ultrasound in the food industry. The most common applications in the food industry include cell destruction and extraction of intracellular material. Depending on its intensity, ultrasound is used for the activation or deactivation of enzymes, mixing and homogenization, emulsification, dispersion, preservation, stabilization, dissolution and crystallization, hydrogenation, tenderization of meat, ripening, ageing and oxidation, and as an adjuvant for solid-liquid extraction for maceration to accelerate and to improve the extraction of active ingredients from different matrices, as well as the degassing and atomization of food preparations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Food Processing and Extraction Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Development and Validation of a Recipe Method for Doughs
Foods 2018, 7(10), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100163
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
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Recipes have a great impact on consumers’ behavior in the kitchen; building a recipe requires the understanding of the potential user. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate different recipe styles for the preparation of doughs by understanding people’s descriptions
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Recipes have a great impact on consumers’ behavior in the kitchen; building a recipe requires the understanding of the potential user. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate different recipe styles for the preparation of doughs by understanding people’s descriptions of these. Two qualitative studies were performed (43 wheat and 50 corn dough preparers). During interviews, participants described the preparation process of the doughs using the Think Aloud technique. Finished doughs were described as not sticky, soft, and pliable. Based on these descriptions, five recipes were created: not detailed, detailed, very detailed, paragraph-form, and ‘with images’. Recipes were validated in two online surveys (total n = 600), where respondents evaluated the easiness, likeability, likelihood of using, helpfulness, and amount of information. Respondents considered the recipe with images as easier and more helpful. The very detailed recipe was considered more difficult, less helpful, and was liked less than the other recipes. Understanding and identifying the terms and techniques people use is a good way to communicate how to prepare a food product and can be used to develop and improve recipes. However, the format in which the recipe is presented is an important factor considered by users when following recipes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Polyphenol Extraction from Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum through Response Surface Methodology
Foods 2018, 7(10), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100162
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
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Abstract
Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum has been recognized as a rich source of secondary metabolites, including phenolic acids, flavonoids and flavonoid polymers (proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins), with related health benefits. Both parts of Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum (white bulb and pseudostem) are traditionally consumed
[...] Read more.
Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum has been recognized as a rich source of secondary metabolites, including phenolic acids, flavonoids and flavonoid polymers (proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins), with related health benefits. Both parts of Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum (white bulb and pseudostem) are traditionally consumed either as a vegetable or as a condiment in many Mediterranean countries. The aim of the present study was to optimize the extraction conditions of polyphenols from white leek stem and green leek leaf by implementing a Box-Behnken design (BBD). The optimization considered basic factors affecting extraction efficiency, including extraction time, solvent to plant material ratio and solvent mixture composition. Maximum polyphenol yield was achieved at an extraction time of 80 and 100 min for white leek stem and green leek leaf extracts respectively, solvent to plant material ratio of 5:1 (v/w) and methanol to water ratio of 40:60 (v/v), for both leek extracts. Interestingly, higher total phenolic content was found in green leek leaf extracts compared to white leek stem extracts, due to a possible relationship between polyphenol production and sunlight radiation. High correlation values were also observed between total phenolic content and antioxidant-antiradical activity of optimized leek extracts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enhancing Bioactive Antioxidants’ Extraction from “Horchata de Chufa” By-Products
Foods 2018, 7(10), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100161
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
During the production of a traditional drink produced from the tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. also known as “horchata de chufa,” a high quantity of by-products are generated. These by-products are rich with valuable biological compounds, hence, there is a need to report
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During the production of a traditional drink produced from the tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. also known as “horchata de chufa,” a high quantity of by-products are generated. These by-products are rich with valuable biological compounds, hence, there is a need to report their extraction conditions for further use in food production as raw materials. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate and improve the conventional extraction process, applied for recovery of phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and total antioxidant capacity from the by-products. Independent variables for extraction were: (i) Solvent type (mixtures of ethanol-water (v/v) at 0%, 25% and 50%); (ii) temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C), and (iii) extraction time (1, 2 and 3 h). The obtained results showed that solvent type, temperature, and time significantly influenced (p < 0.05) all investigated parameters. The highest content of total polyphenols (16.02 mg GAE/100 g of dry matter; d.m.), and total flavonoids (30.09 mg CE/100 g d.m.) was achieved by ethanol at 25% (v/v), after 3 h of extraction with temperatures of 60 °C and 50 °C, respectively. The highest value of antioxidant capacity (1759.81 µM Trolox equivalents/g d.m.) was observed with 50% aqueous ethanol (v/v), at 60 °C, and 3 h of extraction. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that the by-products of “Horchata de Chufa” are an important source of antioxidant bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Food Processing and Extraction Technologies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Preliminary Study to Determinate the Effect of the Rearing Managements Applied during Heifers’ Whole Life on Carcass and Flank Steak Quality
Foods 2018, 7(10), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100160
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 22 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of rearing managements applied during a heifers’ whole life on the carcass and flank steak (rectus abdominis) meat traits. For this study, rearing managements applied on 96 heifers were identified by conducting surveys
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The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of rearing managements applied during a heifers’ whole life on the carcass and flank steak (rectus abdominis) meat traits. For this study, rearing managements applied on 96 heifers were identified by conducting surveys in farms. A heifers’ whole life was divided into three key periods: Pre-weaning, growth, and fattening. The combination of the rearing factors applied during the heifers’ whole life allowed us to characterize several rearing managements. Among them, four have been studied in depth. The main results displayed that the carcass traits were more sensitive to the rearing managements than the flank steak traits. The different managements considered had an impact on the weight, the dressing percentage and the conformation score of the carcass. Whereas, they had no impact on the sensory descriptors, the sheer force and the color of the flank steak. This study showed that the variations observed for carcass and meat traits could not be explained by the variation of only one rearing factor but could be explained by many rearing factors characterizing the rearing management applied. Finally, this study demonstrated that it was possible to improve carcass traits without deteriorating meat traits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Physicochemical Properties of Hom Nil (Oryza sativa) Rice Flour as Gluten Free Ingredient in Bread
Foods 2018, 7(10), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100159
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
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Abstract
Hom Nil (Oryza sativa), a Thai black rice, contains polyphenolic compounds which have antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to investigate physicochemical properties of Hom Nil rice flour (HN) and its application in gluten free bread by using Hom
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Hom Nil (Oryza sativa), a Thai black rice, contains polyphenolic compounds which have antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to investigate physicochemical properties of Hom Nil rice flour (HN) and its application in gluten free bread by using Hom Mali 105 rice flour (HM) as the reference. The results demonstrated that HN flour had significantly higher average particle sizes (150 ± 0.58 µm), whereas the content of amylose (17.6 ± 0.2%) was lower than HM flour (particle sizes = 140 ± 0.58 µm; amylose content = 21.3 ± 0.6%). Furthermore, HN contained higher total phenolic compounds (TPC) (2.68 ± 0.2 mg GAE/g flour), total anthocyanins (293 ± 30 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/g flour), and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (73.5 ± 1.5 mM FeSO4/g) than HM flour (TPC = 0.15 mg GAE/g flour and FRAP = 2.24 mM FeSO4/g flour). In thermal properties, the onset temperature (To), the peak temperature (Tp) and the conclusion (Tc) temperature of HN flour were similar to the values of HM flour. However, HN flour had lower enthalpy change (ΔH) than HM flour. The results showed that HN flour had lower swelling power and higher solubility than HM flour at the temperature between 55 °C and 95 °C. In pasting properties, HN flour also showed lower peak, trough and breakdown viscosity than HM flour. In addition, the bread samples prepared by HN flour had higher value of hardness and lower value of cohesiveness than the bread prepared from HM flour. Taken together, the findings suggest that HN flour could be used as an alternative gluten-free ingredient for bread product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten Free Foods)
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Open AccessReview Complexity on the Menu and in the Meal
Foods 2018, 7(10), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100158
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
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Abstract
Complexity is generally perceived to be a desirable attribute as far as the design/delivery of food and beverage experiences is concerned. However, that said, there are many different kinds of complexity, or at least people use the term when talking about quite different
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Complexity is generally perceived to be a desirable attribute as far as the design/delivery of food and beverage experiences is concerned. However, that said, there are many different kinds of complexity, or at least people use the term when talking about quite different things, and not all of them are relevant to the design of food and drink experiences nor are they all necessarily perceptible within the tasting experience (either in the moment or over time). Consequently, the consumer often needs to infer the complexity of a tasting experience that is unlikely to be perceptible (in its entirety) in the moment. This paper outlines a number of different routes by which the chef, mixologist, and/or blender can both design and signal the complexity in the tasting experience. Full article
Open AccessArticle Risk Assessment of Histamine in Chilled, Frozen, Canned and Semi-Preserved Fish in Morocco; Implementation of Risk Ranger and Recommendations to Risk Managers
Foods 2018, 7(10), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100157
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 21 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
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Abstract
A risk assessment of histamine was conducted for different categories of fishery products in the market. Risk estimates were assessed using the Risk Ranger tool. The estimated risks associated with the consumption of canned, semi-preserved and frozen fish are lower than those associated
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A risk assessment of histamine was conducted for different categories of fishery products in the market. Risk estimates were assessed using the Risk Ranger tool. The estimated risks associated with the consumption of canned, semi-preserved and frozen fish are lower than those associated with fresh fish. According to the hypotheses of application or not of the histamine control measures, two risk levels were calculated for each product. The highest risk is associated to sardine with a score of 35 (equivalent to 39 patients per year). With the application of control measures, the score decreases to 20 (equivalent to one patient per year) with a reduction of 38 patients estimated per year. The risk ranking for frozen fish varies between zero (1 patient for 1000 years) and 11 (three patients for 1000 years). For semi-preserved fish, it ranges from zero to 21. For canned fish, the risk ranking varies between 12 (five patients for 1000 years) and 21 (15 patients for 100 years). As a result, most Moroccan seafood products are classified as “low risk”. However, it is recommended that risk managers maintain the adopted measures, strengthen interventions upstream in the food chain and that professionals maintain the HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) system effectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Carcass Quality, Meat Quality and Sensory Properties of the Dual-Purpose Chicken Lohmann Dual
Foods 2018, 7(10), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100156
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
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Abstract
Over 40 million day-old layer line cockerels are culled in Germany each year, due to economic reasons, leading to a recently instigated research focus on the potential of dual-purpose breeds as an alternative to conventional poultry husbandry, especially the practice of culling. This
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Over 40 million day-old layer line cockerels are culled in Germany each year, due to economic reasons, leading to a recently instigated research focus on the potential of dual-purpose breeds as an alternative to conventional poultry husbandry, especially the practice of culling. This paper aims to explore and assess the dual-purpose chicken breed “Lohmann Dual” (LD) performance (n = 30) and sensory characteristics (n = 48). Carcass and meat quality traits are evaluated, and descriptive sensory analysis of breast muscles is conducted. To define the scope of characteristics, a market sample of “Ross” Line (n = 35) is adducted. LD carcasses are characterized by higher leg than breast yield; carcass, breast and leg weights are higher in Ross. LD meat has a lower pH, differs in color, has higher drip and thawing losses, but lower cooking loss. LD breast muscles are firmer as indicated by shear force measurements, which is confirmed through the sensory analysis. Appearance, odor and flavor differ between the lines. Overall, distinguishable differences are found between both breeds. Further research should focus on the marketing aspect of the dual-purpose line, as some characteristics could draw consumers to this product. Animal welfare and ethical concerns should further be considered when considering dual-purpose breeds as a feasible alternative to culling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
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Open AccessArticle Chitosan Coating Inhibits the Growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Extends the Shelf Life of Vacuum-Packed Pork Loins at 4 °C
Foods 2018, 7(10), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7100155
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 23 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
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Abstract
Chitosan coating is a promising method for food preservation. This study aims to fill the data gap regarding the application of chitosan (1% and 2%) on vacuum-packed fresh pork stored at 4 °C for 28 days, with particular attention on the effect on
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Chitosan coating is a promising method for food preservation. This study aims to fill the data gap regarding the application of chitosan (1% and 2%) on vacuum-packed fresh pork stored at 4 °C for 28 days, with particular attention on the effect on Listeria monocytogenes, inoculated as a cocktail of three strains. Chitosan at both concentrations was able to significantly reduce L. monocytogenes counts by more than 1.5 Log CFU/g with respect to control; moreover, it inhibited the growth of mesophilic bacteria and was particularly effective on lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. The beneficial effects on shelf life were demonstrated by both panel test and pH evolution. In fact, panellists did not detect any sensory difference between samples treated with 1% chitosan and control up to 14 days of storage, while after 28 days, a pungent flesh odour was perceived in control samples only. Interestingly, at aw values of fresh meat (0.984), the chitosan coating exhibited a liquid behaviour, with a dynamic viscosity of 229.4 ± 4.2 mPa/s. Chitosan coating applied on vacuum-packed pork loins contained L. monocytogenes growth and improved the microbiological characteristics of the product, with a beneficial effect on product shelf life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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